John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
10-K on 06/26/2020   Download
SEC Document
SEC Filing
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC  20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended:  April 30, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _________ to _________
Commission file number   001-11507

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

New York
 
13-5593032
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization
 
I.R.S. Employer Identification No.
     
111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ
 
07030
Address of principal executive offices
 
Zip Code

 (201) 748-6000
 Registrant’s telephone number including area code

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share
JW.A
New York Stock Exchange
Class B Common Stock, par value $1.00 per share
JW.B
New York Stock Exchange

 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
 
 
None
 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.





Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company 
 
Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes     No

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the closing price as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, October 31, 2019, was approximately $2,040 million. The registrant has no non-voting common stock.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A and Class B Common Stock as of May 31, 2020 was 46,767,784 and 9,094,674 respectively.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for use in connection with its annual meeting of stockholders scheduled to be held on September 24, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.





JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED APRIL 30, 2020
INDEX

PART I
 
PAGE
ITEM 1.
Business
4
ITEM 1A.
Risk Factors
13
ITEM 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
20
ITEM 2.
Properties
21
ITEM 3.
Legal Proceedings
21
ITEM 4
Mine Safety Disclosures
21
 
Information About Our Executive Officers
22
     
PART II
   
ITEM 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
23
ITEM 6.
Selected Financial Data
24
ITEM 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
25
ITEM 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
45
ITEM 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
47
ITEM 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
99
ITEM 9A.
Controls and Procedures
99
ITEM 9B.
Other Information
99
     
PART III
   
ITEM 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
100
ITEM 11.
Executive Compensation
100
ITEM 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
100
ITEM 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
101
ITEM 14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services          
101
     
PART IV
   
ITEM 15.
Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
102
ITEM 16.
Form 10-K Summary
103
     
SIGNATURES
 
 105

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Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements “Safe Harbor” Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995:

This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 concerning our business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations. The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so that investors can better understand a company’s prospects and make informed investment decisions. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from these statements. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified by such words as “anticipates,” “believes,” “plan,” “assumes,” “could,” “should,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “potential,” “seek,” “predict,” “may,” “will” and similar references to future periods. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this report regarding our strategies, prospects, financial condition, operations, costs, plans and objectives are forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, among others, statements we make regarding our fiscal year 2021 outlook, the anticipated impact on the ability of our employees, contractors, customers and other business partners to perform our and their respective responsibilities and obligations relative to the conduct of our business in the future due to the current coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, anticipated restructuring charges and savings, operations, performance, and financial condition. Reliance should not be placed on forward-looking statements, as actual results may differ materially from those in any forward-looking statements. Any such forward-looking statements are based upon many assumptions and estimates that are inherently subject to uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, and are subject to change based on many important factors. Such factors include, but are not limited to (i) the level of investment in new technologies and products; (ii) subscriber renewal rates for our journals; (iii) the financial stability and liquidity of journal subscription agents; (iv) the consolidation of book wholesalers and retail accounts; (v) the market position and financial stability of key retailers; (vi) the seasonal nature of our educational business and the impact of the used book market; (vii) worldwide economic and political conditions; (viii) our ability to protect our copyrights and other intellectual property worldwide; (ix) our ability to successfully integrate acquired operations and realize expected opportunities; (x) the ability to realize operating savings over time and in fiscal year 2021 in connection with our multi-year Business Optimization Program; and (xi) other factors detailed from time to time in our filings with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any such forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.

Please refer to Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for important factors that we believe could cause actual results to differ materially from those in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures:

We present financial information that conforms to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). We also present financial information that does not conform to U.S. GAAP, which we refer to as non-GAAP.

In this report, we may present the following non-GAAP performance measures:

Adjusted Earnings Per Share “(Adjusted EPS)”;
Free Cash Flow less Product Development Spending;
Adjusted Revenue;
Adjusted Operating Income and margin;
Adjusted Contribution to Profit and margin;
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA and margin;
Organic revenue; and
Results on a constant currency basis.

Management uses these non-GAAP performance measures as supplemental indicators of our operating performance and financial position as well for internal reporting and forecasting purposes, when publicly providing our outlook, to evaluate our performance and calculate incentive compensation. We present these non-GAAP performance measures in addition to U.S. GAAP financial results because we believe that these non-GAAP performance measures provide useful information to certain investors and financial analysts for operational trends and comparisons over time. The use of these non-GAAP performance measures may also provide a consistent basis to evaluate operating profitability and performance trends by excluding items that we do not consider to be controllable activities for this purpose.

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For example:
Adjusted EPS, Adjusted Revenue, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted Contribution to Profit, Adjusted EBITDA, and organic revenue provide a more comparable basis to analyze operating results and earnings and are measures commonly used by shareholders to measure our performance.
Free Cash Flow less Product Development Spending helps assess our ability, over the long term, to create value for our shareholders as it represents cash available to repay debt, pay common stock dividends and fund share repurchases and acquisitions.
Results on a constant currency basis removes distortion from the effects of foreign currency movements to provide better comparability of our business trends from period to period. We measure our performance before the impact of foreign currency (or at “constant currency”), which means that we apply the same foreign currency exchange rates for the current and equivalent prior period.

In addition, we have historically provided these or similar non-GAAP performance measures and understand that some investors and financial analysts find this information helpful in analyzing our operating margins, and net income and comparing our financial performance to that of our peer companies and competitors. Based on interactions with investors, we also believe that our non-GAAP performance measures are regarded as useful to our investors as supplemental to our U.S. GAAP financial results, and that there is no confusion regarding the adjustments or our operating performance to our investors due to the comprehensive nature of our disclosures. We have not provided our 2021 outlook for the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures, as they are not available without unreasonable effort due to the high variability, complexity, and low visibility with respect to certain items, including restructuring charges and credits, gains and losses on foreign currency, and other gains and losses. These items are uncertain, depend on various factors, and could be material to our consolidated results computed in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Non-GAAP performance measures do not have standardized meanings prescribed by U.S. GAAP and therefore may not be comparable to the calculation of similar measures used by other companies and should not be viewed as alternatives to measures of financial results under U.S. GAAP. The adjusted metrics have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered in isolation from or as a substitute for U.S. GAAP information. It does not purport to represent any similarly titled U.S. GAAP information and is not an indicator of our performance under U.S. GAAP. Non-U.S. GAAP financial metrics that we present may not be comparable with similarly titled measures used by others. Investors are cautioned against placing undue reliance on these non-U.S. GAAP measures.

PART I

Item 1. Business

The Company, founded in 1807, was incorporated in the state of New York on January 15, 1904. Throughout this report, when we refer to “Wiley,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us,” we are referring to John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and all of our subsidiaries, except where the context indicates otherwise.

Please refer to Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” for financial information about the Company and its subsidiaries, which is incorporated herein by reference. Also, when we cross reference to a “Note,” we are referring to our “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” unless the context indicates otherwise.

As previously announced, we have changed our segment reporting structure to align with our strategic focus areas: (1) Research Publishing & Platforms, which continues to include the Research publishing and Atypon businesses, (2) Academic & Professional Learning, which is the former “Publishing” segment combined with our corporate training businesses – previously noted as Professional Assessment and Corporate Learning; and (3) Education Services, which includes our Online Program Management and mthree training, upskilling and talent placement services for professionals and businesses. Prior period segment results have been revised to the new segment presentation. There were no changes to our consolidated financial results.

Wiley drives the world forward with research and education. Through publishing, platforms and services, we help researchers, professionals, students, universities, and corporations to achieve their goals in an ever-changing world. Through the Research Publishing & Platforms segment, we provide scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, as well as related content and services, to academic, corporate, and government libraries, learned societies, and individual researchers and other professionals. The Academic & Professional Learning segment provides scientific, professional, and education books in print and digital formats, digital courseware, and test preparation services, to students, libraries, corporations, professionals, and researchers, as well as learning, development, and assessment services for businesses and professionals. The Education Services segment provides online program management services for higher education institutions and mthree talent placement services for professionals and businesses. Our operations are primarily located in the United States (“U.S.”), United Kingdom (“U.K.”), Germany, Russia, Sri Lanka, Canada, Jordan, and France. In the year ended April 30, 2020, approximately 44% of our consolidated revenue was from outside the U.S.
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Our business growth strategies include:
driving volume growth from existing journal and book brands and titles, as well as learning services related to education and professional development;
developing new journal titles or through publishing partnerships;
developing new products and services for existing university partners, as well as signing new online program management partners;
making technology and content acquisitions that complement our existing businesses;
designing and implementing new methods of delivering products to our customers; and
the development of new products and services.

Business Segments

We report our segment information in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 280, “Segment Reporting” (“FASB ASC Topic 280”). Our segment reporting structure consists of three reportable segments, which are listed below, and a Corporate category:
Research Publishing & Platforms;
Academic & Professional Learning; and
Education Services.

Research Publishing & Platforms:

Research Publishing & Platforms’ mission is to support researchers, professionals and learners in the discovery and use of research knowledge to help them achieve their goals.  Research provides scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, as well as related content and services, to academic, corporate, and government libraries, learned societies, and individual researchers and other professionals. Journal publishing areas include the physical sciences and engineering, health sciences, social sciences and humanities and life sciences. Research Publishing & Platforms also includes Atypon Systems, Inc. (“Atypon”), a publishing software and service provider that enables scholarly and professional societies and publishers to deliver, host, enhance, market, and manage their content on the web through the Literatum platform. Research Publishing & Platforms’ customers include academic, corporate, government, and public libraries, funders of research, researchers, scientists, clinicians, engineers and technologists, scholarly and professional societies, and students and professors. Research Publishing & Platforms products are sold and distributed globally in digital and print formats through multiple channels, including research libraries and library consortia, independent subscription agents, direct sales to professional society members, and other customers. Publishing centers include Australia, China, Germany, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.  Research Publishing & Platforms’ revenue accounted for approximately 52% of our consolidated revenue in the year ended April 30, 2020, with a 35.3% Adjusted EBITDA margin.

