itw-20231231
Illinois Tool Works Inc.
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SEC Document
SEC Filing
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                    to                    
Commission file number 1-4797
ILLINOIS TOOL WORKS INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
 
Delaware36-1258310
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
155 Harlem AvenueGlenviewIllinois60025
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (847724-7500
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common StockITWNew York Stock Exchange
0.250% Euro Notes due 2024ITW24ANew York Stock Exchange
0.625% Euro Notes due 2027ITW27New York Stock Exchange
2.125% Euro Notes due 2030ITW30New York Stock Exchange
1.00% Euro Notes due 2031ITW31New York Stock Exchange
3.00% Euro Notes due 2034ITW34New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 was approximately $75.1 billion based on the New York Stock Exchange closing sales price as of June 30, 2023.
Shares of common stock outstanding at January 31, 2024: 298.8 million.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the 2024 Proxy Statement for Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 3, 2024.
Part III



Table of Contents




PART I

ITEM 1. Business

General

Illinois Tool Works Inc. (the "Company" or "ITW") was founded in 1912 and incorporated in 1915. The Company's ticker symbol is ITW. The Company is a global manufacturer of a diversified range of industrial products and equipment with 84 divisions in 51 countries. As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed approximately 45,000 people.

The Company's operations are organized and managed based on similar product offerings and end markets, and are reported to senior management as the following seven segments: Automotive OEM; Food Equipment; Test & Measurement and Electronics; Welding; Polymers & Fluids; Construction Products; and Specialty Products. The following is a description of the Company's seven segments:

Automotive OEM— This segment is a global, niche supplier to top tier OEMs, providing unique innovation to address pain points for sophisticated customers with complex problems. Businesses in this segment produce components and fasteners for automotive-related applications. This segment primarily serves the automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers market. Products in this segment include:

plastic and metal components, fasteners and assemblies for automobiles, light trucks and other industrial uses.

Food Equipment— This segment is a highly focused and branded industry leader in commercial food equipment differentiated by innovation and integrated service offerings. This segment primarily serves the food service, food retail and food institutional/restaurant markets. Products in this segment include:

warewashing equipment;
cooking equipment, including ovens, ranges and broilers;
refrigeration equipment, including refrigerators, freezers and prep tables;
food processing equipment, including slicers, mixers and scales;
kitchen exhaust, ventilation and pollution control systems; and
food equipment service, maintenance and repair.

Test & Measurement and Electronics— This segment is a branded and innovative producer of test and measurement and electronic manufacturing and maintenance, repair, and operations, or "MRO" solutions that improve efficiency and quality for customers in diverse end markets. Businesses in this segment produce equipment, consumables, and related software for testing and measuring of materials and structures, as well as equipment and consumables used in the production of electronic subassemblies and microelectronics. This segment primarily serves the electronics, general industrial, energy, automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers, industrial capital goods and consumer durables markets. Products in this segment include:

equipment, consumables, and related software for testing and measuring of materials, structures, gases and fluids;
electronic assembly equipment;
electronic components and component packaging;
static control equipment and consumables used for contamination control in clean room environments; and
pressure sensitive adhesives and components for electronics, medical, transportation and telecommunications applications.

Welding— This segment is a branded value-added equipment and specialty consumable manufacturer with innovative and leading technology. Businesses in this segment produce arc welding equipment, consumables and accessories for a wide array of industrial and commercial applications. This segment primarily serves the general industrial market, which includes fabrication, shipbuilding and other general industrial markets, and construction, energy, MRO, industrial capital goods and automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers markets. Products in this segment include:

arc welding equipment; and
metal arc welding consumables and related accessories.

3


Polymers & Fluids— This segment is a branded supplier to niche markets that require value-added, differentiated products. Businesses in this segment produce engineered adhesives, sealants, lubrication and cutting fluids, and fluids and polymers for auto aftermarket maintenance and appearance. This segment primarily serves the automotive aftermarket, general industrial and MRO markets. Products in this segment include:

adhesives for industrial, construction and consumer purposes;
chemical fluids which clean or add lubrication to machines;
epoxy and resin-based coating products for industrial applications;
hand wipes and cleaners for industrial applications;
fluids, polymers and other supplies for auto aftermarket maintenance and appearance;
fillers and putties for auto body repair; and
polyester coatings and patch and repair products for the marine industry.

Construction Products— This segment is a branded supplier of innovative engineered fastening systems and solutions. This segment primarily serves the residential construction, renovation/remodel and commercial construction markets. Products in this segment include:

fasteners and related fastening tools for wood and metal applications;
anchors, fasteners and related tools for concrete applications;
metal plate truss components and related equipment and software; and
packaged hardware, fasteners, anchors and other products for retail.

Specialty Products— This segment is focused on diversified niche market opportunities with substantial patent protection producing beverage packaging equipment and consumables, product coding and marking equipment and consumables, and appliance components and fasteners. This segment primarily serves the food and beverage, consumer durables, general industrial, industrial capital goods, airlines and printing and publishing markets. Products in this segment include:

conveyor systems and line automation for the food and beverage industries;
plastic consumables that multi-pack cans and bottles and related equipment;
foil, film and related equipment used to decorate consumer products;
product coding and marking equipment and related consumables;
plastic and metal closures and components for appliances;
airport ground support equipment; and
components for medical devices.

The information set forth below is applicable to all segments of the Company unless otherwise noted.

The ITW Business Model

The powerful and highly differentiated ITW Business Model is the Company's core source of value creation. It is the Company's competitive advantage and defines how ITW creates value for its shareholders. The ITW Business Model is comprised of three unique elements:

ITW's 80/20 Front-to-Back process is the operating system that is applied in every ITW business. Initially introduced as a manufacturing efficiency tool in the 1980s, ITW has continually refined, improved and expanded 80/20 into a proprietary, holistic business management process that generates significant value for the Company and its customers. Through the application of data driven insights generated by 80/20 practice, ITW focuses on its largest and best opportunities (the "80") and eliminates cost, complexity and distractions associated with the less profitable opportunities (the "20"). 80/20 enables ITW businesses to consistently achieve world-class operational excellence in product availability, quality, and innovation, while generating superior financial performance;

Customer-back Innovation has fueled decades of profitable growth at ITW. The Company's unique innovation approach is built on insight gathered from the 80/20 Front-to-Back process. Working from the customer back, ITW businesses position themselves as the go-to problem solver for their "80" customers. ITW's innovation efforts are focused on understanding customer needs, particularly those in "80" markets with solid long-term growth fundamentals, and creating unique solutions to address those needs. These customer insights and learnings drive innovation at ITW and have contributed to a portfolio of approximately 19,600 granted and pending patents;

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ITW's Decentralized, Entrepreneurial Culture enables ITW businesses to be fast, focused, and responsive. ITW businesses have significant flexibility within the framework of the ITW Business Model to customize their approach in order to best serve their specific customers' needs. ITW colleagues recognize their unique responsibilities to execute the Company's strategy and values. As a result, the Company maintains a focused and simple organizational structure that, combined with outstanding execution, delivers best-in-class services and solutions adapted to each business' customers and end markets.

ENTERPRISE STRATEGY: 2012 - 2023

In late 2012, ITW began its strategic framework transitioning the Company to fully leverage the unique and powerful set of capabilities and operating practices of the ITW Business Model. The Company undertook a complete review of its performance, focusing on its businesses delivering consistent above-market growth with best-in-class margins and returns, and developing a strategy to replicate that performance across its operations. ITW determined that solid and consistent above-market organic growth is the core growth engine to deliver world-class financial performance and compelling long-term returns for its shareholders.

Key initiatives in the Company's enterprise strategy included portfolio management, business structure simplification, strategic sourcing and the diligent re-application of ITW's proprietary 80/20 Front-to-Back process.

As part of the Portfolio Management initiative, ITW exited businesses that were operating in commoditized market spaces and prioritized sustainable differentiation as a must-have requirement for all ITW businesses. This process included both divesting entire businesses and exiting commoditized product lines and customers inside otherwise highly differentiated ITW divisions.

Business Structure Simplification was implemented to simplify and scale up ITW's operating structure to support increased engineering, marketing, and sales resources, and improve global reach and competitiveness, all of which were critical to driving accelerated organic growth. ITW now has 84 scaled-up divisions with significantly enhanced focus on growth investments, core customers and products, and customer-back innovation.

The Strategic Sourcing initiative established sourcing as a core strategic and operational capability at ITW, delivering an average of one percent reduction in spend each year since 2013 and continues to be a key contributor to the Company's ongoing enterprise strategy.

With the initial portfolio realignment and scale-up work largely completed, the Company shifted its focus to preparing for and accelerating organic growth, reapplying the 80/20 Front-to-Back process to optimize its scaled-up divisions for growth, first, to build a foundation of operational excellence, and second, to identify the best opportunities to drive organic growth.

Since implementing the Company's enterprise strategy in 2012, the Company has demonstrated the compelling performance potential of the ITW Business Model and superior 80/20 management, resulting in meaningful incremental improvement in margins and returns as evidenced by the Company's operating margin and after-tax return on invested capital. At the same time, these 80/20 initiatives can also result in restructuring initiatives that reduce costs and improve profitability and returns.

OUR NEXT PHASE: 2024-2030

In the Next Phase of the Company’s evolution, the ITW Business Model and the Enterprise Strategy framework will be as formidable of a competitive advantage and performance differentiator as it has been over the last decade, if not more so. Volatility, risk and the pace of change in the global operating environment will continue to increase, and a decentralized entrepreneurial culture allows the Company to be a fast adaptor – to read, react, respond and evolve. The Company’s ability to consistently execute and invest through the ups and downs of the business cycle is now a defining competitive advantage.

Throughout the Next Phase, the Company's focus is to build organic growth into a core ITW strength on par with the Company’s world-class financial performance and operational capabilities. Throughout this phase, the Company will sustain its foundational strengths built over the past decade, including the high-quality ITW Business Model practice. Customer-back Innovation (CBI) is the most impactful driver to achieve high-quality organic growth through the cycle by establishing trusted problem solver relationships with key customers to effectively invent solutions that address customers' most critical pain points or tackle the biggest growth opportunities. CBI successes, coupled with underlying market growth and share gains, are how the Company intends to achieve its high-quality organic growth.
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Portfolio Discipline

The Company only operates in industries where it can generate significant, long-term competitive advantage from the ITW Business Model. ITW businesses have the right "raw material" in terms of market and business attributes that best fit the ITW Business Model and have significant potential to drive above-market organic growth over the long-term.

The Company focuses on high-quality businesses, ensuring it operates in markets with positive long-term macro fundamentals and with customers that have critical needs and value ITW's differentiated products, services and solutions. ITW's portfolio operates in highly diverse end markets and geographies which makes the Company more resilient in the face of uncertain or volatile market environments.

The Company routinely evaluates its portfolio to ensure it delivers sustainable differentiation and drives consistent long-term performance. This includes both implementing portfolio refinements and assessing selective high-quality acquisitions to supplement ITW's long-term growth potential.

The Company previously communicated its intent to explore options, including potential divestitures, for certain businesses with annual revenues totaling up to $1.0 billion. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the Company completed the divestitures of three businesses. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company chose to defer any significant divestiture activity in 2020 and 2021. The Company reinitiated the divestiture process in 2022 for certain businesses with combined annual revenues of approximately $0.5 billion, subject to approval by the Company's Board of Directors. In the second quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest two businesses, including one business in the Polymers & Fluids segment and one business in the Food Equipment segment. In the fourth quarter of 2022, both of these businesses were divested. The business in the Polymers & Fluids segment was sold for $220 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $156 million. The business in the Food Equipment segment was sold for $59 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $41 million. Operating revenue related to these divested businesses that was included in the Company's results of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $106 million and $115 million, respectively.

In the fourth quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest one business in the Specialty Products segment. This business was presented as held for sale in the Statement of Financial Position as of December 31, 2022 and had assets and liabilities held for sale of $8 million and $1 million, respectively. This business was sold on April 3, 2023, with no significant gain or loss upon sale. Operating revenue related to this business that was included in the Company's results of operations was $9 million, $37 million and $35 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding the Company's divestitures.

As the Company continues to make progress toward its full potential, the Company will explore opportunities to reinforce or further expand the long-term organic growth potential of ITW through the addition of selective high-quality acquisitions, such as the acquisition of the Test & Simulation business of MTS Systems Corporation ("MTS") from Amphenol Corporation on December 1, 2021. The operating results of the MTS Test & Simulation business were reported within the Company's Test & Measurement and Electronics segment. Refer to Note 3. Acquisitions in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding this acquisition.