Research Publishing & Platforms revenue by product type includes Research Publishing and Research Platforms. The graphs below present revenue by product type for the years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019:
graphic

Key growth strategies for the Research Publishing & Platforms segment include evolving and developing new licensing models for our institutional customers (“pay to read and publish”), developing new open access products and revenue streams (“pay to publish”), focusing resources on high-growth and emerging markets, and developing new digital products, services, and workflow solutions to meet the needs of researchers, authors, societies, and corporate customers.

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Research Publishing

Research Publishing generates the majority of its revenue from contracts with its customers for the following revenue streams:
Journal Subscriptions;
Licensing, Reprints, Backfiles and Other; and
Open Access and Comprehensive Agreements

Journal Subscriptions

We publish approximately 1,675 academic research journals. We sell journal subscriptions directly through our sales representatives, indirectly through independent subscription agents, through promotional campaigns, and through memberships in professional societies for those journals that are sponsored by societies. Journal subscriptions are primarily licensed through contracts for digital content available online through Wiley Online Library, which is delivered through our Literatum platform. Contracts are negotiated by us directly with customers or their subscription agents. Subscription periods typically cover calendar years. Print journals are generally mailed to subscribers directly from independent printers. We do not own or manage printing facilities. Subscription revenue is generally collected in advance.

Approximately 50% of Journal Subscription revenue is derived from publishing rights owned by us. Publishing alliances also play a major role in Research Publishing’s success. Approximately 50% of Journal Subscription revenue is derived from publication rights that are owned by professional societies and published by us pursuant to a long-term contract (generally 5–10 years) or owned jointly with a professional society. These society alliances bring mutual benefit, with the societies gaining Wiley’s publishing, marketing, sales, and distribution expertise, while Wiley benefits from being affiliated with prestigious societies and their members. Societies that sponsor or own such journals generally receive a royalty and/or other financial consideration. We may procure editorial services from such societies on a pre-negotiated fee basis. We also enter into agreements with outside independent editors of journals that define the duties of the editors and the fees and expenses for their services. Contributors of articles to our journal portfolio transfer publication rights to us or a professional society, as applicable. We publish the journals of many prestigious societies, including the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, the British Journal of Surgery Society, the European Molecular Biology Organization, the American Anthropological Association, the American Geophysical Union, and the German Chemical Society.

Literatum, our online publishing platform for Research Publishing, delivers integrated access to over 9 million articles from approximately 1,675 journals, as well as 22,000 online books and hundreds of multi-volume reference works, laboratory protocols and databases. Wiley Online Library, which is delivered through our Literatum platform, provides the user with intuitive navigation, enhanced discoverability, expanded functionality, and a range of personalization options. Access to abstracts is free and full content is accessible through licensing agreements or as individual article purchases. Large portions of the content are provided free or at nominal cost to nations in the developing world through partnerships with certain non-profit organizations. Our online publishing platforms provide revenue growth opportunities through new applications and business models, online advertising, deeper market penetration, and individual sales and pay-per-view options. The Literatum platform hosts over 40% of the world’s English language journals.

Wiley’s performance in the 2018 release of Clarivate Analytics’ Journal Citation Reports (JCR) remains strong, maintaining its position as #3 in terms of the number of titles indexed, articles published, and citations received. Wiley saw a 9.5% increase in JCR articles, giving it 9.7% overall share (+0.6%) – its biggest increase since 2008.

A total of 1,223 Wiley journals were included in the reports, 58% of these were society publications – reaffirming Wiley’s position as the world’s leading society publishing partner. Wiley journals ranked #1 in 27 categories across 25 titles and achieved 349 top-10 category rankings.

The annual Journal Citation Reports (JCR) are one of the most widely-used sources of citation metrics used to analyze the performance of peer-reviewed journals. The most famous of these metrics, the Impact Factor, is based on the frequency with which an average article is cited in the JCR report year. Alongside other metrics, this makes it an important tool for evaluating a journal’s impact on ongoing research.

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Licensing, Reprints, Backfiles, and Other

Licensing, Reprints, Backfiles, and Other includes advertising, backfile sales, the licensing of publishing rights, journal and article reprints, and individual article sales. We generate advertising revenue from print and online journal subscription products, our online publishing platform, Literatum, online events such as webinars and virtual conferences, community interest Web sites such as spectroscopyNOW.com, and other Web sites.  A backfile license provides access to a historical collection of Wiley journals, generally for a one-time fee. We also engage with international publishers and receive licensing revenue from photocopies, reproductions, translations, and other digital uses of our content. Journal and article reprints are primarily used by pharmaceutical companies and other industries for marketing and promotional purposes. Through the Article Select and PayPerView programs, we provide fee-based access to non-subscribed journal articles, content, book chapters, and major reference work articles. The Research Publishing business is also a provider of content and services in evidence-based medicine (“EBM”). Through our alliance with The Cochrane Collaboration, we publish The Cochrane Library, a premier source of high-quality independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making. EBM facilitates the effective management of patients through clinical expertise informed by best practice evidence that is derived from medical literature.

Open Access and Comprehensive Agreements

Under the Author-Funded Access business model, accepted research articles are published subject to payment of Article Publication Charges ("APCs"). After payment to Wiley, all Author-Funded articles are immediately free to access online. Contributors of Author-Funded Access articles retain many rights and typically license their work under terms that permit re-use.

Author-Funded Access offers authors choices in how to share and disseminate their work, and it serves the needs of researchers who may be required by their research funder to make articles freely accessible without embargo. APCs are typically paid by the individual author or by the author’s funder, and payments are often mediated by the author’s institution. We provide specific workflows and infrastructure to authors, funders, and institutions to support the requirements of the Author-Funded Access model.

We offer two Open Access publishing models. The first of these is Hybrid Open Access where, upon payment of an APC, authors publishing in the majority of our paid subscription journals are offered, after article acceptance, the opportunity to make their individual research article openly available through the OnlineOpen service.

The second offering of the Open Access model is a growing portfolio of fully open access journals, also known as Gold Open Access Journals, in which all accepted articles are published subject to receipt of an APC. All Open Access articles are subject to the same rigorous peer-review process applied to our subscription-based journals. As with our subscription portfolio, a number of the Gold Open Access Journals are published under contract for, or in partnership with, prestigious societies, including the American Geophysical Union, the American Heart Association, the European Molecular Biology Organization and the British Ecological Society. The Open Access portfolio spans life, physical, medical and social sciences and includes a choice of high impact journals and broad-scope titles that offer a responsive, author-centered service.

In March 2020, we agreed with Jisc, the U.K.’s research and education not-for-profit that negotiates licenses and digital content agreements on behalf of U.K. universities, on a four year comprehensive “read and publish” agreement that, for an annual fee, enables U.K. institutions to access our journal portfolio and researchers at U.K. universities the means to publish open access (“OA”) in all Wiley journals at no direct cost to them. As part of the new agreement, the proportion of OA articles published by U.K. researchers will increase from 27% to an estimated 85% in year one, with the potential to reach 100% by 2022. The agreement will also enable institutions and their users to access all of Wiley’s journals. Other comprehensive agreements include consortia in Austria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden.  We are compensated through a publish and read fee.

In January 2019, we announced a contractual arrangement in support of Open Access, a countrywide partnership agreement with Projekt DEAL, a representative of nearly 700 academic institutions in Germany. This three-year agreement provides all Projekt DEAL institutions with access to read Wiley’s academic journals back to the year 1997, and researchers at Projekt DEAL institutions can publish articles open access in Wiley’s journals. The partnership will better support institutions and researchers in advancing open science, driving discovery, and developing and disseminating knowledge. We are compensated through a fee per article published.

Research Platforms

Research Platforms is principally comprised of Atypon, a publishing software and service provider that enables scholarly and professional societies and publishers to deliver, host, enhance, market, and manage their content on the web through the Literatum platform. 

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Academic & Professional Learning:

Our Academic & Professional Learning segment provides scientific, professional, and education books in print and digital formats, digital courseware, and test preparation services, to libraries, corporations, students, professionals, and researchers, as well as learning, development, and assessment services for businesses and professionals. Communities served include business, finance, accounting, workplace learning, management, leadership, technology, behavioral health, engineering/ architecture, science and medicine, and education.  Products are developed in print and digitally for worldwide distribution through multiple channels, including chain and online booksellers, libraries, colleges and universities, corporations, direct to consumer, Web sites, distributor networks and other online applications. Publishing centers include Australia, Germany, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Academic & Professional Learning accounted for approximately 35% of our consolidated revenue in the year ended April 30, 2020, with a 23.7% Adjusted EBITDA margin.

Academic & Professional Learning revenue by product type includes Education Publishing and Professional Learning. The graphs below present revenue by product type for the years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019:
graphic
Key growth strategies for the Academic & Professional Learning business include developing and acquiring products and services to drive corporate development and professional career development, developing leading brands and franchises, executing strategic acquisitions and partnerships, and innovating digital book formats while expanding their global discoverability and distribution. We continue to implement strategies to manage declines in print revenue through cost improvement initiatives and focusing our efforts on growing its digital lines of business. We are continuing to perform portfolio reviews and workforce realignment, restructuring, and operational excellence initiatives. In certain areas, we will explore new formats or promote digital-only, and in other areas, we may rationalize our portfolio. Our approach is to continue to realign our cost structure to help mitigate the market changes that are contributing to revenue decline, and to sharpen our focus on high performing areas and digital opportunities, while improving operating efficiency.

Book sales for STM (Scientific, Technical and Medical), Professional and Education Publishing are generally made on a returnable basis with certain restrictions. We provide for estimated future returns on sales made during the year based on historical return experience and current market trends.

Materials for book publications are obtained from authors throughout most of the world, utilizing the efforts of an editorial staff, outside editorial advisors, and advisory boards. Most materials are originated by the authors themselves or as a result of suggestion or solicitations by editors and advisors. We enter into agreements with authors that state the terms and conditions under which the materials will be published, the name in which the copyright will be registered, the basis for any royalties, and other matters. Most of the authors are compensated with royalties, which vary depending on the nature of the product. We may make advance royalty payments against future royalties to authors of certain publications. Royalty advances are reviewed for recoverability and a reserve for loss is maintained, if appropriate.

We continue to add new titles, revise existing titles, and discontinue the sale of others in the normal course of our business, and we also create adaptations of original content for specific markets based on customer demand. Our general practice is to revise our textbooks approximately every three years, if warranted, and to revise other titles as appropriate. Subscription-based products are updated on a more frequent basis.

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We generally contract with independent printers and binderies globally for their services. Management believes that adequate printing and binding facilities and sources of paper and other required materials are available to it, and that it is not dependent upon any single supplier.

In fiscal year 2016, we entered into an agreement to outsource our US-based book distribution operations to Cengage Learning, with the continued aim of improving efficiency in our distribution activities and moving to a more variable cost model. As of April 30, 2020, we had one global warehousing and distribution facility remaining, which is in the United Kingdom.

Education Publishing

Education Publishing generates the majority of its revenue from contracts with its customers for the following revenue streams:
Education and STM Publishing;
Digital Courseware;
Test Preparation and Certification; and
Licensing and Other.

Education and STM Publishing

Book products including Education and Scientific Technical and Medical (STM) Publishing.

Education textbooks and related supplementary material and digital products are sold primarily to bookstores and online booksellers serving both for-profit and nonprofit educational institutions (primarily colleges and universities), and direct-to-students. We employ sales representatives who call on faculty responsible for selecting books to be used in courses, and on the bookstores that serve such institutions and their students. The textbook business is seasonal, with the majority of textbook sales occurring during the July-through- October and December-through-January periods. There are active used and rental print textbook markets, which adversely affect the sale of new textbooks. We are exploring opportunities to expand into the print rental market.

STM books (“Reference”) are sold and distributed globally in digital and print formats through multiple channels, including research libraries and library consortia, independent subscription agents, direct sales to professional society members, bookstores, online booksellers, and other customers.

We develop content in a digital format that can be used for both digital and print products, resulting in productivity and efficiency savings, and enabling print-on-demand delivery. Book content is available online through Wiley Online Library (delivered through our Literatum platform), WileyPLUS, zyBooks, alta, and other proprietary platforms. Digital books are delivered to intermediaries, including Amazon, Apple, Google and Ingram/Vital-Source, for re-sale to individuals in various industry-standard formats, which are now the preferred deliverable for licensees of all types, including foreign language publishers. Digital books are also licensed to libraries through aggregators. Specialized formats for digital textbooks go to distributors servicing the academic market, and digital book collections are sold by subscription through independent third-party aggregators servicing distinct communities. Custom deliverables are provided to corporations, institutions, and associations to educate their employees, generate leads for their products, and extend their brands. Content from digital books is also used to create online articles, mobile apps, newsletters, and promotional collateral. This continual re-use of content improves margins, speeds delivery, and helps satisfy a wide range of customer needs. Our online presence not only enables us to deliver content online, but also to sell more books. The growth of online booksellers benefits us because they provide unlimited virtual “shelf space” for our entire backlist.

Publishing alliances and franchise products are important to our strategy. Education and STM publishing (including Test Preparation) alliance partners include the AICPA, the CFA Institute, ACT (American College Test), IEEE, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and many others.  The ability to join Wiley’s product development, sales, marketing, distribution, and technology with a partner’s content, technology, and/or brand name has contributed to our success.

Digital Courseware

We offer high-quality online learning solutions, including WileyPLUS, a research-based, online environment for effective teaching and learning that is integrated with a complete digital textbook. WileyPLUS improves student learning through instant feedback, personalized learning plans, and self-evaluation tools, as well as a full range of course-oriented activities, including online planning, presentations, study, homework, and testing. In selected courses, WileyPLUS includes a personalized adaptive learning component, Orion, which is based on cognitive science. Orion helps to build student proficiency on topics while improving the effectiveness of their study time. It assists educators in identifying areas that need reinforcement and measures student engagement and proficiency throughout the course.
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On July 1, 2019, Wiley acquired Zyante, Inc, a leading provider of computer science and STEM education courseware. The highly-interactive zyBooks® platform enables learners to learn by doing while allowing professors to be more efficient and devote more time to teaching. The platform maximizes learner engagement and retention through demonstration and hands-on learning experiences using interactive question sets, animations, tools, and embedded labs. The zyBooks platform will become an essential component of Wiley’s differentiated digital learning experience and, when combined with the recent acquisition of Knewton’s alta™ and adaptive learning technology in May 2019, will power lower-cost, higher-impact education across Wiley’s education business.

Test Preparation and Certification

The Test Preparation and Certification business represents learning solutions, training activities and print and digital formats that are delivered to customers directly through online digital delivery platforms, bookstores, online booksellers, and other customers.  Products include CPAExcel®, a modular, digital platform comprised of online self-study, videos, mobile apps, and sophisticated planning tools to help professionals prepare for the CPA exam, and test preparation products for the CFA®, CMA®, CIA®, CMT®, FRM®, FINRA®, Banking, and PMP® exams.

Licensing and Other

Licensing and distribution services are made available to other publishers under agency arrangements. We also engage in co-publishing titles with international publishers and receive licensing revenue from photocopies, reproductions, translations, and digital uses of our content and use of the Knewton® adaptive engine.

Professional Learning

Professional Learning generates the majority of its revenue from contracts with its customers for the following revenue streams:
Professional Publishing;
Licensing and Other;
Corporate Training - Professional Assessment; and
Corporate Training - Corporate Learning.

Professional Publishing

Professional books, which include business and finance, technology, and other professional categories, as well as the For Dummies® brand, are sold to bookstores and online booksellers serving the general public, wholesalers who supply such bookstores, warehouse clubs, college bookstores, individual practitioners, industrial organizations and government agencies. We employ sales representatives who call upon independent bookstores, national and regional chain bookstores, and wholesalers. Sales of professional books also result from direct mail campaigns, telemarketing, online access, advertising, and reviews in periodicals.

We also promote active and growing custom professional and education publishing programs. Our custom professional publications are used by professional organizations for internal promotional or incentive programs and include digital and print books written specifically for a customer and customizations of existing publications to include custom cover art, such as imprints, messages, and slogans. More specific are customized For Dummies publications, which leverage the power of this well-known brand to meet the specific information needs of a wide range of organizations around the world.

Licensing and Other

Licensing and distribution services are made available to other publishers under agency arrangements. We also engage in co-publishing titles with international publishers and receive licensing revenue from photocopies, reproductions, translations, and digital uses of our content. Wiley also realizes advertising revenue from branded Web sites (e.g. Dummies.com) and online applications.

Corporate Training - Professional Assessment

Our professional assessment businesses include high-demand soft-skills training solutions that are delivered to organizational clients through online digital delivery platforms, either directly or through an authorized distributor network of independent consultants, trainers, and coaches. Wiley’s branded assessment solutions include Everything DiSC®, The Five Behaviors® based on Patrick Lencioni’s perennial bestseller The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, and Leadership Practices Inventory® from Kouzes and Posner’s bestselling The Leadership Challenge®, as well as PXT Select™, a pre-hire selection tool. Our solutions help organizations hire and develop effective managers, leaders, and teams.

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Corporate Training - Corporate Learning

The Corporate Learning business offers online learning and training solutions for global corporations, universities, and small and medium-sized enterprises, which are sold on a subscription or fee basis. Learning formats and modules on topics such as leadership development, value creation, client orientation, change management and corporate strategy are delivered on a cloud-based Cross Knowledge Learning Management System (“LMS”) platform that hosts over 20,000 content assets (videos, digital learning modules, written files, etc.) in 17 languages. Its offering includes a collaborative e-learning publishing and program creation system. Revenue growth is derived from legacy markets, such as France, England, and other European markets, and newer markets, such as the U.S. and Brazil. In addition, content and LMS offerings are continuously refreshed and expanded to serve a wider variety of customer needs. These digital learning solutions are sold directly to corporate customers either direct or through our partners.

Education Services:

Our Education Services segment consists of online program management services for higher education institutions and mthree training, upskilling and talent placement services for professionals and businesses. Key growth strategies include developing new products and services for existing university partners, increasing enrollments for online program management programs, signing new and prestigious university partners, and bridging the IT skills gap through finding, training and placing emerging technology talent with corporations around the world. Education Services accounted for approximately 13% of our consolidated revenue in the year ended April 30, 2020, with a 8.7% Adjusted EBITDA margin.

Education Services revenue by product type includes Education Services and mthree. The graphs below present revenue by product type for the years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019:
graphic
Education Services

Our Education Services segment engages in the comprehensive management of online degree programs for universities and has grown to include a broad array of tech enabled service offerings that address our partner specific pain points. Increasingly, this includes delivering full stack career credentialing education that advances specific careers within demand skills.