80/20 Front-to-Back Practice Excellence

ITW will continue to drive 80/20 Front-to-Back practice excellence in every division in the Company, every day. Driving strong operational excellence in the quality of 80/20 Front-to-Back practice across the Company, division by division, will produce further customer-facing performance improvement in a number of divisions and additional structural margin expansion at the enterprise level.

Current Year Developments

Refer to Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.


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Distribution Methods

The Company's businesses primarily distribute their products directly to industrial manufacturers and through independent distributors.

Backlog

Backlog generally is not considered a significant factor in the Company's businesses as relatively short delivery periods and rapid inventory turnover are characteristic of most of their products.

Competition

With operations in 51 countries, the Company offers a wide range of products in a myriad of markets, many of which are fragmented, and the Company encounters a variety of competitors that vary by product line, end market and geographic area. The Company's competitors include many regional or specialized companies, as well as large U.S. and non-U.S. companies or divisions of large companies. Each of the Company's segments generally has several main competitors and numerous smaller ones in most of their end markets and geographic areas. In addition to numerous smaller regional competitors, the Welding segment competes globally with Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc. and ESAB Corporation.

In virtually all segments, the Company differentiates its businesses from its competitors based on product innovation, product quality, brand preference and service delivery. Technical capability is also a competitive factor in most segments. The Company believes that each segment's primary competitive advantages derive from the ITW Business Model and decentralized operating structure, which creates a strong focus on end markets and customers at the local level, enabling its businesses to respond rapidly to market dynamics. This structure enables the Company's businesses to drive operational excellence utilizing the Company's 80/20 Front-to-Back process and leveraging its product innovation capabilities. The Company also believes that its global footprint is a competitive advantage in many of its markets, especially in its Automotive OEM segment.

Raw Materials

The Company uses raw materials of various types, primarily steel, resins and chemicals, that are available from numerous commercial sources. The availability of materials and energy has not resulted in any significant business interruptions or other major problems, and no such problems are currently anticipated.

Intellectual Property

The Company owns approximately 4,000 unexpired U.S. patents and 9,900 foreign patents covering articles, methods and machines. In addition, the Company has approximately 1,400 applications for patents pending in the U.S. Patent Office and 4,300 applications pending in foreign patent offices. There is no assurance that any of these patents will be issued. The Company maintains a patent group for the administration of patents and processing of patent applications.

The Company believes that many of its patents are valuable and important; however, the expiration of any one of the Company's patents would not have a material effect on the Company's results of operations or financial position. The Company also credits its success in the markets it serves to engineering capability; manufacturing techniques; skills and efficiency; marketing and sales promotion; and service and delivery of quality products to its customers.

In addition to patents, many of the Company's products and services are sold under various owned or licensed trademarks, which are important to the Company in the aggregate. Some of the Company's more significant trademarks include ITW, which is also used in conjunction with the trademarks of many of the Company's businesses; Deltar and Shakeproof in the Automotive OEM segment; Hobart in the Food Equipment segment; Instron and MTS in the Test & Measurement and Electronics segment; Miller in the Welding segment; Rain-X and Permatex in the Polymers & Fluids segment; Paslode in the Construction Products segment; and Hi-Cone in the Specialty Products segment.

Government Regulations

The Company believes that its businesses and operations, including its manufacturing plants and equipment, are in substantial compliance with all applicable government laws and regulations, including those related to environmental, consumer protection, international trade, labor and employment, human rights, tax, anti-bribery and competition matters. Any additional
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measures to maintain compliance are not expected to materially affect the Company's capital expenditures (including expenditures for environmental control facilities), competitive position, financial position or results of operations.

Various legislative and administrative regulations applicable to the Company in the matters noted above have become effective or are under consideration in many parts of the world. To date, such developments have not had a substantial adverse impact on the Company's revenues, earnings or cash flows. However, if new or amended laws or regulations impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements upon the Company or its products, the Company's business, capital expenditures, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position could be negatively impacted. Refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors for further information.

Human Capital Management

As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed approximately 45,000 people, with approximately 17,000 people located in the United States and the remainder in multiple other countries where the Company's businesses operate. The Company strives to be a great employer through its demonstrated commitment to employee safety, its workplace culture, talent development, diversity and inclusion, compensation and benefits.

Employee Safety. The safety and well-being of ITW's colleagues around the world is its top priority, in addition to being an essential component of our commitment to be a great employer. Guided by the Company's Enterprise Safety Strategy and the philosophy that every accident is preventable, ITW strives every day to foster a proactive safety culture. ITW's Enterprise Safety Strategy and Safety Policy are based on the following core principles: (i) a goal of zero accidents; (ii) shared ownership for safety (business and individual); (iii) proactive approach focused on accident prevention; (iv) continuous improvement philosophy; and (v) compliance with applicable national, regional, and local health and safety laws and regulations.

Workplace Culture. The Company's culture is deeply rooted in its core values: Integrity, Respect, Trust, Shared Risk and Simplicity. ITW colleagues are empowered to think and act like business owners within the Company's decentralized, entrepreneurial culture. Our decentralized structure allows each division to operate with autonomy and enables our people to embrace the personal impact they can make.

Talent Development. The Company strives for all colleagues to "own" their careers and feel valued for the work they do. ITW colleagues are encouraged to learn new skills and capabilities primarily through on-the-job experience, hands-on coaching and feedback, in addition to formal training.

The Great ITW Leader Framework defines leadership capabilities and attributes to help colleagues to reach their full potential as leaders. Great ITW Leaders are expected to be experts in the practice of the ITW Business Model, make great strategic choices, deliver great results, be great talent managers and provide strong leadership. Great ITW Leaders who have expertise in the ITW Business Model are the critical factor in translating the potential of the ITW Business Model into full performance. Because this expertise develops over time and through specific experiences, the Company focuses on developing and promoting its own talent to support the Company's sustained business success over the long term.

Diversity and Inclusion. ITW believes it is at its best when it brings together unique perspectives, experiences, and ideas. Rooted in ITW's core values of Respect and Integrity, the Company is committed to equal employment opportunity, fair treatment and creating diverse and inclusive workplaces where all ITW colleagues can perform to their full potential. ITW is committed to attracting the best talent and enhancing the diversity of its global leadership teams. ITW drives progress through a comprehensive enterprise Diversity and Inclusion Framework, which focuses on; (i) leadership commitment and accountability; (ii) attracting and retaining global, diverse talent; (iii) creating inclusive workplaces; and (iv) striving to be a great employer.

Compensation and Benefits. As a global employer, the Company is committed to providing market-competitive compensation and benefits that support physical, mental, and financial well-being to attract and retain great talent across its global divisions. Specific compensation and benefits vary worldwide and are based on regional practices. In the U.S., the Company focuses on providing a comprehensive, competitive benefits package that supports the health and wellness, educational endeavors, community involvement and financial stability of its colleagues.

Labor Relations. Less than three percent of the Company's U.S. employees are represented by a labor union. Outside the U.S., employees in certain countries are represented by an employee representative organization, such as a union, works council or employee association. The Company considers its employee relations to be excellent.

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Information About Our Executive Officers

The executive officers of the Company serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Set forth below is information regarding the principal occupations and employment and business experience over the past five years for each executive officer. Unless otherwise stated, employment is by the Company.

Executive Officers of the Company as of February 9, 2024 were as follows:
NameAgePresent PositionFirst Year in Present PositionOther Positions Held During 2019-2023
Christopher A. O'Herlihy60President & Chief Executive Officer2024Vice Chairman 2015-2023.
E. Scott Santi(1)
62Chairman2024Chairman & Chief Executive Officer 2015-2023.
Axel Beck58Executive Vice President2020Group President, food equipment businesses, 2016-2020.
Kenneth Escoe48Executive Vice President2020Vice President/General Manager, specialty products businesses, 2016-2019; Group President, specialty products businesses, 2019.
Javier Gracia Carbonell51Executive Vice President2022Vice President/General Manager, construction businesses, 2017-2020; Group President, construction businesses, 2020-2021.
Patricia A. Hartzell47Executive Vice President2022Vice President/General Manager, test & measurement and electronics businesses, 2017-2020; Group President, test & measurement and electronics businesses, 2020-2021.
Michael M. Larsen55Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer2013
Mary K. Lawler58Senior Vice President & Chief Human Resources Officer2014
Randall J. Scheuneman56Vice President & Chief Accounting Officer2009
Jennifer K. Schott50Senior Vice President, General Counsel & Secretary2021Vice President, Assistant General Counsel & Assistant Secretary, Discover Financial Services, 2016-2019; Deputy General Counsel & Assistant Secretary, Caterpillar, Inc., 2019-2021.
Guilherme Silva 48Executive Vice President2024Vice President/General Manager, polymers & fluids businesses, 2016-2020; Group President, polymers & fluids businesses, 2020-2021; Group President, test & measurement and electronics businesses, 2021-2023.
Sharon Szafranski57Executive Vice President2020Vice President/General Manager, test & measurement and electronics businesses, 2016-2019; Group President, test & measurement and electronics businesses, 2019.
Michael R. Zimmerman63Executive Vice President2015

(1)    Mr. Santi will remain Chairman through March 1, 2024, after which he will become Non-Executive Chairman and will no longer be an employee of the Company.

Available Information

Copies of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
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are available free of charge through the Company's website (www.itw.com), as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing with or otherwise furnishing such information to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("the SEC"). The Company's Code of Ethics for the CEO and key financial and accounting personnel is also posted on the Company's website.

ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

The Company's business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows are subject to various risks, including, but not limited to, those set forth below, which could cause actual results to vary materially from recent results or from anticipated future results. These risk factors should be considered together with information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of such risks and matters, individually or in combination, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, as well as on the attractiveness and value of an investment in the Company’s securities.

Economic Risks

The Company's results are impacted by global economic conditions. Downturns in the markets served by the Company could adversely affect its businesses, results of operations or financial condition.

The Company's businesses are impacted by economic conditions around the globe. Slower economic growth, financial market instability, supply chain disruptions, natural disasters, public health crises (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), labor market challenges, rapid inflation, armed conflicts (such as Russia's ongoing invasion of Ukraine), government deficit reduction, sequestration and other austerity measures impacting the markets the Company serves can adversely affect the Company's businesses by reducing demand for the Company's products and services, limiting financing available to the Company's customers, causing production delays, increasing order cancellations and the difficulty in collecting accounts receivable, increasing price competition, or increasing the risk that counterparties to the Company's contractual arrangements will become insolvent or otherwise unable to fulfill their obligations.

Rising interest rates could have a dampening effect on overall economic activity and/or the financial condition of the Company's customers, either or both of which could negatively affect customer demand for the Company's products and customers' ability to repay obligations to the Company. Rising interest rates could have an impact on the Company and its customers' cost of capital.

The global nature of the Company's operations subjects it to political, economic and social risks that could adversely affect its business, results of operations or financial condition.

Over 50% of the Company's net sales are derived from customers outside the United States, and the Company currently operates in 51 countries. The risks inherent in the Company's global operations include:

fluctuation in currency exchange rates;
limitations on ownership or participation in local enterprises;
price controls, exchange controls and limitations on repatriation of earnings;
supply chain disruptions, including transportation delays and disruptions;
political, social and economic instability and disruptions, including political unrest and armed conflicts;
acts of terrorism;
the impact of widespread public health crises and pandemics;
government embargoes, sanctions or foreign trade restrictions;
the imposition of duties and tariffs and other trade barriers and retaliatory countermeasures;
government actions impacting international trade agreements, including the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement;
import and export controls;
social and labor unrest and current and changing regulatory environments;
the potential for expropriation or nationalization of enterprises;
difficulties in staffing and managing multi-national operations;
multiple and potentially conflicting laws, regulations and policies that are subject to change;
limitations on its ability to enforce legal rights and remedies; and
potentially adverse tax consequences.

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The global geopolitical and trade environment has resulted in raw material inflation and potential for increased escalation of domestic and international tariffs and retaliatory trade policies. Further changes in U.S. trade policy (including new or additional increases in duties or tariffs) and retaliatory actions by U.S. trade partners, including sanctions against Russia and developments in U.S.-China trade relations, could result in a worsening of economic conditions. If the Company is unable to successfully manage the risks associated with managing and expanding its international businesses, the Company's business, results of operations or financial condition may be adversely impacted.

A significant fluctuation between the U.S. Dollar and other currencies could adversely impact the Company's operating income.

Although the Company's financial results are reported in U.S. Dollars, a significant portion of its sales and operating costs are realized in other currencies, with the largest concentration of foreign sales occurring in Europe. The Company's profitability is affected by movements of the U.S. Dollar against the Euro and other foreign currencies in which it generates revenues and incurs expenses. Significant long-term fluctuations in relative currency values, and in particular, an increase in the value of the U.S. Dollar against foreign currencies, has had and could have an adverse effect on profitability and financial condition.