As student demand for online degree and certificate programs continues to increase, traditional institutions are partnering with online program management providers to develop and support these programs. Education Services include market research, marketing, student recruitment, enrollment support, proactive retention support, academic services to design courses, faculty support, and access to the Engage Learning Management System, which facilitates the online education experience. Graduate degree programs include Business Administration, Finance, Accounting, Healthcare, Engineering, Communications, and others. Revenue is derived from pre-negotiated contracts with institutions that provide for a share of tuition generated from students who enroll in a program. As of April 30, 2020, the Education Services business had 69 university partners under contract. We are also extending the core OPM business and also delivering a broader array of essential university and career credentialing services that the market is demanding and that leverage our core Wiley skills and assets.  This full stack education includes teacher professional development and IT skills training, through which we develop, and deliver professional credits and job placement through our 500-plus corporate partners. In addition, Education Services derives revenue from un-bundled service offerings.

On November 1, 2018, Wiley acquired The Learning House, Inc. (“Learning House”) headquartered in Louisville (KY). Learning House provides online program management services including graduate and undergraduate programs; short courses, boot camps, and other skills training and credentialing for students and professionals; pathway services for international students; professional development services for teachers; and learning solutions for corporate clients.

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mthree

On January 1, 2020, Wiley acquired mthree, a rapidly growing education services provider that addresses the IT skills gap by finding, training and placing job-ready technology talent in roles with leading corporations worldwide. mthree sources, trains, and prepares aspiring students and professionals to meet the skill needs of today’s tech careers, and then places them with some of the world’s largest financial institutions, technology companies, and government agencies. mthree also works with its clients to retrain and retain existing employees so they can continue to meet the changing demands of today’s technology landscape.

mthree’s primary operations is in the sourcing, training and placement of emerging technology talent for large corporations across the world. The sourcing process includes a multi-stage evaluation and is highly selective, with only 5-10% of applicants accepted into the program. The applicants are then trained by industry experts utilizing curriculum designed specifically for the clients’ needs. After training, the trainees are employed by mthree and placed on client site, supported by mthree, until converted to a full-time employee with the client. Conversion is generally after 2 years and mthree has a strong track record of success, with nearly 80% of trainees converted to full time employees with clients.

Employees

As of April 30, 2020, we employed approximately 6,900 persons on a full-time equivalent basis worldwide.

Financial Information About Business Segments

The information set forth in Note 20, “Segment Information,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Form 10-K are incorporated herein by reference.

Available Information

Our Internet address is www.wiley.com. We make available, free of charge, on or through our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports that we file or furnish pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these materials with, or furnish them to, the SEC. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of, this Form 10-K.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider all the information set forth in this Form 10-K, including the following risk factors, before deciding to invest in any of our securities. The risks below are the most significant risks we face but are not the only risk factors we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we presently deem insignificant could impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations. Our business consolidated financial position, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and investors in our securities may lose all or part of their investment.

The recent global coronavirus outbreak may continue to harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This contagious outbreak and the related adverse public health developments, including orders to shelter-in-place, travel restrictions and mandated business closures, have adversely affected workforces, organizations, customers, economies and financial markets globally, leading to an economic downturn and increased market volatility. It has also disrupted the normal operations of many businesses, including ours.

This outbreak, as well as lockdown measures undertaken to contain the spread of COVID-19, caused disruptions and had a significant impact on our business, including, but not limited to:
declines in print book sales due to indefinite closings of retail bookstores and the temporary prioritization of essential goods by online retailers;
declines in businesses that rely on in-person engagement, primarily test prep and corporate training;
delays in signing annual journal subscription agreements in certain parts of Europe and Asia due to challenges of remote selling and university disruption;
delays in customer payments due to widespread disruption and pervasive cash conservation behaviors in the face of uncertainty;
reduced student demand for continuing education which impacted our undergraduate and masters online program management programs, due to funding constraints related to loss of employment and/or lack of interest in pursuing education during a period of uncertainty; and
lower demand for early career technology talent due to client constraints including, the closure of corporate offices, staffing uncertainty, internal contractor hiring restrictions or financial constraints.

The outbreak also presents challenges as the majority of our workforce is currently working remotely and shifting to assisting new and existing customers who are also generally working remotely.

We cannot predict with any certainty the degree to which the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and reactions thereto will continue.

The COVID-19 pandemic may have the effect of heightening other risks identified in this section of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended April 30, 2020, such as those related to technology disruption and the adoption by colleges and universities of online delivery of their educational offerings. It is not possible for us to predict the duration or magnitude of the adverse impacts of the outbreak and its effects on our business, results of operations or financial condition at this time, but such effects may be material.

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The trading price of the shares of our common stock may fluctuate materially, and investors of our common stock could incur substantial losses.

Our stock price may fluctuate materially. The stock market in general has experienced significant volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of companies. As a result of this volatility, investors may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price paid for the shares. The market price for our common stock may be influenced by many factors, including:

actual or anticipated changes in our consolidated operating results;
variances between actual consolidated operating results and the expectations of securities analysts, investors and the financial community;
changes in financial estimates by us or by any securities analysts who might cover our stock;
conditions or trends in our industry, the stock market or the economy;
the level of demand for our stock, the stock market price and volume fluctuations of comparable companies;
announcements by us or our competitors of new product or service offerings, significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships or divestitures;
announcements of investigations or regulatory scrutiny of our operations or lawsuits filed against us;
capital commitments;
investors’ general perception of the Company and our business;
recruitment or departure of key personnel; and
sales of our common stock, including sales by our directors and officers or specific stockholders.

Our company is highly dependent on information technology systems and their business management and customer-facing capabilities critical for the long-term competitive sustainability of the business. These capabilities include business planning and transaction information, product development and delivery, marketing and sales information and management, and system security.

We must continue to invest in technology and other innovations to adapt and add value to our products and services to remain competitive. This is particularly true in the current environment, where investment in new technology is ongoing and there are rapid changes in the products competitors are offering, the products our customers are seeking, and our sales and distribution channels. In some cases, investments will take the form of internal development; in others, they may take the form of an acquisition. There are uncertainties whenever developing or acquiring new products and services, and it is often possible that such new products and services may not be launched, or, if launched, may not be profitable or as profitable as existing products and services. If we are unable to introduce new technologies, products, and services, our ability to be profitable may be adversely affected.

The demand for digital and lower cost books could impact our sales volumes and pricing in an adverse way.

A common trend facing each of our businesses is the digitization of content and proliferation of distribution channels through the internet and other electronic means, which are replacing traditional print formats. The trend to digital content has also created contraction in the print book retail market which increases the risk of bankruptcy for certain retail customers, potentially leading to the disruption of short-term product supply to consumers, as well as potential bad debt write-offs. New distribution channels, such as digital formats, the internet, online retailers, and growing delivery platforms (e.g. tablets and e-readers), combined with the concentration of retailer power, present both risks and opportunities to our traditional publishing models, potentially impacting both sales volumes and pricing.

As the market has shifted to digital products, customer expectations for lower-priced products have increased due to customer awareness of reductions in production costs and the availability of free or low-cost digital content and products.  As a result, there has been pressure to sell digital versions of products at prices below their print versions.  Increased customer demand for lower prices could reduce our revenue.

We publish educational content for undergraduate, graduate, and advanced placement students, lifelong learners, and in Australia, for secondary school students. Due to growing student demand for less expensive textbooks, many college bookstores, online retailers and other entities offer used or rental textbooks to students at lower prices than new textbooks. The internet has made the used and rental textbook markets more efficient and has significantly increased student access to used and rental books.  Further expansion of the used and rental book markets could further adversely affect our sales of print textbooks, subsequently affecting our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

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Adverse publicity could negatively impact our reputation, which could adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Our professional customers worldwide rely upon many of our publications to perform their jobs. It is imperative that we consistently demonstrate our ability to maintain the integrity of the information included in our publications. Adverse publicity, whether valid or not, may reduce demand for our publications and adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Our intellectual property rights may not be protected, which could adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

A substantial portion of our publications are protected by copyright, held either in our name, in the name of the author of the work, or in the name of a sponsoring professional society. Such copyrights protect our exclusive right to publish the work in many countries abroad for specified periods, in most cases, the author’s life plus 70 years, but in any event, a minimum of 50 years for works published after 1978. Our ability to continue to achieve our expected results depends, in part, upon our ability to protect our intellectual property rights. Our consolidated financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected by lack of legal and/or technological protections for its intellectual property in some jurisdictions and markets.

A reduction in enrollment at colleges and universities could adversely affect the demand for our higher education products.

Enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities can be adversely affected by many factors, including changes in government and private student loan and grant programs, uncertainty about current and future economic conditions, increases in tuition, general decreases in family income and net worth, and a perception of uncertain job prospects for graduates. In addition, enrollment levels at colleges and universities outside the United States are influenced by global and local economic factors, local political conditions, and other factors that make predicting foreign enrollment levels difficult. Reductions in expected levels of enrollment at colleges and universities both within and outside the United States could adversely affect demand for our higher education products, which could adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

In our journal publishing business we have a trade concentration and credit risk related to subscription agents, and in our book business the industry has a concentration of customers in national, regional, and online bookstore chains. Changes in the financial position and liquidity of our subscription agents and customers, could adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

In the journal publishing business, subscriptions are primarily sourced through journal subscription agents who, acting as agents for library customers, facilitate ordering by consolidating the subscription orders/billings of each subscriber with various publishers. Cash is generally collected in advance from subscribers by the subscription agents and is principally remitted to us between the months of December and April. Although at fiscal year-end we had minimal credit risk exposure to these agents, future calendar-year subscription receipts from these agents are highly dependent on their financial condition and liquidity.

Subscription agents account for approximately 20% of total annual consolidated revenue and one affiliated group of subscription agents accounts for approximately 10% of total annual consolidated revenue.

Our book business is not dependent upon a single customer; however, the industry is concentrated in national, regional, and online bookstore chains. Although no book customer accounts for more than 8% of total consolidated revenue and 9% of accounts receivable at April 30, 2020, the top 10 book customers account for approximately 12% of total consolidated revenue and approximately 18% of accounts receivable at April 30, 2020. We maintain approximately $20 million of trade credit insurance, covering balances due from certain named customers, subject to certain limitations and annual renewal.

A disruption or loss of data sources could limit our collection and use of certain kinds of information, which could adversely impact our communication with our customers.

Several of our businesses rely extensively upon content and data from external sources. Data is obtained from public records, governmental authorities, customers and other information companies, including competitors. Legal regulations, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), relating to internet communications, privacy and data protection, e-commerce, information governance, and use of public records, are becoming more prevalent worldwide. The disruption or loss of data sources, either because of changes in the law or because data suppliers decide not to supply them, may impose limits on our collection and use of certain kinds of information about individuals and our ability to communicate such information effectively with our customers. In addition, GDPR imposes a strict data protection compliance regime with severe penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue or €20 million, whichever is greater.
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If we are unable to retain key employees and other personnel, our consolidated financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.

The Company and industry are highly dependent on the loyal engagement of key management leaders and professional staff.  Loss of staff due to inadequate skills and career path development or maintaining competitive salaries and benefits could have significant impact on Company performance.

We have a significant investment in our employees around the world. We offer competitive salaries and benefits in order to attract and retain the highly skilled workforce needed to sustain and develop new products and services required for growth. Employment costs are affected by competitive market conditions for qualified individuals, and factors such as healthcare and retirement benefit costs.

We are highly dependent on the continued services of key employees who have in-depth market and business knowledge and/or key relationships with business partners. The loss of the services of key personnel for any reason and our inability to replace them with suitable candidates quickly or at all, as well as any negative market perception resulting from such loss, could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial position, and results of operation.

Changes in pension costs and related funding requirements may impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We provide defined benefit pension plans for certain employees worldwide. Our Board of Directors approved amendments to the U.S., Canada and U.K. defined benefit plans that froze the future accumulation of benefits effective June 30, 2013, December 31, 2015, and April 30, 2015, respectively. The funding requirements and costs of these plans are dependent upon various factors, including the actual return on plan assets, discount rates, plan participant population demographics, and changes in pension regulations. Changes in these factors affect our plan funding, consolidated financial position, and results of operations.

We may not realize the anticipated cost savings and benefits from, or our business may be disrupted by, our business transformation and restructuring efforts.

We continue to transform our business from a traditional publishing model to a global provider of content-enabled solutions with a focus on digital products and services. We have made several acquisitions over the past few years that represent examples of strategic initiatives that were implemented as part of our business transformation. We will continue to explore opportunities to develop new business models and enhance the efficiency of our organizational structure. The rapid pace and scope of change increases the risk that not all our strategic initiatives will deliver the expected benefits within the anticipated timeframes. In addition, these efforts may somewhat disrupt our business activities, which could adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We continue to restructure and realign our cost base with current and anticipated future market conditions. Significant risks associated with these actions that may impair our ability to achieve the anticipated cost savings or that may disrupt our business include delays in the implementation of anticipated workforce reductions in highly regulated locations outside of the U.S., decreases in employee morale, the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of key employees, and disruptions of third parties to whom we have outsourced business functions. In addition, our ability to achieve the anticipated cost savings and other benefits from these actions within the expected timeframe is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive, and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, if we experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, our business and consolidated financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may not realize the anticipated cost savings and processing efficiencies associated with the outsourcing of certain business processes.

We have outsourced certain business functions, principally in technology, content management, printing, manufacturing, warehousing, fulfillment, distribution, returns processing, and certain other transactional processing functions, to third-party service providers to achieve cost savings, and efficiencies. If these third-party service providers do not perform effectively, we may not be able to achieve the anticipated cost savings, and depending on the function involved, we may experience business disruption or processing inefficiencies, all with potential adverse effects on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

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We may not be able to realize the expected benefits of our growth strategies, including successfully integrating acquisitions, which could adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Our growth strategy includes title, imprint, and other business acquisitions, including knowledge-enabled services, which complement our existing businesses. Acquisitions may have a substantial impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations. Acquisitions involve risks and uncertainties, including difficulties in integrating acquired operations and in realizing expected opportunities, cost synergies, diversions of management resources, and loss of key employees, challenges with respect to operating new businesses, and other uncertainties.

As a result of acquisitions, we have and may record a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets and we may never realize the full carrying value of these assets.

As a result of acquisitions, we recorded a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets, including customer relationships, trademarks and developed technologies. At April 30, 2020, we had $1,116.8 million of goodwill and $807.4 million of intangible assets, of which $121.3 million are indefinite-lived intangible assets, on our Consolidated Statements of Financial Position. The intangible assets are principally composed of content and publishing rights, customer relationships, brands and trademarks and developed technology. Failure to achieve business objectives and financial projections could result in an asset impairment charge, which would result in a non-cash charge to our consolidated results of operations. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment on an annual basis and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that impairment may have occurred. Intangible assets with definite lives, which were $686.1 million at April 30, 2020, are tested for impairment only when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may have occurred. Determining whether an impairment exists can be difficult as a result of increased uncertainty and current market dynamics and requires management to make significant estimates and judgments. A non-cash intangible asset impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position and results of operations. See Note 11, Goodwill and Intangible Assets” for further information related to goodwill and intangible assets, and the impairment charges recorded in the year ended April 30, 2020.
We may be susceptible to information technology risks that may adversely impact our business, consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Information technology is a key part of our business strategy and operations. As a business strategy, Wiley’s technology enables us to provide customers with new and enhanced products and services and is critical to our success in migrating from print to digital business models. Information technology is also a fundamental component of all our business processes, collecting and reporting business data, and communicating internally and externally with customers, suppliers, employees, and others.

Our business is dependent on information technology systems to support our businesses. We provide internet-based products and services to our customers. We also use complex information technology systems and products to support our business activities, particularly in infrastructure, and as we move our products and services to an increasingly digital delivery platform.

We face technological risks associated with internet-based product and service delivery in our businesses, including with respect to information technology capability, reliability and security, enterprise resource planning, system implementations and upgrades. Failures of our information technology systems and products (including because of operational failure, natural disaster, computer virus, or hacker attacks) could interrupt the availability of our internet-based products and services, result in corruption or loss of data or breach in security, and result in liability or reputational damage to our brands and/or adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Management has designed and implemented policies, processes and controls to mitigate risks of information technology failure and to provide security from unauthorized access to our systems. In addition, we have disaster recovery plans in place to maintain business continuity.  The size and complexity of our information technology and information security systems, and those of our third-party vendors with whom we contract, make such systems potentially vulnerable to cyber-attacks common to most industries from inadvertent or intentional actions by employees, vendors, or malicious third parties. Such attacks are of ever-increasing levels of sophistication and are made by groups and individuals with a wide range of motives. While we have taken steps to address these risks, there can be no assurance that a system failure, disruption, or data security breach would not adversely affect our business and could have an adverse impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

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We are continually improving and upgrading our computer systems and software. We are in the process of implementing a new global Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”) system as part of a multi-year plan to integrate and upgrade our operational and financial systems and processes. We have completed the implementation of record-to-report, purchase-to-pay, and several other business processes within all locations through fiscal year 2017. We completed the implementation of order-to-cash for certain businesses in May 2018 and may continue to roll out additional processes and functionality of the ERP system in phases in the foreseeable future. Implementation of a new ERP system involves risks and uncertainties. Any disruptions, delays, or deficiencies in the design or implementation of a new system could result in increased costs, disruptions in operations, or delays in the collection of cash from our customers, as well as having an adverse effect on our ability to timely report our financial results, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Challenges and uncertainties associated with operating in developing markets has a higher risk due to political instability, economic volatility, crime, terrorism, corruption, social and ethnic unrest, and other factors, which may adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We sell our products to customers in certain sanctioned and previously sanctioned developing markets where we do not have operating subsidiaries. We do not own any assets or liabilities in these markets except for trade receivables. In the year ended April 30, 2020, we recorded an immaterial amount of revenue and net earnings related to sales to Cuba, Sudan, Syria and Iran. While sales in these markets are not material to our consolidated financial position and results of operations, adverse developments related to the risks associated with these markets may cause actual results to differ from historical and forecasted future consolidated operating results.

We have certain technology development operations in Russia and Sri Lanka related to software development and architecture, digital content production, and system testing services. Due to the political instability within these regions, there is the potential for future government embargos and sanctions, which could disrupt our operations in this area. While we have developed business continuity plans to address these issues, further adverse developments in the region could have a material impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Approximately 22% of Research journal articles are sourced from authors in China. Any restrictions on exporting intellectual property could adversely affect our business and consolidated financial position and results of operations.

If we fail to maintain proper and effective internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are required to perform system and process evaluations and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. This may require us to incur substantial additional professional fees and internal costs to further expand our accounting and finance functions and expend significant management efforts.

We may in the future discover material weaknesses in our system of internal financial and accounting controls and procedures that could result in a material misstatement of our financial statements. In addition, our internal control over financial reporting will not prevent or detect all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to errors or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and instances of fraud will be detected.

If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in a timely manner, or if we are unable to maintain proper and effective internal controls, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the New York Stock Exchange, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities.