Business and Operational Risks

The benefits from the Company's enterprise strategy may not be as expected and the Company's financial results could be adversely impacted, or the Company may not meet its long-term financial performance targets.

As the Company continues to execute on its enterprise strategy initiatives, it remains focused on the core principles of portfolio discipline, 80/20 Front-to-Back practice excellence, and organic growth. Product line and customer base simplification activities, which are core elements of the Company's 80/20 Front-to-Back process, continue to be applied by the Company's operating divisions and are active elements of the enterprise strategy. Although these activities are expected to improve future operating margins and organic revenue growth, they are also expected to have a negative impact on the Company's overall organic revenue growth in the short term. Additionally, other core activities of the enterprise strategy related to portfolio discipline and organic growth, including customer-back innovation, may not have the desired impact on future operating results. If the Company is unable to realize the expected benefits from its enterprise strategy initiatives, the Company's financial results could be adversely impacted, or the Company may not meet its long-term financial performance targets.

The timing and amount of the Company's share repurchases are subject to a number of uncertainties.

Share repurchases constitute a significant component of the Company's capital allocation strategy. The Company has historically funded its share repurchases with free cash flow and short-term borrowings. The amount and timing of share repurchases will be based on a variety of factors. Important factors that could cause the Company to limit, suspend or delay its share repurchases include unfavorable trading market conditions, the price of the Company's common stock, the nature of other investment opportunities presented to the Company from time to time, regulatory developments relating to share repurchase programs, the ability to obtain financing at attractive rates and the availability of U.S. cash.

If the Company is unable to successfully introduce new products, its future growth may be adversely affected.

The Company's ability to develop new products based on innovation can affect its competitive position and sometimes requires the investment of significant time and resources. Difficulties or delays in research, development, production or commercialization of new products and services may reduce future revenues and adversely affect the Company's competitive position. If the Company is unable to create sustainable product differentiation, its organic growth may be adversely affected.

If the Company is unable to adequately protect its intellectual property, its competitive position and results of operations may be adversely impacted.

Protecting the Company's intellectual property is critical to its innovation efforts. The Company owns patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks and/or other intellectual property rights related to many of its products, and also has exclusive and non-exclusive license rights under intellectual property owned by others. The Company's intellectual property rights may be challenged or the Company may be unable to maintain, renew or enter into new license agreements with third-party owners of intellectual property on reasonable terms. Unauthorized use of the Company's intellectual property rights by third parties, particularly in countries where property rights are not highly developed or protected, or inability to preserve existing intellectual property rights could adversely impact the Company's competitive position and results of operations.
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The Company has significant goodwill and other intangible assets, and future impairment of these assets could have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial results.

The Company has recorded significant goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets on its balance sheet as a result of acquisitions, including the acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business in December 2021. A number of factors may result in impairments to goodwill and other intangible assets, including significant negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business, increased competition and significant changes in the use of the assets. Impairment charges could adversely affect the Company's financial condition or results of operations in the periods recognized.

Raw material price increases and supply shortages could adversely affect results.

The supply of raw materials to the Company and to its component parts suppliers could be interrupted for a variety of reasons, including availability and pricing. Prices for raw materials necessary for production have fluctuated significantly in the past and the Company has experienced upward pricing pressure on raw materials such as steel, resins and chemicals. Significant price increases could adversely affect the Company's results of operations and operating margins. In particular, inflation, changes in trade policies, the imposition of duties and tariffs, potential retaliatory countermeasures, public health crises and pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which adversely impacted the price and availability of raw materials), threatened or actual military conflicts (such as Russia's ongoing invasion of Ukraine) and severe weather events could adversely impact the price or availability of raw materials. The Company may not be able to pass along increased raw material and components parts prices to its customers in the form of price increases or its ability to do so could be delayed. Consequently, its results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The Company's defined benefit pension plans are subject to financial market risks that could adversely affect its results of operations and cash flows.

The performance of financial markets and interest rates impact the Company's funding obligations under its defined benefit pension plans. Significant changes in market interest rates, decreases in the fair value of plan assets and investment losses on plan assets may increase the Company's funding obligations and adversely impact its results of operations and cash flows.

If the Company is unable to protect its information technology infrastructure against service interruptions, data corruption, cyber-based attacks or network security breaches, or if there is a violation of data privacy laws, there could be a negative impact on operating results or the Company may suffer financial or reputational damage.

The Company relies on information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities, including procurement, manufacturing, distribution, invoicing and collection. These technology networks and systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components; power outages; hardware failures; computer viruses; employee error or malfeasance; and attacks by computer hackers, which have continued to increase on a global scale in both magnitude and frequency, taken on novel and unprecedented forms and become more difficult to detect. Minor security breaches have occurred from time to time and are expected to occur in the future. Although the cyber-attacks experienced to date have not had a material impact, future security breaches of our technology networks and systems or those of our vendors and third-party service providers could result in unauthorized disclosure of confidential information or personal data belonging to our employees, partners, customers or suppliers, which could cause reputational and legal harm as we are subject to data privacy laws, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation, in the various countries in which we operate. If our information technology systems suffer severe damage, disruption, or shutdown, and business continuity plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, or if we violate data privacy laws, there could be a negative impact on operating results and/or the financial reporting process and the Company may suffer financial or reputational damage.

In addition, cybersecurity laws and regulations continue to evolve, and are increasingly demanding, both in the U.S. and globally, which adds compliance complexity and may increase costs of compliance and expose the Company to reputational damage or litigation, monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions or fines in one or more jurisdictions.


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Strategic Transaction Risks

The Company's acquisition of businesses could negatively impact its profitability and returns.

The Company has engaged in various acquisitions in the past, such as the acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business in December 2021, and could choose to acquire additional businesses in the future. Acquisitions involve a number of risks and financial, accounting, managerial and operational challenges, including the following, any of which could adversely affect the Company's profitability and returns:

The acquired business' inability to adapt to the ITW Business Model or otherwise perform in accordance with the Company's anticipated results or timetable, could cause it to under-perform relative to the Company's expectations and the price paid for it.
The acquired business could cause the Company's financial results to differ from expectations in any given fiscal period, or over the long term.
Acquisition-related earnings charges could adversely impact operating results.
The acquired business could place unanticipated demands on the Company's management, operational resources and financial and internal control systems.
The Company may assume unknown liabilities, known contingent liabilities that become realized or known liabilities that prove greater than anticipated, internal control deficiencies or exposure to regulatory sanctions resulting from the activities of the acquired business. The realization of any of these liabilities or deficiencies may increase the Company's expenses, adversely affect its financial position or cause noncompliance with its financial reporting obligations.
As a result of acquisitions, the Company has in the past recorded significant goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets on its balance sheet. If the Company is not able to realize the value of these assets, it may recognize charges relating to the impairment of these assets.

Divestitures pose the risk of retained liabilities that could adversely affect the Company's financial results.

The Company has had significant divestiture activity in the past in accordance with its portfolio management initiative, and it divested one business in the first quarter of 2023 as it continues portfolio refinements to maintain portfolio discipline. The Company has retained certain liabilities directly or through indemnifications made to the buyers against known and unknown contingent liabilities such as lawsuits, tax liabilities, product liability claims and environmental matters, which could adversely affect the Company's financial results.

Tax, Legal and Regulatory Risks

Unfavorable tax law changes and tax authority rulings may adversely affect results.

The Company is subject to income taxes in the U.S. and in various foreign jurisdictions. Domestic and international tax liabilities are based on the income and expenses in various tax jurisdictions. The Company's effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the mix of earnings among countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets or changes in tax laws. The amount of income taxes is subject to ongoing audits by U.S. federal, state and local tax authorities and by non-U.S. authorities. If these audits result in assessments different from amounts recorded, future financial results may include unfavorable tax adjustments.

Adverse outcomes in legal proceedings or enforcement actions may adversely affect results.

The Company's businesses expose it to potential costs and adverse rulings associated with commercial, intellectual property, employment, toxic tort and other product liability claims and lawsuits. The Company's global operations also subject it to government investigations in numerous countries. We cannot predict the outcome of claims, investigations and lawsuits and we may incur costs, judgments or fines or enter into settlements that could adversely impact our businesses, reputation or future financial results. The Company currently maintains insurance programs consisting of self-insurance up to certain limits and excess insurance coverage for claims over established limits. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain insurance on acceptable terms or that its insurance programs will provide adequate protection against actual losses. In addition, the Company is subject to the risk that one or more of its insurers may become insolvent and become unable to pay claims that may be made in the future. Even if it maintains adequate insurance programs, claims, judgments or settlements could have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial condition, liquidity and results of operations and on its ability to obtain suitable, adequate or cost-effective insurance in the future.
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Uncertainty related to environmental regulation and industry standards, as well as physical risks of climate change, could impact the Company's results of operations and financial position.

Increased public awareness and concern regarding environmental risks, including global climate change, may result in more international, regional and/or federal requirements or industry standards to reduce or mitigate global warming and other environmental risks. These regulations or standards could mandate even more restrictive requirements, such as stricter limits on greenhouse gas emissions and production of single use plastics, than the voluntary commitments that the Company has made or require such changes on a more accelerated time frame. There continues to be a lack of consistent climate legislation, which creates economic and regulatory uncertainty. In addition, the physical risks of climate change may impact the availability and cost of materials and natural resources, sources and supply of energy, product demand and manufacturing and could increase insurance and other operating costs, including, potentially, to repair damage incurred as a result of extreme weather events or to renovate or retrofit facilities to better withstand extreme weather events. If environmental laws or regulations or industry standards are either changed or adopted and impose significant operational restrictions and compliance requirements upon the Company or its products, or the Company's operations are disrupted due to physical impacts of climate change, the Company's business, capital expenditures, results of operations, financial condition and competitive position could be negatively impacted.

The Company may incur fines or penalties, damage to its reputation or other adverse consequences if its employees, agents or business partners violate anti-bribery, competition, export and import, trade sanctions, data privacy, environmental, human rights or other laws.

The Company has a decentralized operating structure under which its individual businesses are allowed significant decision-making autonomy within the Company's strategic framework and internal financial and compliance controls. The Company is subject to complex U.S., foreign and other local laws and regulations that are applicable to its operations, such as anti-bribery and anti-corruption, competition, export and import, trade sanctions, data privacy, environmental and human rights laws. Although the Company has implemented compliance programs which include internal controls, policies and procedures and employee training to deter prohibited practices, these measures may not be effective in preventing employees, agents or business partners from violating or circumventing such internal policies and violating applicable laws and regulations. Any such improper actions could subject the Company to civil or criminal investigations, could lead to substantial civil or criminal monetary and non-monetary penalties against the Company or its subsidiaries, or could damage its reputation.

Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as "believe," "expect," "plans," "intend," "may," "strategy," "prospects," "estimate," "will," "should," "could," "project," "target," "anticipate," "guidance," "forecast," and other similar words, and may include, without limitation, statements regarding the duration and potential effects of global supply chain challenges, related government actions and the Company's strategy in response thereto on the Company's business, future financial and operating performance, free cash flow, economic and regulatory conditions in various geographic regions, the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, the timing and amount of benefits from the Company's enterprise strategy initiatives, the timing and amount of dividends and share repurchases, the protection of the Company's intellectual property, the likelihood of future goodwill or intangible asset impairment charges, the impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, the adequacy of internally generated funds and credit facilities to service debt and finance the Company's capital allocation priorities, the sufficiency of U.S. generated cash to fund cash requirements in the U.S., the cost and availability of additional financing, the availability of raw materials and energy and the impact of raw material cost inflation, enterprise initiatives, the Company's portion of future benefit payments related to pension and postretirement benefits, the Company's information technology infrastructure, potential acquisitions and divestitures and the expected performance of acquired businesses and impact of divested businesses, the impact of U.S. and global tax legislation and the estimated timing and amount related to the resolution of tax matters, the cost of compliance with environmental regulations, the impact of failure of the Company's employees to comply with applicable laws and regulations, and the outcome of outstanding legal proceedings. These statements are subject to certain risks, uncertainties, and other factors, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated. Important risks that may influence future results include those risks described above. These risks are not all inclusive and given these and other possible risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results.

Any forward-looking statements made by ITW speak only as of the date on which they are made. ITW is under no obligation to, and expressly disclaims any obligation to, update or alter its forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, subsequent events or otherwise, except as required by law.
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ITW practices fair disclosure for all interested parties. Investors should be aware that while ITW regularly communicates with securities analysts and other investment professionals, it is against ITW's policy to disclose to them any material non-public information or other confidential commercial information. Investors should not assume that ITW agrees with any statement or report issued by any analyst irrespective of the content of the statement or report.