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The competitive pressures we face in our business, as well as our ability to retain our business relationships with our authors and professional societies, could adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

The contribution of authors and their professional societies is one of the more important elements of the highly competitive elements of the publishing business. We operate in highly competitive markets. Success and continued growth depend greatly on developing new products and the means to deliver them in an environment of rapid technological change. Attracting new authors and professional societies while retaining our existing business relationships is critical to our success. If we are unable to retain our existing business relationships with authors and professional societies, this could have an adverse impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Changes in laws, tariffs, and regulations, including regulations related to open access, could adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We maintain operations in Asia, Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States. The conduct of our business, including the sourcing of content, distribution, sales, marketing, and advertising, is subject to various laws and regulations administered by governments around the world. Changes in laws, regulations, or government policies, including tax regulations and accounting standards, may adversely affect our future consolidated financial position and results of operations.

The scientific research publishing industry generates much of its revenue from paid customer subscriptions to online and print journal content. There is debate within government, academic, and library communities whether such journal content should be made available for free, immediately or following a period of embargo after publication, referred to as “open access,” For instance, certain governments and privately held funding bodies have implemented mandates that require journal articles derived from government-funded research to be made available to the public at no cost after an embargo period. Open access can be achieved in two ways: Green, which enables authors to publish articles in subscription based journals and self–archive the author accepted version of the article for free public use after an embargo period, and Gold, which enables authors to publish their articles in journals that provide immediate free access to the final version of the article on the publisher’s Web site, and elsewhere under permissive licensing terms, following payment of an APC. These mandates have the potential to put pressure on subscription-based publications. If such regulations are widely implemented, our consolidated financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.

To date, the majority of governments that have taken a position on open access have favored the green model and have generally specified embargo periods of twelve months. The publishing community generally takes the view that this period should be sufficient to protect subscription revenues, provided that publishers’ platforms offer sufficient added value to the article. Governments in Europe have been more supportive of the gold model, which thus far is generating incremental revenue for publishers with active open access programs. Several European administrations are showing interest in a business model which combines the purchasing of subscription content with the purchase of open access publishing for authors in their country. This development removes an element of risk by fixing revenues from that market, provided that the terms, price, and rate of transition negotiated are acceptable.

The uncertainty surrounding the implementation and effect of Brexit may cause increased economic volatility, affecting our operations and business.

On January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom (UK) exited the European Union (referred to as "Brexit"). The UK has agreed to abide by EU rules during a transition period until the end of 2020, at which point the European Union and the UK expect to have agreements in place regarding future ties including trade, customs, commerce and travel.

A withdrawal without a trade agreement in place could significantly disrupt the free movement of goods, services, and people between the U.K. and the European Union, and result in increased legal and regulatory complexities, as well as potential higher costs of conducting business in Europe. Additional Brexit-related impacts on our business could include potential inventory shortages in the U.K., increased regulatory burdens and costs to comply with U.K.-specific regulations and higher transportation costs for our products coming into and out of the U.K. Any of these effects, among others, could materially and adversely affect our business and consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Cyber risk and the failure to maintain the integrity of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties with which we do business, could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, and results of operations.

Cyber-attacks and hackers are becoming more sophisticated and pervasive. Our business is dependent on information technology systems to support our businesses. We provide internet-based products and services to our customers. We also use complex information technology systems and products to support our business activities, particularly in infrastructure and as we move our products and services to an increasingly digital delivery platform. Across our businesses, we hold personal data, including that of employees and customers.
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Efforts to prevent cyber-attacks and hackers from entering our systems are expensive to implement and may limit the functionality of our systems. Individuals may try to gain unauthorized access to our systems and data for malicious purposes, and our security measures may fail to prevent such unauthorized access. Cyber-attacks and/or intentional hacking of our systems could adversely affect the performance or availability of our products, result in loss of customer data, adversely affect our ability to conduct business, or result in theft of our funds or proprietary information, the occurrence of which could have an adverse impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates could materially impact our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

Non-U.S. revenues, as well as our substantial non-U.S. net assets, expose our consolidated results to volatility from changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Non-U.S. dollar revenues accounted for 44% of our total consolidated revenues for fiscal year 2020, which primarily includes revenues in British pound sterling of 26% and euro of 10%. In addition, our interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subject to risk from changes in interest rates. These risks and the measures we have taken to help mitigate them are discussed in Part II, Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We may, from time-to-time, use derivative instruments to hedge such risks. Notwithstanding our efforts to foresee and mitigate the effects of changes in external market or fiscal circumstances, we cannot predict with certainty changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates, inflation, or other related factors affecting our business, consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We may not be able to mitigate the impact of inflation and cost increases, which could have an adverse impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

From time to time, we experience cost increases reflecting, in part, general inflationary factors. There is no guarantee that we can increase selling prices or reduce costs to fully mitigate the effect of inflation on our costs, which may adversely impact our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Changes in tax laws, including regulations and other guidance in connection with the U.S. Federal tax legislation originally known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”), could have a material impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

We are subject to tax laws within the jurisdictions in which we conduct business, including the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions. In addition to the Tax Act in the U.S., changes in tax laws and interpretations in other jurisdictions where we do business, such as the U.K. and Germany, could significantly impact the taxation of our non-U.S. earnings. We are also subject to potential taxes and regulations in jurisdictions where we have sales even though we do not have a physical presence.  These taxes and potential taxes could have a material impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations as most of our income is earned outside the U.S. In addition, we are subject to audit by tax authorities and are regularly audited by various tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals and could have a material impact on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.

Changes in global economic conditions could impact our ability to borrow funds and meet our future financing needs.

Changes in global financial markets have not had, nor do we anticipate they will have, a significant impact on our liquidity. Due to our significant operating cash flow, financial assets, access to capital markets, and available lines of credit and revolving credit agreements, we continue to believe that we have the ability to meet our financing needs for the foreseeable future. As market conditions change, we will continue to monitor our liquidity position. However, there can be no assurance that our liquidity or our consolidated financial position and results of operations will not be adversely affected by possible future changes in global financial markets and global economic conditions. Unprecedented market conditions including illiquid credit markets, volatile equity markets, dramatic fluctuations in foreign currency rates, and economic recession could affect future results.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

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Item 2. Properties

We occupy office, warehouse, and distribution facilities in various parts of the world, as listed below (excluding those locations with less than 10,000 square feet of floor area, none of which is considered material property). All of the buildings and the equipment owned or leased are believed to be in good operating condition and are suitable for the conduct of our business.

Location
 
Purpose
 
Owned or Leased
 
Approx. Sq. Ft.
United States:
           
New Jersey
 
Corporate Headquarters
 
Leased
 
294,000
   
Office
 
Leased
 
185,000
Indiana
 
Office
 
Leased
 
42,000
California
 
Offices
 
Leased
 
21,000
Massachusetts
 
Office
 
Leased
 
26,000
Illinois
 
Office
 
Leased
 
52,000
Florida
 
Office
 
Leased
 
58,000
Minnesota
 
Office
 
Leased
 
28,000
Texas
 
Office
 
Leased
 
11,000
Kentucky
 
Office
 
Leased
 
47,000
             
International:
           
Australia
 
Offices
 
Leased
 
34,000
Canada
 
Office
 
Leased
 
13,000
England
 
Distribution Centers
 
Leased
 
298,000
   
Offices
 
Leased
 
102,000
   
Offices
 
Owned
 
70,000
France
 
Offices
 
Leased
 
36,000
Germany
 
Office
 
Owned
 
104,000
   
Office
 
Leased
 
18,000
Jordan
 
Office
 
Leased
 
24,000
Singapore
 
Office
 
Leased
 
35,000
Russia
 
Office
 
Leased
 
27,000
China
 
Office
 
Leased
 
18,000
India
 
Distribution Centers
 
Leased
 
12,000
   
Office
 
Leased
 
25,000
Greece
 
Office
 
Leased
 
16,000
Brazil
 
Office
 
Leased
 
12,000
Sri Lanka
 
Office
 
Leased
 
32,000

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The information set forth in Note 16, “Commitment and Contingencies,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements is incorporated herein by reference.

We are involved in routine litigation in the ordinary course of our business. In the opinion of management, the ultimate resolution of all pending litigation will not have a material effect upon our consolidated financial position or results of operations.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.


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Information About Our Executive Officers
Set forth below are the current executive officers of the Company. Each of the officers listed will serve until the next organizational meetings of the Board of Directors of the Company and until each of the respective successors are duly elected and qualified.

Name, Current and Former Positions
 
Age
 
First Elected to
Current Position
         
BRIAN A. NAPACK
 
58
 
December 2017
President and Chief Executive Officer and Director
       
March 2012 – Senior Advisor, Providence Equity Partners LLC
       
         
JOHN A. KRITZMACHER
 
 
 
 
59
 
July 2013
(EVP, CFO)
June 2020
(Interim CAO)
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, and Interim Chief Accounting Officer
       
October 2012 – Senior Vice President of Business Operations, Organizational Planning & Structure at WebMD Health Corp
       
         
MATTHEW S. KISSNER
 
66
 
February 2019
Executive Vice President, Group Executive
       
December 2017 – Chairman of Company's Board of Directors
       
May 2017 – Interim Chief Executive Officer of the Company
       
October 2015 – Chairman of Company's Board of Directors
       
         
DEIRDRE SILVER
 
52
 
February 2020
Executive Vice President, General Counsel
       
August 2015 – Associate General Counsel, Senior Vice President of Legal, Research
       
         
JUDY VERSES
 
63
 
October 2016
Executive Vice President, Research
       
October 2011 – President – Global Enterprise and Education, Rosetta Stone Inc.
       
         
KEVIN MONACO
 
56
 
October 2018
Senior Vice President, Treasurer and Tax
       
October 2009 – SVP, Finance, Treasurer and Investor Relations, Coty Inc.
       
         
AREF MATIN
 
61
 
May 2018
Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer
       
February 2015 – Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer, Ascend Learning
       
July 2012 – Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer, Pearson Learning Technologies & Pearson Higher Education
       
         
MATTHEW LEAVY
 
52
 
September 2019
Executive Vice President and General Manager, Educational Publishing
       
September 2018 – SVP, Business Development
       
January 2018 – Principal Leavy Consulting LLC
       
August 2013 – Managing Director Global Managed Services, Pearson plc
       
         
DANIELLE MCMAHAN
 
45
 
November 2019
Executive Vice President, Chief People Officer
       
June 2017 – Chief Human Resources Officer, York Risk Services Group
       
July 2014 – VP, Global Talent, American Express
       
         

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our Class A and Class B shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols JW.A and JW.B, respectively.

On a quarterly basis, the Board of Directors considers the payment of cash dividends based upon its review of earnings, our financial position, and other relevant factors. As of May 31, 2020, the approximate number of holders of our Class A and Class B Common Stock were 733 and 56, respectively, based on the holders of record.

During the year ended April 30, 2020, our Board of Directors approved an additional share repurchase program of $200 million of Class A or B Common Stock. This share repurchase program is in addition to the share repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors during the year ended April 30, 2017 of four million shares of Class A or B Common Stock. 

During the fourth quarter of 2020, we made the following purchases of Class A and Class B Common Stock under these publicly announced stock repurchase programs.

 
Total Number
of Shares Purchased
   
Average Price
Paid Per Share
   
Total Number
of Shares Purchased
as Part of a Publicly
Announced Program
   
Maximum Number
of Shares that
May be Purchased
Under the Program
   
Maximum Dollar Value
of Shares that
May Yet be Purchased
Under Additional Plans
or Programs
(Dollars in millions)
 
February 2020
   
   
$
     
     
1,131,758
       
March 2020
   
325,000
     
35.66
     
325,000
     
806,758
   
$
$200
 
April 2020
   
     
     
     
806,758
   
$
$200
 
Total
   
325,000
   
$
35.66
     
325,000
     
806,758
   
$
$200
 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 
For the Years Ended April 30, (a)(b)(c)
 
Dollars (in millions, except per share data)
 
2020
   
2019
   
2018
   
2017
   
2016
 
Revenue, net
 
$
1,831.5
   
$
1,800.1
   
$
1,796.1
   
$
1,718.5
   
$
1,727.0
 
Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets (d)
   
202.3
     
     
3.6
     
     
 
Operating (Loss) Income (e)
   
(54.3
)
   
224.0
     
231.5
     
211.5
     
188.1
 
Net (Loss) Income
   
(74.3
)
   
168.3
     
192.2
     
113.6
     
145.8
 
Working Capital (f)
   
(312.3
)
   
(379.8
)
   
(394.3
)
   
(428.1
)
   
(111.1
)
Contract Liabilities in Working Capital (f)
   
(520.2
)
   
(519.1
)
   
(486.4
)
   
(436.2
)
   
(426.5
)
Total Assets
   
3,168.8
     
2,948.8
     
2,839.5
     
2,606.2
     
2,921.1
 
Long-Term Debt
   
765.7
     
478.8
     
360.0
     
365.0
     
605.0
 
Shareholders' Equity
   
933.6
     
1,181.3
     
1,190.6
     
1,003.1
     
1,037.1
 
Per Share Data
                                       
(Loss) Earnings Per Share
                                       
Basic
 
$
(1.32
)
 
$
2.94
   
$
3.37
   
$
1.98
   
$
2.51
 
Diluted
 
$
(1.32
)
 
$
2.91
   
$
3.32
   
$
1.95
   
$
2.48
 
Cash Dividends
                                       
Class A Common
 
$
1.36
   
$
1.32
   
$
1.28
   
$
1.24
   
$
1.20
 
Class B Common
 
$
1.36
   
$
1.32
   
$
1.28
   
$
1.24
   
$
1.20
 

(a)
See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” for a discussion of the factors that contributed to our consolidated operating results for the three years ended April 30, 2020.
(b)
On May 1, 2018, we adopted the U.S. accounting standard regarding revenue recognition ("Topic 606," or "ASC 606"). The adoption of Topic 606 did not have a material impact to our consolidated results of operations.
(c)
On May 1, 2019, we adopted the U.S. accounting standard regarding leases (“Topic 842”) which required us to recognize a right-of-use asset (“ROU”) and lease liability for all leases with terms of more than 12 months and provide enhanced disclosures.  Refer to Note 2, " Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, Recently Issued, and Recently Adopted Accounting Standards," in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
(d)
During the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020, we recorded non-cash charges for impairment of goodwill and intangible assets totaling $202.3 million. See Note 11, “Goodwill and Intangible Assets,” for further discussion of our goodwill and identifiable intangible assets.
(e)
Due to the retrospective adoption on May 1, 2018 of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-07, “Compensation—Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost,” total net benefits (costs) of $8.1 million and $(5.3) million related to the non-service components of defined benefit and other post-employment benefit plans were reclassified from Operating and Administrative Expenses to Interest and Other Income for the years ended April 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Total net benefits related to the non-service components of defined benefit and other post-employment benefit plans were $8.8 million for the year ended April 30, 2019.
(f)
The primary driver of the negative working capital is unearned contract liabilities related to subscriptions for which cash has been collected in advance. Cash received in advance for subscriptions is used by us for a number of purposes including funding: acquisitions, debt repayments, operations, dividend payments, and purchasing treasury shares. The contract liabilities will be recognized as income when the products are shipped or made available online to the customers over the term of the subscription period.
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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The information in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) should be read together with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes set forth in Part II, Item 8, as well as the discussion included above, “Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements “Safe Harbor” Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995” and “Non-GAAP Financial Measures,” along with Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All amounts and percentages are approximate due to rounding and all dollars are in thousands, except per share amounts or where otherwise noted. When we cross-reference to a “Note,” we are referring to our “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” unless the context indicates otherwise.

Recent Events

On June 25, 2020, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.3425 per share, or approximately $19.1 million, on our Class A and Class B Common Stock. The dividend is payable on July 22, 2020 to shareholders of record on July 7, 2020.

Fourth Quarter Highlights

In March 2020, the global economy experienced a sudden and unprecedented downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic.  Wiley’s financial position is fundamentally strong, and we will continue to benefit from our leadership positions in research and education.  However, the global isolation measures aimed at halting the COVID-19 spread had a significant impact on fourth quarter results, including the following:
declines in print book sales due to indefinite closings of retail bookstores and the temporary prioritization of essential goods by online retailers;
declines in businesses that rely on in-person engagement, primarily test prep and corporate training;
delays in signing annual journal subscription agreements in certain parts of Europe and Asia due to challenges of remote selling and university disruption;
delays in customer payments due to widespread disruption and pervasive cash conservation behaviors in the face of uncertainty;
reduced student demand for continuing education which impacted our undergraduate and masters online program management programs, due to funding constraints related to loss of employment and/or lack of interest in pursuing education during a period of uncertainty; and
lower demand for early career technology talent due to client constraints including, the closure of corporate offices, staffing uncertainty, internal contractor hiring restrictions or financial constraints.

As a result, we estimate that the pandemic shutdown impacted fourth quarter revenue and EPS by $30 million to $35 million and $0.15 to $0.20 per share, respectively.

Below is a summary of fourth quarter fiscal year 2020 results as compared with prior year:
GAAP Results: Revenue of $474.6 million, a decrease of 3%, and Diluted Loss per Share of $2.83;
Non-GAAP Adjusted Results on a constant currency basis: Adjusted Revenue decreased 2%, and Adjusted EPS decreased 44%;
We recorded non-cash charges for impairment of goodwill and intangible assets totaling $202.3 million. This impairment does not result in any future cash expenditures, impact liquidity, affect the ongoing business or financial performance of Wiley, or impact compliance with our debt covenants. See Note 11, “Goodwill and Intangible Assets,” for further discussion of our goodwill and identifiable intangible assets.
On April 1, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.’s Informatics products including the company’s spectroscopy software and spectral databases (“Informatics”). The results of Informatics are included in our Research Publishing & Platforms segment results.
On March 2, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Madgex, a market-leading provider of advanced job board software and career center services. The results of Madgex are included in our Research Publishing & Platforms segment results.
We added four new university partners in the quarter: Drake University in Iowa, University of Iowa, Methodist University in North Carolina and Point University in Georgia.
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Results of Operations

FISCAL YEAR 2020 AS COMPARED TO FISCAL YEAR 2019 SUMMARY RESULTS

Revenue:

Revenue for the year ended April 30, 2020 increased $31.4 million, or 2%, as compared with the prior year. On a constant currency basis, revenue increased 3% mainly driven by the following factors:
an increase of $74.9 million in the Education Services business, including contributions from Learning House, which was acquired in November 2018, and mthree, which was acquired in January 2020; and
an increase of $21.0 million in the Research Publishing & Platforms business.

These increases were partially offset by a decline of $44.8 million in the Academic & Professional Learning business.

Excluding the impact of acquisitions, revenues on a constant currency basis declined 1% as compared with the prior year.

See the “Segment Operating Results” below for additional details on each segment’s revenue and Adjusted EBITDA performance.

Cost of Sales:

Cost of sales for the year ended April 30, 2020 increased $36.3 million, or 7%, as compared with the prior year. On a constant currency basis, cost of sales increased 8%. This increase was primarily due to higher employment related costs in the Education Services business, and to a lesser extent, an increase in marketing costs, partially offset by lower inventory and royalty costs in Academic & Professional Learning.