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy

The Company utilizes information systems to support a variety of business processes and activities in its decentralized operations. These systems may be subject to cyber-based attacks or breaches. For additional information related to the risks associated with cybersecurity threats, refer to the Business and Operational Risks section of Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Cybersecurity risk management is part of the Company's global enterprise risk management program. In order to manage the risks associated with cybersecurity threats, the Company has implemented a robust risk-based cybersecurity program consisting of processes, technologies, and controls to assess, identify and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats.

A key part of the Company’s cybersecurity program is the ITW Cybersecurity Framework, which is based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Cybersecurity Framework ("CSF") and is designed to protect the Company’s data through rapid identification of and effective response to cybersecurity incidents. The Company’s framework includes detailed processes and controls related to backup and recovery, response planning, awareness, vulnerability management and endpoint protection as well as cybersecurity requirements for third-party service providers. The framework is regularly reviewed, assessed, and updated based on input from third party specialists, threat intelligence firms and CSF standard updates.

The ITW Cybersecurity Framework includes a number of activities designed to enhance the Company's resiliency related to cyber-related risks and ensure that the Company's information systems are secure from material cybersecurity threats. These activities include the following, among others:

Annual cybersecurity training;
Quarterly phish simulation testing;
Ongoing response planning and tabletop exercises;
Network and endpoint monitoring;
Vulnerability management and testing; and
Backup and recovery testing.

While the Company's information systems are exposed to cybersecurity threats and risks, the Company has not experienced any material cybersecurity incidents during 2023, 2022 or 2021, and any costs or operational impacts related to cybersecurity incidents were immaterial during this period.

Governance

ITW's Board of Directors is responsible for providing oversight and strategic guidance to management to support the long-term interests of the Company's stakeholders. As part of this responsibility, the Board of Directors annually reviews and evaluates the Company's cybersecurity policies and practices with respect to risk management as well as steps taken by management to monitor and control such exposures.

In addition to oversight by the Board of Directors, several cross-functional management teams focus on cybersecurity risk and report any identified cybersecurity incidents. Each of the Company's divisions has a Division Cyber Incident Response Team and protocols in place to communicate cybersecurity incidents to a central Cyber Incident Response Team. The Cyber Incident Response Team is led by the Chief Information Security Officer and is responsible for the initial assessment of cybersecurity incidents and oversight of any incident response.

On a quarterly basis, or sooner if appropriate, cybersecurity incidents are summarized and reported to the Cybersecurity Governance Committee comprised of senior executives. Additionally, the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors
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receives quarterly cybersecurity reports from senior management which cover any identified cybersecurity incidents, results of third party vulnerability testing, and key developments in policies and practices during the quarter.

ITEM 2. Properties

Due to the Company's decentralized operating structure and global operations, the Company operates out of a large number of facilities worldwide, none of which are individually significant to the Company or its segments. As of December 31, 2023, the Company operated approximately 410 plants and office facilities, excluding regional sales offices and warehouse facilities. Approximately 270 of the facilities were located outside of the United States. Principal foreign countries include China, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom.

The Company's properties are well suited for the purposes for which they were designed and are maintained in good operating condition. Production capacity, in general, currently exceeds operating levels. Capacity levels are somewhat flexible based on the number of shifts operated and on the number of overtime hours worked. The Company adds production capacity from time to time as required by increased demand. Additions to capacity can be made within a reasonable period of time due to the nature of the Company's businesses.

ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings

None. The Company's threshold for disclosing environmental legal proceedings involving a governmental authority where potential monetary sanctions are involved is $1 million.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.
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PART II

ITEM 5. Market For Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Common Stock Data— The Company's common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol "ITW." There were approximately 4,484 holders of record of common stock as of January 31, 2024. This number does not include beneficial owners of the Company's securities held in the name of nominees.

5 Year Chart.jpg
*Assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2018, including reinvestment of dividends. Fiscal years ended December 31.
Copyright© 2024 Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.

The 2023 peer group consists of the following 17 public companies, consistent with the peer group included in the Company's Proxy Statement:

3M CompanyEcolab Inc.Parker-Hannifin Corporation
Caterpillar Inc.Emerson Electric Co.PPG Industries, Inc.
Cummins Inc.Fortive CorporationRockwell Automation, Inc.
Deere & CompanyGeneral Dynamics CorporationStanley Black & Decker, Inc.
Dover CorporationHoneywell International Inc.Trane Technologies plc
Eaton Corporation plcJohnson Controls International plc

The Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company reviews the peer group annually and from time to time changes the composition of the peer group where changes are appropriate. There were no changes in the Company's peer group in 2023.


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Repurchases of Common Stock

On August 3, 2018, the Company announced a stock repurchase program which provided for the repurchase of up to $3.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2018 Program"). The 2018 program was completed in the first quarter of 2022.

On May 7, 2021, the Company announced a stock repurchase program which provided for the repurchase of up to an additional $3.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2021 Program"). The 2021 program was completed in the fourth quarter of 2023.

On August 4, 2023, the Company announced a new stock repurchase program which provides for the repurchase of up to an additional $5.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2023 Program"). As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately $5.0 billion of authorized repurchases remaining under the 2023 Program.

Share repurchase activity under the Company's share repurchase programs for the fourth quarter of 2023 was as follows:

In millions except per share amounts
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced ProgramsMaximum Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under Programs
October 20230.6 $229.18 0.6 $5,227 
November 20230.6 $235.76 0.6 $5,096 
December 20230.4 $253.48 0.4 $4,990 
Total1.6 1.6 
ITEM 6. [Reserved]

ITEM 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

INTRODUCTION

Illinois Tool Works Inc. (the "Company" or "ITW") is a global manufacturer of a diversified range of industrial products and equipment with 84 divisions in 51 countries. As of December 31, 2023, the Company employed approximately 45,000 people.

The Company's operations are organized and managed based on similar product offerings and end markets, and are reported to senior management as the following seven segments: Automotive OEM; Food Equipment; Test & Measurement and Electronics; Welding; Polymers & Fluids; Construction Products; and Specialty Products.

Due to the large number of diverse businesses and the Company's decentralized operating structure, the Company does not require its businesses to provide detailed information on operating results. Instead, the Company's corporate management collects data on several key measurements: operating revenue, operating income, operating margin, overhead costs, number of months on hand in inventory, days sales outstanding in accounts receivable, past due receivables and return on invested capital. These key measures are monitored by management and significant changes in operating results versus current trends in end markets and variances from forecasts are discussed with operating unit management.

THE ITW BUSINESS MODEL

The powerful and highly differentiated ITW Business Model is the Company's core source of value creation. It is the Company's competitive advantage and defines how ITW creates value for its shareholders. The ITW Business Model is comprised of three unique elements:

ITW's 80/20 Front-to-Back process is the operating system that is applied in every ITW business. Initially introduced as a manufacturing efficiency tool in the 1980s, ITW has continually refined, improved and expanded 80/20 into a proprietary, holistic business management process that generates significant value for the Company and its customers. Through the application of data driven insights generated by 80/20 practice, ITW focuses on its largest and best opportunities (the "80") and eliminates cost, complexity and distractions associated with the less
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profitable opportunities (the "20"). 80/20 enables ITW businesses to consistently achieve world-class operational excellence in product availability, quality, and innovation, while generating superior financial performance;

Customer-back Innovation has fueled decades of profitable growth at ITW. The Company's unique innovation approach is built on insight gathered from the 80/20 Front-to-Back process. Working from the customer back, ITW businesses position themselves as the go-to problem solver for their "80" customers. ITW's innovation efforts are focused on understanding customer needs, particularly those in "80" markets with solid long-term growth fundamentals, and creating unique solutions to address those needs. These customer insights and learnings drive innovation at ITW and have contributed to a portfolio of approximately 19,600 granted and pending patents;

ITW's Decentralized, Entrepreneurial Culture enables ITW businesses to be fast, focused, and responsive. ITW businesses have significant flexibility within the framework of the ITW Business Model to customize their approach in order to best serve their specific customers' needs. ITW colleagues recognize their unique responsibilities to execute the Company's strategy and values. As a result, the Company maintains a focused and simple organizational structure that, combined with outstanding execution, delivers best-in-class services and solutions adapted to each business' customers and end markets.

ENTERPRISE STRATEGY: 2012 - 2023

In late 2012, ITW began its strategic framework transitioning the Company to fully leverage the unique and powerful set of capabilities and operating practices of the ITW Business Model. The Company undertook a complete review of its performance, focusing on its businesses delivering consistent above-market growth with best-in-class margins and returns, and developing a strategy to replicate that performance across its operations. ITW determined that solid and consistent above-market organic growth is the core growth engine to deliver world-class financial performance and compelling long-term returns for its shareholders.

Key initiatives in the Company's enterprise strategy included portfolio management, business structure simplification, strategic sourcing and the diligent re-application of ITW's proprietary 80/20 Front-to-Back process.

As part of the Portfolio Management initiative, ITW exited businesses that were operating in commoditized market spaces and prioritized sustainable differentiation as a must-have requirement for all ITW businesses. This process included both divesting entire businesses and exiting commoditized product lines and customers inside otherwise highly differentiated ITW divisions.

Business Structure Simplification was implemented to simplify and scale up ITW's operating structure to support increased engineering, marketing, and sales resources, and improve global reach and competitiveness, all of which were critical to driving accelerated organic growth. ITW now has 84 scaled-up divisions with significantly enhanced focus on growth investments, core customers and products, and customer-back innovation.

The Strategic Sourcing initiative established sourcing as a core strategic and operational capability at ITW, delivering an average of one percent reduction in spend each year since 2013 and continues to be a key contributor to the Company's ongoing enterprise strategy.

With the initial portfolio realignment and scale-up work largely completed, the Company shifted its focus to preparing for and accelerating organic growth, reapplying the 80/20 Front-to-Back process to optimize its scaled-up divisions for growth, first, to build a foundation of operational excellence, and second, to identify the best opportunities to drive organic growth.

Since implementing the Company's enterprise strategy in 2012, the Company has demonstrated the compelling performance potential of the ITW Business Model and superior 80/20 management, resulting in meaningful incremental improvement in margins and returns as evidenced by the Company's operating margin and after-tax return on invested capital. At the same time, these 80/20 initiatives can also result in restructuring initiatives that reduce costs and improve profitability and returns.

OUR NEXT PHASE: 2024-2030

In the Next Phase of the Company’s evolution, the ITW Business Model and the Enterprise Strategy framework will be as formidable of a competitive advantage and performance differentiator as it has been over the last decade, if not more so. Volatility, risk and the pace of change in the global operating environment will continue to increase, and a decentralized
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entrepreneurial culture allows the Company to be a fast adaptor – to read, react, respond and evolve. The Company’s ability to consistently execute and invest through the ups and downs of the business cycle is now a defining competitive advantage.

Throughout the Next Phase, the Company's focus is to build organic growth into a core ITW strength on par with the Company’s world-class financial performance and operational capabilities. Throughout this phase, the Company will sustain its foundational strengths built over the past decade, including the high-quality ITW Business Model practice. Customer-back Innovation (CBI) is the most impactful driver to achieve high-quality organic growth through the cycle by establishing trusted problem solver relationships with key customers to effectively invent solutions that address customers' most critical pain points or tackle the biggest growth opportunities. CBI successes, coupled with underlying market growth and share gains, are how the Company intends to achieve its high-quality organic growth.

Portfolio Discipline

The Company only operates in industries where it can generate significant, long-term competitive advantage from the ITW Business Model. ITW businesses have the right "raw material" in terms of market and business attributes that best fit the ITW Business Model and have significant potential to drive above-market organic growth over the long-term.

The Company focuses on high-quality businesses, ensuring it operates in markets with positive long-term macro fundamentals and with customers that have critical needs and value ITW's differentiated products, services and solutions. ITW's portfolio operates in highly diverse end markets and geographies which makes the Company more resilient in the face of uncertain or volatile market environments.

The Company routinely evaluates its portfolio to ensure it delivers sustainable differentiation and drives consistent long-term performance. This includes both implementing portfolio refinements and assessing selective high-quality acquisitions to supplement ITW's long-term growth potential.

The Company previously communicated its intent to explore options, including potential divestitures, for certain businesses with annual revenues totaling up to $1.0 billion. In the fourth quarter of 2019, the Company completed the divestitures of three businesses. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company chose to defer any significant divestiture activity in 2020 and 2021. The Company reinitiated the divestiture process in 2022 for certain businesses with combined annual revenues of approximately $0.5 billion, subject to approval by the Company's Board of Directors. In the second quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest two businesses, including one business in the Polymers & Fluids segment and one business in the Food Equipment segment. In the fourth quarter of 2022, both of these businesses were divested. The business in the Polymers & Fluids segment was sold for $220 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $156 million. The business in the Food Equipment segment was sold for $59 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $41 million. Operating revenue related to these divested businesses that was included in the Company's results of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $106 million and $115 million, respectively.

In the fourth quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest one business in the Specialty Products segment. This business was presented as held for sale in the Statement of Financial Position as of December 31, 2022 and had assets and liabilities held for sale of $8 million and $1 million, respectively. This business was sold on April 3, 2023, with no significant gain or loss upon sale. Operating revenue related to this business that was included in the Company's results of operations was $9 million, $37 million and $35 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding the Company's divestitures.

As the Company continues to make progress toward its full potential, the Company will explore opportunities to reinforce or further expand the long-term organic growth potential of ITW through the addition of selective high-quality acquisitions, such as the acquisition of the Test & Simulation business of MTS Systems Corporation ("MTS") from Amphenol Corporation on December 1, 2021. The operating results of the MTS Test & Simulation business were reported within the Company's Test & Measurement and Electronics segment. Refer to Note 3. Acquisitions in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding this acquisition.

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80/20 Front-to-Back Practice Excellence

ITW will continue to drive 80/20 Front-to-Back practice excellence in every division in the Company, every day. Driving strong operational excellence in the quality of 80/20 Front-to-Back practice across the Company, division by division, will produce further customer-facing performance improvement in a number of divisions and additional structural margin expansion at the enterprise level.

TERMS USED BY ITW

Management uses the following terms to describe the financial results of operations of the Company:

Organic business - acquired businesses that have been included in the Company's results of operations for more than 12 months on a constant currency basis.
Operating leverage - the estimated effect of the organic revenue volume changes on organic operating income, assuming variable margins remain the same as the prior period.
Price/cost - represents the estimated net impact of increases or decreases in the cost of materials used in the Company's products versus changes in the selling price to the Company's customers.
Product line simplification (PLS) - focuses businesses on eliminating the complexity and overhead costs associated with smaller product lines and customers, and focuses businesses on supporting and growing their largest customers and product lines. In the short-term, PLS may result in a decrease in revenue and overhead costs while improving operating margin. In the long-term, PLS is expected to result in growth in revenue, profitability, and returns.

Unless otherwise stated, the changes in financial results in the consolidated results of operations and the results of operations by segment represent the current year period versus the comparable period in the prior year.

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Starting in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to reduce its spread negatively impacted the global economy and caused significant disruptions in the Company's global operations as COVID-19 spread and impacted the countries in which the Company operates and the markets the Company serves.

Despite the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company experienced solid recovery progress in many of its end markets during the past three years. However, new epidemics and pandemics (including any resurgence of COVID-19) could similarly adversely impact the operations of the Company and its customers and suppliers. A description of the risks relating to the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Company's business, operations and financial condition is contained in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors.

On December 1, 2021, the Company completed the acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business for a purchase price of $750 million, subject to certain closing adjustments. The MTS Test & Simulation business had operating revenue of $46 million for the one month ended December 31, 2021 and $422 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022. The Company expects the MTS Test & Simulation business to improve operating margin performance in later years through the application of the Company's 80/20 Front-to-Back process. The operating results of the MTS Test & Simulation business were reported within the Test & Measurement and Electronics segment. Refer to Note 3. Acquisitions in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.

During the first quarter of 2022, Russian military forces invaded Ukraine. In response, the United States and several other countries imposed economic and other sanctions on Russia. The Company has four immaterial Russian subsidiaries with total assets of approximately $22 million as of December 31, 2023. The revenue for these four subsidiaries for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 was approximately $26 million. These subsidiaries were not material to the Company's results of operations or financial position.

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In the second quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest two businesses, including one business in the Polymers & Fluids segment and one business in the Food Equipment segment. These two businesses were classified as held for sale beginning in the second quarter of 2022. In the fourth quarter of 2022, both of these businesses were divested. On October 3, 2022, the business in the Polymers & Fluids segment was sold for $220 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $156 million. On December 1, 2022, the business in the Food Equipment segment was sold for $59 million, subject to certain closing adjustments, resulting in a pre-tax gain of $41 million. The pre-tax gains were included in Other income (expense) in the Statement of Income. Income taxes on the gains were mostly offset by the utilization of capital loss carryforwards of $32 million. Operating revenue related to these divested businesses that was included in the Company's results of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $106 million and $115 million, respectively.

In the fourth quarter of 2022, plans were approved to divest one business in the Specialty Products segment. This business was presented as held for sale in the Statement of Financial Position as of December 31, 2022 and had assets and liabilities held for sale of $8 million and $1 million, respectively. This business was sold on April 3, 2023, with no significant gain or loss upon sale. Operating revenue related to this business that was included in the Company's results of operations was $9 million, $37 million and $35 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

In a challenging and dynamic environment, the Company delivered strong financial results in 2023 primarily due to the continued successful execution of enterprise initiatives and continued focus on the highly differentiated ITW Business Model.

Operating Revenue

Refer to the "Results of Operations for Total Company" and the "Results of Operations by Segment" sections for discussion of changes in operating revenue for 2023 compared to 2022 and 2022 compared to 2021.

Operating Expenses

Dollars in millions202320222021
Operating Revenue
$16,107 $15,932 $14,455 
Cost of revenue$9,316 $9,429 $8,489 
 Percent of operating revenue57.8 %59.2 %58.7 %
Selling, administrative, and research and development expenses$2,638 $2,579 $2,356 
 Percent of operating revenue16.4 %16.2 %16.3 %
Amortization and impairment of intangible assets$113 $134 $133 
 Percent of operating revenue0.7 %0.8 %0.9 %

Cost of revenue was $9.3 billion in 2023, $9.4 billion in 2022 and $8.5 billion in 2021. Cost of revenue was 1.2% lower in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to the impact of divestiture activity in the second quarter of 2023 and the fourth quarter of 2022, which reduced cost of revenue by 1.0%. Cost of revenue as a percent of operating revenue improved in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and positive operating leverage, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses. Cost of revenue was 11.1% higher in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to a 12.8% increase resulting from higher organic revenue and a 3.0% increase due to the impact of the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, which was completed on December 1, 2021, partially offset by the effect of foreign currency translation which reduced cost of revenue by 4.5%. Cost of revenue as a percent of operating revenue increased in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to higher raw material costs and increased employee-related expenses, partially offset by positive operating leverage and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives.

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Selling, administrative, and research and development expenses were $2.6 billion in 2023, $2.6 billion in 2022 and $2.4 billion in 2021. Expenses in 2023 increased 2.3% compared to 2022 driven by a 3.0% increase resulting from higher organic revenue, partially offset by the impact of divestiture activity which reduced expenses by 0.7%. Selling, administrative, and research and development expenses as a percent of operating revenue were slightly higher in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher employee-related expenses and research and development expenses, partially offset by positive operating leverage and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives. Expenses in 2022 increased 9.5% compared to 2021 primarily due to a 9.2% increase resulting from higher organic revenue and a 4.3% increase due to the impact of the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, partially offset by the effect of foreign currency translation which reduced expenses by 3.9%. Selling, administrative, and research and development expenses as a percent of operating revenue improved in 2022 compared to 2021 primarily due to positive operating leverage and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses and research and development expenses.

Amortization and impairment of intangible assets was lower in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to fully amortized intangible assets, but was essentially flat in 2022 compared to 2021 as additional amortization expense from the acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business was offset by fully amortized intangible assets.

Refer to the "Results of Operations for Total Company" and the "Results of Operation by Segment" sections for additional discussion of operating results for 2023 compared to 2022 and 2022 compared to 2021.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS FOR TOTAL COMPANY

The Company's consolidated results of operations for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/
Divestiture
RestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$16,107 $15,932 1.1 %2.0 %(0.8)%— %(0.1)%1.1 %
Operating income$4,040 $3,790 6.6 %7.6 %(0.5)%(0.2)%(0.3)%6.6 %
Operating margin %25.1 %23.8 %130 bps130 bps10 bps(10) bps— 130 bps

Operating revenue increased due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the impact of divestiture activity in the second quarter of 2023 and the fourth quarter of 2022, and the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 2.0% as growth in five segments was partially offset by a decline in the Specialty Products and Construction Products segments. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 50 basis points.
North American organic revenue decreased 0.3% as a decline in the Test & Measurement and Electronics, Specialty Products, Automotive OEM, Welding and Construction Products segments was partially offset by growth in the Food Equipment and Polymers & Fluids segments.
Europe, Middle East and Africa organic revenue increased 3.9% as growth in three segments was partially offset by a decline in the Construction Products, Polymers & Fluids, Specialty Products and Welding segments.
Asia Pacific organic revenue increased 6.9% as growth in five segments was partially offset by a decline in the Specialty Products and Construction Products segments. Organic revenue in China increased 9.7% as growth in the Automotive OEM, Test & Measurement and Electronics, Welding, Construction Products and Polymers & Fluids segments was partially offset by a decline in the Specialty Products and Food Equipment segments.
Operating income of $4.0 billion increased 6.6% compared to the prior year primarily due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the impact of divestiture activity, the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation and higher restructuring expenses.
Operating margin of 25.1% increased 130 basis points primarily driven by favorable price/cost of 210 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives of 130 basis points and positive operating leverage of 40 basis points, partially offset by continued investments in the business and higher employee-related expenses.
The Company's effective tax rate for 2023 and 2022 was 22.6% and 21.0%, respectively. The 2023 effective tax rate benefited from a discrete income tax benefit of $20 million in the second quarter of 2023 related to amended 2021 U.S. taxes. The 2022 effective tax rate benefited from discrete income tax benefits of $32 million in the fourth
23


quarter of 2022 related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and $51 million in the second quarter of 2022 related to a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits resulting from the resolution of a U.S. tax audit. Additionally, the effective tax rates for 2023 and 2022 included discrete income tax benefits of $20 million and $12 million, respectively, related to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.
Diluted earnings per share (EPS) of $9.74 in 2023 decreased 0.3%. Excluding the favorable impact of $0.60 per diluted share in 2022 related to the pre-tax divestiture gains of $197 million in the fourth quarter of 2022, or $188 million after-tax including the impact of the $32 million discrete tax benefit noted above, EPS increased 6.2%.
The Company repurchased approximately 6.4 million shares of its common stock in 2023 for approximately $1.5 billion.
The Company increased the quarterly dividend on common stock from $1.31 to $1.40 per share in 2023, or from $5.24 to $5.60 per share on an annualized basis. Total cash dividends of approximately $1.6 billion were paid in 2023.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/
Divestiture
RestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$15,932 $14,455 10.2 %12.1 %2.4 %— %(4.3)%10.2 %
Operating income$3,790 $3,477 9.0 %14.3 %(0.1)%(0.7)%(4.5)%9.0 %
Operating margin %23.8 %24.1 %(30) bps40 bps(60) bps(10) bps— (30) bps

Operating revenue increased due to higher organic revenue and the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, which was completed on December 1, 2021, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation and the impact of divestiture activity in the fourth quarter of 2022.
Organic revenue grew 12.1% with growth in all seven segments. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 40 basis points.
North American organic revenue increased 14.3% with growth in all seven segments primarily driven by the Food Equipment, Welding and Construction Products segments.
Europe, Middle East and Africa organic revenue increased 9.7% with growth in all seven segments primarily driven by the Food Equipment and Automotive OEM segments.
Asia Pacific organic revenue increased 8.3% due to growth in six segments, partially offset by a decline in the Specialty Products segment. China organic revenue increased 5.6% as growth in the Automotive OEM, Test & Measurement and Electronics, Welding and Polymers & Fluids segments was partially offset by a decline in the Specialty Products, Food Equipment and Construction Products segments. The results in 2022 were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak and government stay-at-home orders in China.
Operating income of $3.8 billion increased 9.0% primarily due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation.
Operating margin of 23.8% decreased 30 basis points primarily driven by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses and freight costs, unfavorable price/cost of 90 basis points and the dilutive impact of 60 basis points from the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, partially offset by positive operating leverage of 220 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives of 90 basis points.
The Company's effective tax rate for 2022 and 2021 was 21.0% and 19.0%, respectively. The 2022 effective tax rate benefited from discrete income tax benefits of $32 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and $51 million in the second quarter of 2022 related to a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits resulting from the resolution of a U.S. tax audit. The 2021 effective tax rate benefited from discrete income tax benefits of $21 million in the third quarter of 2021 related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and $112 million in the second quarter of 2021 related to the remeasurement of net deferred tax assets due to the enactment of the U.K. Finance Bill 2021, which increased the U.K. income tax rate from 19% to 25% effective April 1, 2023. Additionally, the effective tax rates for 2022 and 2021 included discrete income tax benefits of $12 million and $17 million, respectively, related to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.
Diluted earnings per share (EPS) of $9.77 in 2022 increased 14.8%. Excluding the favorable impact of $0.60 per diluted share related to the pre-tax divestiture gains of $197 million in the fourth quarter of 2022, or $188 million after-tax including the impact of the $32 million discrete tax benefit noted above, EPS increased 7.8%.
The Company repurchased approximately 8.3 million shares of its common stock in 2022 for approximately $1.75 billion.
The Company increased the quarterly dividend on common stock from $1.22 to $1.31 per share in 2022, or from $4.88 to $5.24 per share on an annualized basis. Total cash dividends of approximately $1.5 billion were paid in 2022.
24


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS BY SEGMENT

The reconciliation of segment operating revenue and operating income to total operating revenue and operating income is as follows:

Operating Revenue
In millions202320222021
Automotive OEM$3,235 $2,969 $2,800 
Food Equipment2,622 2,444 2,078 
Test & Measurement and Electronics2,832 2,828 2,346 
Welding1,902 1,894 1,650 
Polymers & Fluids1,804 1,905 1,804 
Construction Products2,033 2,113 1,945 
Specialty Products1,697 1,799 1,854 
Intersegment revenue(18)(20)(22)
Total$16,107 $15,932 $14,455 

Operating Income
In millions202320222021
Automotive OEM$561 $499 $545 
Food Equipment713 618 469 
Test & Measurement and Electronics686 684 643 
Welding605 583 490 
Polymers & Fluids482 479 457 
Construction Products578 548 530 
Specialty Products449 481 504 
Total Segments4,074 3,892 3,638 
Unallocated(34)(102)(161)
Total$4,040 $3,790 $3,477 

Segments are allocated a fixed overhead charge based on the segment's revenue. Expenses not charged to the segments are reported separately as Unallocated. Because the Unallocated category includes a variety of items, it is subject to fluctuations on a quarterly and annual basis. Unallocated expenses in 2023 were lower as compared to 2022 primarily due to the impact of lower corporate expenses, including favorable health and welfare expenses, and an immaterial insurance recovery. Unallocated expenses in 2021 included transaction costs related to the previously discussed acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business.

AUTOMOTIVE OEM

This segment is a global, niche supplier to top tier OEMs, providing unique innovation to address pain points for sophisticated customers with complex problems. Businesses in this segment produce components and fasteners for automotive-related applications. This segment primarily serves the automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers market. Products in this segment include:

plastic and metal components, fasteners and assemblies for automobiles, light trucks and other industrial uses.
25


The results of operations for the Automotive OEM segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$3,235 $2,969 9.0 %8.8 %— %— %0.2 %9.0 %
Operating income$561 $499 12.4 %11.7 %— %1.1 %(0.4)%12.4 %
Operating margin %17.3 %16.8 %50 bps40 bps— 20 bps(10) bps50 bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue and the favorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 8.8% compared to worldwide auto builds which grew 9%. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 50 basis points primarily in North America. Additionally, automotive industry labor actions in North America negatively impacted operating results in the second half of 2023.
North American organic revenue decreased 1.9% compared to North American auto builds which increased 9% primarily due to customer mix and product line simplification. Auto builds for the Detroit 3, where the Company has higher content, grew 1%.
European organic revenue grew 12.5% compared to European auto builds which increased 13%.
Asia Pacific organic revenue increased 21.4%. China organic revenue grew 21.9%, including growth in the electric vehicles market and higher content in the Chinese original equipment manufacturers, versus China auto builds which increased 9%.
Operating margin of 17.3% increased 50 basis points primarily driven by positive operating leverage of 160 basis points, favorable price/cost of 140 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses and continued investments in the business, including the electric vehicles market, and product mix.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,969 $2,800 6.0 %11.7 %— %— %(5.7)%6.0 %
Operating income$499 $545 (8.6)%1.5 %— %(4.8)%(5.3)%(8.6)%
Operating margin %16.8 %19.5 %(270) bps(180) bps— (90) bps— (270) bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 11.7% compared to worldwide auto builds which grew 6%. The impact of Automotive OEM customers adjusting production schedules to account for the shortage of semiconductor chips and other components continued to negatively impact operating results in 2022. Auto builds for North America, Europe and China, where the Company has a higher concentration of revenue as compared to the other geographic regions, grew 5%.
North American organic revenue increased 14.1% compared to North American auto builds which grew 10%.
European organic revenue grew 7.1% compared to European auto builds which decreased 1%.
Asia Pacific organic revenue increased 14.7%. China organic revenue grew 12.2%, including growth in the electric vehicles market, versus China auto builds which increased 6%. Auto builds of foreign automotive manufacturers in China, where the Company has higher content, increased 1%.
Operating margin of 16.8% decreased 270 basis points primarily driven by unfavorable price/cost of 200 basis points, higher restructuring expenses, higher operating expenses and continued investment in the business, including the electric vehicles market, partially offset by positive operating leverage of 190 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives.

26


FOOD EQUIPMENT

This segment is a highly focused and branded industry leader in commercial food equipment differentiated by innovation and integrated service offerings. This segment primarily serves the food service, food retail and food institutional/restaurant markets. Products in this segment include:

warewashing equipment;
cooking equipment, including ovens, ranges and broilers;
refrigeration equipment, including refrigerators, freezers and prep tables;
food processing equipment, including slicers, mixers and scales;
kitchen exhaust, ventilation and pollution control systems; and
food equipment service, maintenance and repair.

The results of operations for the Food Equipment segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,622 $2,444 7.3 %7.8 %(1.2)%— %0.7 %7.3 %
Operating income$713 $618 15.2 %15.4 %(0.7)%(0.3)%0.8 %15.2 %
Operating margin %27.2 %25.3 %190 bps180 bps20 bps(10) bps— 190 bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue and the favorable effect of foreign currency translation, partially offset by the impact of a divestiture in the fourth quarter of 2022. On December 1, 2022, the Company completed the sale of a business. Operating revenue for this business that was included in the Company's results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $30 million. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
Organic revenue increased 7.8% as equipment and service organic revenue grew 5.8% and 12.5%, respectively.
North American organic revenue increased 10.4% as equipment organic revenue grew 10.0% with growth in the institutional, food retail and restaurant end markets. Service organic revenue increased 12.0%.
International organic revenue increased 3.8%. Equipment organic revenue was flat as higher demand in the European warewash and refrigeration end markets was offset by lower demand in the European cooking end market and in China. Service organic revenue increased 13.4%.
Operating margin of 27.2% increased 190 basis points primarily driven by favorable price/cost of 220 basis points, positive operating leverage of 150 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,444 $2,078 17.6 %22.9 %(0.1)%— %(5.2)%17.6 %
Operating income$618 $469 31.7 %38.1 %(0.1)%(0.4)%(5.9)%31.7 %
Operating margin %25.3 %22.6 %270 bps280 bps— (10) bps— 270 bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation and the impact of a divestiture in the fourth quarter of 2022. On December 1, 2022, the Company completed the sale of a business. Operating revenue for this business that was included in the Company's results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $30 million and $28 million, respectively. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
Organic revenue increased 22.9% as equipment and service organic revenue grew 25.2% and 18.5%, respectively.
27


North American organic revenue increased 26.1%. Equipment organic revenue grew 31.5% primarily due to growth in the restaurant, institutional and food retail end markets. Service organic revenue increased 17.2%.
International organic revenue increased 18.8%. Equipment organic revenue grew 17.8% primarily due to higher demand in the European warewash, refrigeration and cooking end markets. Service organic revenue increased 20.8%.
Operating margin of 25.3% increased 270 basis points primarily due to positive operating leverage of 430 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and favorable price/cost of 90 basis points, partially offset by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses.

TEST & MEASUREMENT AND ELECTRONICS

This segment is a branded and innovative producer of test and measurement and electronic manufacturing and maintenance, repair, and operations, or "MRO" solutions that improve efficiency and quality for customers in diverse end markets. Businesses in this segment produce equipment, consumables, and related software for testing and measuring of materials and structures, as well as equipment and consumables used in the production of electronic subassemblies and microelectronics. This segment primarily serves the electronics, general industrial, energy, automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers, industrial capital goods and consumer durables markets. Products in this segment include:

equipment, consumables, and related software for testing and measuring of materials, structures, gases and fluids;
electronic assembly equipment;
electronic components and component packaging;
static control equipment and consumables used for contamination control in clean room environments; and
pressure sensitive adhesives and components for electronics, medical, transportation and telecommunications applications.

The results of operations for the Test & Measurement and Electronics segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,832 $2,828 0.1 %0.3 %— %— %(0.2)%0.1 %
Operating income$686 $684 0.3 %1.3 %— %(0.5)%(0.5)%0.3 %
Operating margin %24.2 %24.2 %— 20 bps— (10) bps(10) bps— 

Operating revenue was essentially flat as higher organic revenue was offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 0.3% primarily due to growth in the general industrial end market, partially offset by a decline in the semiconductor end market.
Organic revenue for the test and measurement businesses increased 7.0% primarily driven by growth in the MTS Test & Simulation and Instron businesses and higher demand in the automotive, defense, and oil and gas end markets, partially offset by lower semiconductor demand in North America.
Electronics organic revenue decreased 10.8% primarily due to a decline in the consumer electronics and semiconductor end markets. The electronics assembly businesses decreased 19.3% primarily due to lower demand in North America and Asia Pacific. The other electronics businesses, which include the contamination control, static control and pressure sensitive adhesives businesses, decreased 6.4% primarily due to lower demand in the semiconductor end market, partially offset by higher demand in the automotive end market.
Operating margin of 24.2% was flat compared to the prior year as favorable price/cost of 160 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and lower intangible asset amortization expense were offset by higher employee-related expenses and product mix.

28


2022 compared to 2021
For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,828 $2,346 20.6 %9.0 %15.9 %— %(4.3)%20.6 %
Operating income$684 $643 6.3 %10.1 %— %0.1 %(3.9)%6.3 %
Operating margin %24.2 %27.4 %(320) bps30 bps(350) bps— — (320) bps

Operating revenue grew due to the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, which was completed on December 1, 2021, and higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 9.0%.
Organic revenue for the test and measurement businesses increased 12.7% primarily driven by higher semiconductor demand in North America and Asia Pacific and the impact of a stronger capital spending environment. Instron, where demand is more closely tied to the capital spending environment, had organic revenue growth of 12.8%.
Electronics organic revenue increased 4.6% primarily due to higher demand in the semiconductor end market, partially offset by a decline in the consumer electronics end market. The electronics assembly businesses increased 1.3% primarily due to growth in Asia Pacific, partially offset by lower demand in North America in the first half of 2022. The other electronics businesses, which include the contamination control, static control and pressure sensitive adhesives businesses, increased 6.3% with growth across all major regions.
Operating margin of 24.2% decreased 320 basis points primarily driven by the dilutive impact of 350 basis points from the MTS Test & Simulation acquisition, unfavorable price/cost of 120 basis points, and higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses, partially offset by positive operating leverage of 190 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives.

WELDING

This segment is a branded value-added equipment and specialty consumable manufacturer with innovative and leading technology. Businesses in this segment produce arc welding equipment, consumables and accessories for a wide array of industrial and commercial applications. This segment primarily serves the general industrial market, which includes fabrication, shipbuilding and other general industrial markets, and construction, energy, MRO, industrial capital goods and automotive original equipment manufacturers and tiers markets. Products in this segment include:

arc welding equipment; and
metal arc welding consumables and related accessories.

The results of operations for the Welding segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/
Divestiture
RestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,902 $1,894 0.4 %0.3 %— %— %0.1 %0.4 %
Operating income$605 $583 3.7 %3.4 %— %(0.1)%0.4 %3.7 %
Operating margin %31.8 %30.8 %100 bps100 bps— — — 100 bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue and the favorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue increased 0.3%, which had a challenging comparable in the prior year of 16.0% growth. Consumables grew 1.3% and equipment decreased 0.4%.
North American organic revenue decreased 0.2% primarily due to a decline in the commercial end markets, partially offset by growth in the industrial and aerospace end markets.
29


International organic revenue grew 2.7% primarily due to higher equipment demand in the general industrial and oil and gas end markets in Asia Pacific.
Operating margin of 31.8% increased 100 basis points primarily driven by favorable price/cost of 300 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses and product mix.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,894 $1,650 14.7 %16.0 %— %— %(1.3)%14.7 %
Operating income$583 $490 19.0 %19.1 %— %0.6 %(0.7)%19.0 %
Operating margin %30.8 %29.7 %110 bps80 bps— 10 bps20 bps110 bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue grew 16.0% as equipment increased 16.2% and consumables increased 15.8% primarily due to higher demand in the industrial end markets related to heavy equipment for agriculture, infrastructure and mining, and in the commercial end markets related to construction, light fabrication and farm and ranch customers.
North American organic revenue grew 16.6% due to growth in the industrial and commercial end markets of 25.6% and 3.9%, respectively.
International organic revenue grew 13.3% primarily due to higher equipment demand in the oil and gas end markets in Europe and Asia.
Operating margin of 30.8% increased 110 basis points primarily driven by positive operating leverage of 220 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses and freight costs, and unfavorable price/cost of 80 basis points.

POLYMERS & FLUIDS

This segment is a branded supplier to niche markets that require value-added, differentiated products. Businesses in this segment produce engineered adhesives, sealants, lubrication and cutting fluids, and fluids and polymers for auto aftermarket maintenance and appearance. This segment primarily serves the automotive aftermarket, general industrial and MRO markets. Products in this segment include:

adhesives for industrial, construction and consumer purposes;
chemical fluids which clean or add lubrication to machines;
epoxy and resin-based coating products for industrial applications;
hand wipes and cleaners for industrial applications;
fluids, polymers and other supplies for auto aftermarket maintenance and appearance;
fillers and putties for auto body repair; and
polyester coatings and patch and repair products for the marine industry.

The results of operations for the Polymers & Fluids segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,804 $1,905 (5.3)%0.3 %(4.0)%— %(1.6)%(5.3)%
Operating income$482 $479 0.6 %7.6 %(3.3)%(0.8)%(2.9)%0.6 %
Operating margin %26.7 %25.2 %150 bps180 bps30 bps(20) bps(40) bps150 bps

30


Operating revenue declined due to the impact of a divestiture in the fourth quarter of 2022 and the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation, partially offset by higher organic revenue. On October 3, 2022, the Company completed the sale of a business. Operating revenue for this business that was included in the Company's results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 was $76 million. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
Organic revenue increased 0.3% as growth in North America was partially offset by a decline in Europe. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 70 basis points.
Organic revenue for the automotive aftermarket businesses increased 1.4% primarily due to an increase in the car care, tire repair and engine repair businesses in North America and growth in Europe, partially offset by a decline in the body repair business in North America.
Organic revenue for the polymers businesses increased 0.3% due to higher demand in North America, partially offset by a decline in Europe. Demand in Europe was negatively impacted by declines in the wind and industrial end markets.
Organic revenue for the fluids businesses declined 2.7% driven by lower demand in the European life sciences end market, the North American industrial maintenance, repair and operations end market, and the transportation and health and hygiene end markets.
Operating margin of 26.7% increased 150 basis points primarily driven by favorable price/cost of 210 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and lower intangible asset amortization expense, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses and product mix.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,905 $1,804 5.6 %10.5 %(1.2)%— %(3.7)%5.6 %
Operating income$479 $457 4.8 %9.6 %(0.7)%— %(4.1)%4.8 %
Operating margin %25.2 %25.4 %(20) bps(30) bps20 bps— (10) bps(20) bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation and the impact of a divestiture in the fourth quarter of 2022. On October 3, 2022, the Company completed the sale of a business. Operating revenue for this business that was included in the Company's results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $76 million and $87 million, respectively. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
Organic revenue increased 10.5% with growth across all major regions. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 50 basis points.
Organic revenue for the polymers businesses increased 17.2% with growth across all major regions, primarily in the heavy industrial and wind end markets.
Organic revenue for the automotive aftermarket businesses increased 8.5% with growth in the car care, body repair, engine repair and tire repair businesses in North America and growth in the European additives and tire repair businesses.
Organic revenue for the fluids businesses grew 4.6% primarily due to growth in the hygiene and industrial maintenance, repair and operations end markets in North America and Europe.
Operating margin of 25.2% decreased 20 basis points primarily driven by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses and freight costs, and unfavorable price/cost of 50 basis points, partially offset by positive operating leverage of 170 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, lower intangible asset amortization expense and the impact of a divestiture.

CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

This segment is a branded supplier of innovative engineered fastening systems and solutions. This segment primarily serves the residential construction, renovation/remodel and commercial construction markets. Products in this segment include:

fasteners and related fastening tools for wood and metal applications;
anchors, fasteners and related tools for concrete applications;
metal plate truss components and related equipment and software; and
packaged hardware, fasteners, anchors and other products for retail.
31


The results of operations for the Construction Products segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,033 $2,113 (3.8)%(3.2)%— %— %(0.6)%(3.8)%
Operating income$578 $548 5.5 %6.6 %— %(0.5)%(0.6)%5.5 %
Operating margin %28.4 %25.9 %250 bps270 bps— (20) bps— 250 bps

Operating revenue declined due to lower organic revenue and the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue declined 3.2%, which had a challenging comparable in the prior year period of 14.4% growth. Organic revenue declined primarily due to a decrease in Europe and Asia Pacific. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 50 basis points.
North American organic revenue decreased 0.2% primarily due to lower demand in the United States residential and commercial end markets of 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Organic revenue in Canada declined 2.7%.
International organic revenue decreased 6.4%. European organic revenue declined 9.9% primarily due to lower demand in the commercial and residential end markets. Asia Pacific organic revenue declined 2.3% primarily due to lower demand in the Australia and New Zealand residential end markets.
Operating margin of 28.4% increased 250 basis points primarily driven by favorable price/cost of 350 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives, partially offset by higher employee-related expenses and unfavorable operating leverage of 60 basis points.

2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$2,113 $1,945 8.6 %14.4 %— %— %(5.8)%8.6 %
Operating income$548 $530 3.5 %8.8 %— %(0.2)%(5.1)%3.5 %
Operating margin %25.9 %27.2 %(130) bps(130) bps— — — (130) bps

Operating revenue grew due to higher organic revenue, partially offset by the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation.
Organic revenue grew 14.4% with growth across all major regions. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 40 basis points.
North American organic revenue increased 26.0% driven by higher demand in the United States residential and commercial end markets of 30.4% and 11.5%, respectively.
International organic revenue increased 5.1%. European organic revenue increased 6.2% primarily driven by higher demand in the commercial and residential end markets in the first half of 2022. Asia Pacific organic revenue increased 3.8% primarily due to higher demand in the Australia and New Zealand residential end markets.
Operating margin of 25.9% decreased 130 basis points primarily driven by unfavorable price/cost of 260 basis points and higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses, partially offset by positive operating leverage of 220 basis points and benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives.

32


SPECIALTY PRODUCTS

This segment is focused on diversified niche market opportunities with substantial patent protection producing beverage packaging equipment and consumables, product coding and marking equipment and consumables, and appliance components and fasteners. This segment primarily serves the food and beverage, consumer durables, general industrial, industrial capital goods, airlines and printing and publishing markets. Products in this segment include:

conveyor systems and line automation for the food and beverage industries;
plastic consumables that multi-pack cans and bottles and related equipment;
foil, film and related equipment used to decorate consumer products;
product coding and marking equipment and related consumables;
plastic and metal closures and components for appliances;
airport ground support equipment; and
components for medical devices.

The results of operations for the Specialty Products segment for 2023, 2022 and 2021 were as follows:

2023 compared to 2022

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20232022Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,697 $1,799 (5.7)%(4.9)%(1.6)%— %0.8 %(5.7)%
Operating income$449 $481 (6.5)%(7.2)%(0.1)%(0.3)%1.1 %(6.5)%
Operating margin %26.5 %26.7 %(20) bps(60) bps40 bps(10) bps10 bps(20) bps

Operating revenue declined due to lower organic revenue and the impact of a divestiture in the second quarter of 2023, partially offset by the favorable effect of foreign currency translation. On April 3, 2023, the Company completed the sale of a business. Operating revenue for this business that was included in the Company's results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $9 million and $37 million, respectively. Refer to Note 4. Divestitures in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
Organic revenue decreased 4.9%. Consumable sales decreased 7.8% due to lower demand in all major regions, including plastic consumables that multi-pack cans and bottles. Equipment sales increased 7.9% primarily driven by higher demand in Europe and North America. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 150 basis points.
North American organic revenue decreased 6.4% primarily driven by a decline in the consumer packaging, specialty films, strength films and decorating equipment businesses, partially offset by growth in the ground support equipment, appliance and filter medical businesses.
International organic revenue declined 1.6% primarily due to a decrease in Asia Pacific in the strength films, graphics and decorating equipment businesses, partially offset by growth in the ground support equipment and consumer packaging businesses in Europe.
Operating margin of 26.5% decreased 20 basis points primarily driven by unfavorable operating leverage of 90 basis points, higher employee-related expenses and product mix, partially offset by favorable price/cost of 130 basis points, benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and the favorable impact of a divestiture in the second quarter of 2023.

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2022 compared to 2021

For the Years Ended
Dollars in millionsDecember 31,Components of Increase (Decrease)
20222021Inc (Dec)OrganicAcquisition/DivestitureRestructuringForeign CurrencyTotal
Operating revenue$1,799 $1,854 (2.9)%0.4 %— %— %(3.3)%(2.9)%
Operating income$481 $504 (4.5)%(1.8)%— %0.1 %(2.8)%(4.5)%
Operating margin %26.7 %27.2 %(50) bps(60) bps— — 10 bps(50) bps

Operating revenue declined due to the unfavorable effect of foreign currency translation, partially offset by higher organic revenue.
Organic revenue increased 0.4% as consumable sales increased 3.0% and equipment sales declined 9.5%. Product line simplification activities reduced organic revenue by 170 basis points.
North American organic revenue increased 2.5% primarily due to growth in the foils and thermal films, consumer packaging, specialty films, filter medical and ground support businesses, partially offset by a decline in the appliance and strength films businesses.
International organic revenue declined 3.2% primarily due to a decline in Asia Pacific of 22.8% primarily driven by decreases in the strength films, appliance, foils and thermal films, and graphics businesses. The results in 2022 were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak and government stay-at-home orders in China. Europe organic revenue grew 2.8% primarily due to an increase in the consumer packaging, specialty films and filter medical businesses, partially offset by a decline in the appliance business.
Operating margin of 26.7% decreased 50 basis points primarily driven by higher operating expenses, including employee-related expenses, partially offset by benefits from the Company's enterprise initiatives and favorable price/cost of 10 basis points.

OTHER FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Interest expense was $266 million in 2023, $203 million in 2022 and $202 million in 2021. Interest expense in 2023 was higher than 2022 primarily due to higher interest rates, partially offset by the repayment of notes due May 22, 2023. Interest expense in 2022 was $1 million higher than 2021 primarily due to higher average outstanding commercial paper and higher interest rates, partially offset by the repayment of notes due September 15, 2021 and May 20, 2022. Refer to Note 11. Debt in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding the repayment of notes.
Other income (expense) was income of $49 million in 2023, $255 million in 2022 and $51 million in 2021. Other income was higher in 2022 as compared to 2023 and 2021 primarily due to net pre-tax gains of $191 million related to the sale of businesses in 2022.
The Company's effective tax rate for 2023, 2022, and 2021 was 22.6%, 21.0% and 19.0%, respectively. The 2023 effective tax rate benefited from a discrete income tax benefit of $20 million in the second quarter of 2023 related to amended 2021 U.S. taxes. The 2022 effective tax rate benefited from discrete income tax benefits of $32 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and $51 million in the second quarter of 2022 related to a decrease in unrecognized tax benefits resulting from the resolution of a U.S. tax audit. The 2021 effective tax rate benefited from discrete income tax benefits of $21 million in the third quarter of 2021 related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and $112 million in the second quarter of 2021 related to the remeasurement of net deferred tax assets due to the enactment of the U.K. Finance Bill 2021, which increased the U.K. income tax rate from 19% to 25% effective April 1, 2023. Additionally, the effective tax rates for 2023, 2022 and 2021 included discrete income tax benefits of $20 million, $12 million and $17 million, respectively, related to excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation. Refer to Note 7. Income Taxes in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information.
The impact of the Euro and other foreign currencies against the U.S. Dollar in 2023 versus 2022 decreased operating revenue and income before taxes by approximately $7 million and $15 million, respectively. The impact of the Euro and other foreign currencies against the U.S. Dollar in 2022 versus 2021 decreased operating revenue and income before taxes by approximately $628 million and $157 million, respectively.

NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

Information regarding new accounting pronouncements is included in Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

The Company's primary sources of liquidity are free cash flow and short-term credit facilities. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had $1.1 billion of cash and equivalents on hand and no outstanding borrowings under its $3.0 billion revolving credit facility. The Company also has maintained strong access to public debt markets. Management believes that these sources are sufficient to service debt and to finance the Company's capital allocation priorities, which include:

internal investments to support organic growth and sustain core businesses;
payment of an attractive dividend to shareholders; and
external investments in selective strategic acquisitions that support the Company's organic growth focus, such as the acquisition of the MTS Test & Simulation business on December 1, 2021, and an active share repurchase program. Refer to Note 3. Acquisitions in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding this acquisition.

The Company believes that, based on its operating revenue, operating margin, free cash flow, and credit ratings, it could readily obtain additional financing, if necessary.

The Company has certain contractual obligations, primarily noncurrent income taxes payable, operating leases and long-term debt. Refer to Note 7. Income Taxes, Note 10. Leases and Note 11. Debt in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for details related to the Company's contractual obligations. The Company did not have any significant off-balance sheet commitments as of December 31, 2023.

Cash Flow

The Company uses free cash flow to measure cash flow generated by operations that is available for dividends, share repurchases, acquisitions and debt repayment. The Company believes this non-GAAP financial measure is useful to investors in evaluating the Company's financial performance and measures the Company's ability to generate cash internally to fund Company initiatives. Free cash flow represents net cash provided by operating activities less additions to plant and equipment. Free cash flow is a measurement that is not the same as net cash flow from operating activities per the statement of cash flows and may not be consistent with similarly titled measures used by other companies. Summarized cash flow information for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 was as follows:

In millions202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities$3,539 $2,348 $2,557 
Additions to plant and equipment(455)(412)(296)
Free cash flow$3,084 $1,936 $2,261 
Cash dividends paid$(1,615)$(1,542)$(1,463)
Repurchases of common stock(1,500)(1,750)(1,000)
Acquisition of businesses (excluding cash and equivalents)
— (2)(731)
Proceeds from sale of operations and affiliates278 — 
Net proceeds from (repayments of) debt294 276 (141)
Other84 42 83 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and equivalents(57)(46)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and equivalents$357 $(819)$(1,037)

Operating cash flow improved in 2023 compared to 2022 as supply chains began to normalize in 2023 and the Company reduced its investment in working capital. Operating cash flow decreased in 2022 and 2021 primarily due to higher working capital investments to support revenue growth, including increased inventory levels to help mitigate supply chain risk and sustain customer service levels.

Stock Repurchase Programs

On August 3, 2018, the Company announced a stock repurchase program which provided for the repurchase of up to $3.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2018 Program"). Under the 2018 Program, the Company repurchased approximately 6.7 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $158.11 per share
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during 2019, approximately 4.2 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $167.69 per share during 2020, approximately 4.4 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $227.29 per share during 2021 and approximately 1.2 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $216.62 per share during 2022. The 2018 Program was completed in the first quarter of 2022.

On May 7, 2021, the Company announced a stock repurchase program which provided for the repurchase of up to an additional $3.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2021 Program"). Under the 2021 program, the Company repurchased approximately 7.1 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $210.46 per share during 2022 and approximately 6.3 million shares of its common stock at an average price of $235.35 per share during 2023. The 2021 Program was completed in the fourth quarter of 2023.

On August 4, 2023, the Company announced a new stock repurchase program which provides for the repurchase of up to an additional $5.0 billion of the Company's common stock over an open-ended period of time (the "2023 Program"). Under the 2023 program, the Company repurchased approximately 38,000 shares of its common stock at an average price of $263.44 per share during 2023. As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately $5.0 billion of authorized repurchases remaining under the 2023 program.
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After-tax Return on Average Invested Capital

The Company uses after-tax return on average invested capital ("After-tax ROIC") to measure the effectiveness of its operations' use of invested capital to generate profits. After-tax ROIC is not defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). After-tax ROIC is a non-GAAP financial measure that the Company believes is a meaningful metric to investors in evaluating the Company's ability to generate returns from cash invested in its operations and may be different than the method used by other companies to calculate After-tax ROIC. The Company defines After-tax ROIC as operating income after taxes divided by average invested capital, which is annualized when presented in interim periods. Operating income after taxes is a non-GAAP measure consisting of net income before interest expense and other income (expense), on an after-tax basis, which are excluded as they do not represent returns generated by the Company's operations. For comparability, the Company also excluded the discrete tax benefit of $20 million in the second quarter of 2023 from net income and the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2023. Additionally, for comparability, the Company also excluded the discrete tax benefits of $32 million in the fourth quarter of 2022 and $51 million in the second quarter of 2022 from net income and the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2022. Also, for comparability, the Company excluded the discrete tax benefits of $21 million in the third quarter of 2021 and $112 million in the second quarter of 2021 from net income and the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2021. Total invested capital represents the net assets of the Company, other than cash and equivalents and outstanding debt which do not represent capital investment in the Company's operations. The most comparable GAAP measure to operating income after taxes is net income. Net income to average invested capital and After-tax ROIC for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 were as follows:

Dollars in millions202320222021
Numerator:
Net income$2,957 $3,034 $2,694 
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 2023(20)— — 
Discrete tax benefit related to the fourth quarter 2022— (32)— 
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 2022— (51)— 
Discrete tax benefit related to the third quarter 2021— — (21)
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 2021— — (112)
Interest expense, net of tax (1)
204 156 157 
Other (income) expense, net of tax (1)
(38)(196)(40)
Operating income after taxes$3,103 $2,911 $2,678 
Denominator:
Invested capital:
Cash and equivalents$1,065 $708 $1,527 
Trade receivables3,123 3,171 2,840 
Inventories1,707 2,054 1,694 
Net assets held for sale— — 
Net plant and equipment1,976 1,848 1,809 
Goodwill and intangible assets5,566 5,632 5,937 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(2,244)(2,322)(2,233)
Debt(8,164)(7,763)(7,687)
Other, net(16)(246)(261)
Total net assets (stockholders' equity)3,013 3,089 3,626 
Cash and equivalents(1,065)(708)(1,527)
Debt8,164 7,763 7,687 
Total invested capital$10,112 $10,144 $9,786 
Average invested capital (2)
$10,214 $10,017 $9,087 
Net income to average invested capital29.0 %30.3 %29.6 %
After-tax return on average invested capital30.4 %29.1 %29.5 %

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(1)    Effective tax rate used for interest expense and other (income) expense for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 was 23.2%, 23.2% and 23.0%, respectively.

(2)    Average invested capital is calculated using the total invested capital balances at the start of the period and at the end of each quarter within each of the periods presented.

After-tax ROIC increased 130 basis points for the twelve month period ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year period as a result of a 6.6% increase in after-tax operating income versus a 2.0% increase in average invested capital.

After-tax ROIC decreased 40 basis points for the twelve month period ended December 31, 2022 compared to the prior year period as a result of a 10.2% increase in average invested capital versus an 8.7% increase in after-tax operating income.

A reconciliation of the 2023 effective tax rate excluding the second quarter 2023 discrete tax benefit of $20 million related to amended 2021 U.S. taxes is as follows:

Twelve Months Ended
December 31, 2023
Dollars in millionsIncome TaxesTax Rate
As reported$866 22.6 %
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 202320 0.6 %
As adjusted$886 23.2 %

A reconciliation of the 2022 effective tax rate excluding the fourth quarter 2022 discrete tax benefit of $32 million related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and the second quarter 2022 discrete tax benefit of $51 million related to the resolution of a U.S. tax audit is as follows:

Twelve Months Ended
December 31, 2022
Dollars in millionsIncome TaxesTax Rate
As reported$808 21.0 %
Discrete tax benefit related to the fourth quarter 202232 0.8 %
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 202251 1.4 %
As adjusted$891 23.2 %

A reconciliation of the 2021 effective tax rate excluding the third quarter 2021 discrete tax benefit of $21 million related to the utilization of capital loss carryforwards and the second quarter 2021 discrete tax benefit of $112 million related to a change in the U.K. income tax rate is as follows:

Twelve Months Ended
December 31, 2021
Dollars in millionsIncome TaxesTax Rate
As reported$632 19.0 %
Discrete tax benefit related to the third quarter 202121 0.6 %
Discrete tax benefit related to the second quarter 2021112 3.4 %
As adjusted$765 23.0 %

Refer to Note 7. Income Taxes in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for further information regarding the discrete tax items noted above.

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Working Capital

Management uses working capital as a measurement of the short-term liquidity of the Company. Net working capital as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 is summarized as follows:

In millions20232022Increase
(Decrease)
Current Assets:
Cash and equivalents$1,065 $708 $357 
Trade receivables3,123 3,171 (48)
Inventories1,707 2,054 (347)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets340 329 11 
Assets held for sale— (8)
6,235 6,270 (35)
Current Liabilities:
Short-term debt1,825 1,590 235 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses2,244 2,322 (78)
Liabilities held for sale— (1)
Other606 547 59 
4,675 4,460 215 
Net Working Capital$1,560 $1,810 $(250)

As of December 31, 2023, a significant portion of the Company's cash and equivalents was held by international subsidiaries. Cash and equivalents held internationally may be subject to foreign withholding taxes if repatriated to the U.S. Cash and equivalents held internationally are typically used for international operating needs or reinvested to fund expansion of existing international businesses. International funds may also be used to fund international acquisitions or, if not considered permanently invested, may be repatriated to the U.S. The Company has accrued for foreign withholding taxes related to foreign held cash and equivalents that are not permanently invested.

In the U.S., the Company utilizes cash flows from operations to fund domestic cash needs and the Company's capital allocation priorities. This includes operating needs of the U.S. businesses, dividend payments, share repurchases, acquisitions, servicing of domestic debt obligations, reinvesting to fund expansion of existing U.S. businesses and general corporate needs. The Company may also use its commercial paper program, which is supported by a long-term credit facility, for short-term liquidity needs. The Company believes cash generated by operations and liquidity provided by the Company's commercial paper program will continue to be sufficient to fund cash requirements in the U.S.

Debt

Total debt as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 was as follows:

In millions20232022Increase
(Decrease)
Short-term debt$1,825 $1,590 $235 
Long-term debt6,339 6,173 166 
Total debt$8,164 $7,763 $401 

As of December 31, 2023, short-term debt included $700 million related to the 3.50% notes due March 1, 2024, which were reclassified from Long-term debt to Short-term debt in the first quarter of 2023, $661 million related to the 0.25% Euro notes due December 5, 2024, which were reclassified from Long-term debt to Short-term debt in the fourth quarter of 2023, and commercial paper of $464 million. As of December 31, 2022, short-term debt included $535 million related to the 1.25% Euro notes due May 22, 2023, which were repaid on the due date, and commercial paper of $1.1 billion.

On May 5, 2023, the Company entered into a €1.3 billion Euro-denominated credit agreement (the "Euro Credit Agreement") with a termination date of May 3, 2024; provided, however, that the Company may extend the termination date by six months on up to two occasions. On May 12, 2023, the Company borrowed €1.3 billion of Euro term loans under the Euro Credit
39


Agreement. Proceeds from the borrowing were used for general corporate purposes, including the repayment of outstanding debt. Any loan under the Euro Credit Agreement may not be re-borrowed once repaid, in full or in part, and will bear interest at a per annum rate equal to the applicable EURIBOR (adjusted for any statutory reserves) plus 0.75% for the interest period selected by the Company of one, three or six months. As of December 31, 2023, the Company had €1.3 billion outstanding under the Euro Credit Agreement with an interest rate of 4.59%, which was included in Long-term debt as the Company intends to exercise its options to extend the termination date.

The Company may issue commercial paper to fund general corporate needs, share repurchases, and small and medium-sized acquisitions. During the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company entered into a $3.0 billion, five-year revolving credit facility with a termination date of October 21, 2027, which is available to provide additional liquidity, including to support the potential issuances of commercial paper. No amounts were outstanding under the revolving credit facility as of December 31, 2023 or 2022. The maximum outstanding commercial paper balance during 2023 was $1.9 billion, while the average daily balance was $1.0 billion.

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had unused capacity of approximately $158 million under international debt facilities. In the ordinary course of business, the Company also had approximately $231 million outstanding in guarantees, letters of credit and other similar arrangements with financial institutions as of December 31, 2023. Refer to Note 11. Debt in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional details regarding the Company's outstanding deb