Operating and Administrative Expenses:

Operating and administrative expenses for the year ended April 30, 2020 increased $33.8 million, or 4%, as compared with the prior year. On a constant currency basis, operating and administrative expenses increased 5%. The increase was primarily due to increased investment in growth initiatives, including incremental costs associated with the acquisitions in the year ended April 30, 2020, and to a lesser extent, investments in additional resources in editorial and content support, and higher technology related costs.

Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets:

Goodwill Impairment

For the year ended April 30, 2020, we recorded a non-cash impairment of goodwill of $110.0 million related to our Education Services reporting unit. This charge is reflected in Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income. The impairment charge is not deductible for federal or state tax purposes and therefore there is no tax benefit related to the impairment charge.

During our annual goodwill impairment test initiated on February 1, 2020 we identified indicators that the goodwill of the Education Services business was impaired due to underperformance as compared with our acquisition case projections for revenue growth and operating cash flow. Subsequently, during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020, we determined that our updated revenue and operating cash flow projections would be further impacted by anticipated near-term headwinds due to COVID-19, including adverse impacts on new student starts and student re-enrollment. Therefore, we updated the impairment test as of March 31, 2020 to reflect this change in circumstances. As a result, we concluded that the carrying value was above the fair value, resulting in a non-cash goodwill impairment of $110.0 million. We remain confident in the Education Services unit’s strong growth and profit potential, which is expected over time to be enhanced by the current accelerated shift to online learning.

Intangible Asset Impairment

For the year ended April 30, 2020, we recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $89.5 million for our Blackwell trademark, which was acquired in 2007 and carried as an indefinite-lived intangible asset primarily related to our Research Publishing & Platforms segment. The impairment reflects our decision to simplify Wiley’s brand portfolio and unify our research journal content under one Wiley brand, which will sharply limit the use of the Blackwell trade name. This impairment resulted in writing off substantially all of the carrying value of the intangible trademark asset. This charge is reflected in Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income. The resulting non-cash impairment charge is entirely unrelated to COVID-19 or the expected future financial performance of the Research Publishing & Platforms segment.
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Index



In addition, as a result of our decision to discontinue the use of certain technology offerings within the Research Publishing & Platforms segment, we recorded a pre-tax non-cash impairment charge of $2.8 million related to a certain developed technology intangible. This charge is reflected in Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income.

See Note 11, Goodwill and Intangible Assets” for further information related to goodwill and intangible assets.

Restructuring and Related Charges:

Business Optimization Program

For the year ended April 30, 2020, we recorded pre-tax restructuring charges of $32.8 million. We originally anticipated approximately $15 million to $20 million of restructuring charges, of which approximately $10 million to $15 million was expected to be severance-related costs and the remainder to be other related costs. However, in the fourth quarter of 2020, we recorded $15.0 million of pre-tax restructuring charges due to additional actions to mitigate the impact of COVID-19. These charges are reflected in Restructuring and Related Charges in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income. See Note 7, “Restructuring and Related Charges” for more details on these charges.

These fourth quarter actions are expected to generate $30 million of estimated gross annual savings, which is incremental to the original $100 million of estimated gross savings anticipated over the three-year period. Most of those savings to be reinvested in the Company to drive and sustain profitable revenue growth.

Restructuring and Reinvestment Program

For the years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019, we recorded pre-tax restructuring credits of $0.2 million and charges of $3.1 million, respectively, related to this program. These credits and charges are reflected in Restructuring and Related Charges in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income. See Note 7, “Restructuring and Related Charges” for more details on these credits and charges.

For the impact of both of our restructuring programs on diluted earnings per share, see the section below, “Diluted Earnings per Share (“EPS”).”

Amortization of Intangibles:

Amortization of intangibles was $62.4 million for the year ended April 30, 2020, an increase of $7.8 million, or 14% as compared with the prior year. On a constant currency basis, amortization of intangibles increased 15% as compared with the prior year. The increase in amortization was due to the intangibles acquired as part of the acquisitions completed in fiscal year 2020 and, to a lesser extent, intangibles acquired as part of the acquisition of Learning House in November 2018, partially offset by a decrease due to the completion of amortization of certain acquired intangible assets. See Note 4, “Acquisitions” for more details on these transactions.

Operating (Loss) Income:

Operating loss was $54.3 million for the year ended April 30, 2020 compared with the prior year income of $224.0 million. On a constant currency basis and excluding the impairment of goodwill and intangible assets and restructuring charges, Adjusted EBITDA decreased 8% primarily due to investment in growth initiatives and the impact of COVID-19.

Interest Expense:

Interest expense for the year ended April 30, 2020 was $25.0 million compared with the prior year of $16.1 million. This increase was due to higher average debt balances outstanding, which included borrowings for the funding of acquisitions and a higher weighted average effective borrowing rate.

Foreign Exchange Transaction Gains (Losses):

Foreign exchange transaction gains were $2.8 million for the year ended April 30, 2020 and were primarily due to the net impact of the change in average foreign exchange rates as compared to the U.S. dollar on our third-party accounts receivable and payable balances. Foreign exchange transaction losses were $6.0 million for the year ended April 30, 2019 and were primarily due to the net impact of the change in average foreign exchange rates as compared to the U.S. dollar on our intercompany accounts receivable and payable balances.

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Index


Provision for Income Taxes:

The following table summarizes the effective tax rate for the years ended April 30, 2020 and 2019:

 
2020
 
2019
Effective tax rate as reported
 
(17.7)%
   
21.0%
Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets
 
42.3%
   
Tax effect from other unusual items
 
(3.1)%
   
State tax adjustment in 2019
 
   
1.3%
Deferred tax from the Tax Act Rate Change
 
   
(0.1)%
Effective tax rate excluding the items listed above in each year
 
21.5%
   
22.2%

The effective tax rate for the year ended April 30, 2020 was less than the year ended April 30, 2019 due to the impairment of goodwill and intangible assets, with respect to which we obtained a relatively small tax benefit. Excluding the effect of the impairment charges partially offset by the tax effect on other unusual items, the rate was 21.5% for the year ended April 30, 2020, compared to 22.2% for the year ended April 30, 2019, primarily due to lower taxes on income outside the U.S. as well as increased tax credits and related benefits.

Diluted (Loss) Earnings Per Share (“EPS”):

Diluted loss per share for the year ended April 30, 2020 was $1.32 per share compared with earnings per share of $2.91 in the prior year.

Below is a reconciliation of our U.S. GAAP (loss) earnings per share to Non-GAAP Adjusted EPS:
 
2020
   
2019
 
U.S. GAAP (LOSS) EARNINGS PER SHARE
 
$
(1.32
)
 
$
2.91
 
Adjustments:
               
Impairment of goodwill
   
1.94
     
 
Impairment of Blackwell trade name
   
1.31
     
 
Impairment of developed technology intangible
   
0.04
     
 
Restructuring and related charges
   
0.43
     
0.04
 
Foreign exchange losses on intercompany transactions
   
0.02
     
0.06
 
Impact of change in certain International tax rates in 2020 and US state tax rates in 2019
   
(0.03
)
   
(0.05
)
EPS impact of using weighted-average dilutive shares for adjusted EPS calculation (1)
   
0.01
     
 
Non-GAAP Adjusted EPS
 
$
2.40
   
$
2.96
 

(1)
Represents the impact of using diluted weighted-average number of common shares outstanding (56.7 million shares for the year ended April 30, 2020) included in the Non-U.S. GAAP adjusted EPS calculation in order to apply the dilutive impact on adjusted net income due to the effect of unvested restricted stock units and other stock awards. This impact occurs when a U.S. GAAP net loss is reported and the effect of using dilutive shares is antidilutive.

Excluding the impact of the items included in the table above, Adjusted EPS for the year ended April 30, 2020 decreased 19% to $2.40 per share compared with $2.96 per share for the year April 30, 2019. On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EPS decreased 21% due to investment in growth initiatives, including acquisitions, the impact of COVID-19, and higher interest expense. The inorganic earnings impact of acquisitions was $0.33 per share of dilution for fiscal year 2020, including interest expense.


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Index


SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS:
 
Year Ended
April 30,
   
% Change
Favorable
   
Constant Currency
% Change
Favorable
 
RESEARCH PUBLISHING & PLATFORMS:
 
2020
   
2019
   
(Unfavorable)
   
(Unfavorable)
 
Revenue:
                       
Research Publishing
 
$
908,952
   
$
903,249
     
1
%
   
2
%
Research Platforms
   
39,887
     
35,968
     
11
%
   
11
%
Total Research Publishing & Platforms Revenue
   
948,839
     
939,217
     
1
%
   
2
%
                                 
Cost of Sales
   
255,696
     
254,560
     
     
(2
)%
Operating Expenses
   
398,514
     
395,670
     
(1
)%
   
(2
)%
Amortization of Intangibles
   
29,276
     
28,102
     
(4
)%
   
(6
)%
Impairment of Intangible Assets (see Note 11)
   
92,348
     
     
100
%
   
100
%
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
3,886
     
1,131
     
#
     
#
 
                                 
Contribution to Profit
   
169,119
     
259,754
     
(35
)%
   
(35
)%
Impairment of Intangible Assets (see Note 11)
   
92,348
     
                 
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
3,886
     
1,131
                 
Adjusted Contribution to Profit
   
265,353
     
260,885
     
2
%
   
2
%
Depreciation and Amortization
   
69,495
     
60,889
                 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
334,848
   
$
321,774
     
4
%
   
4
%
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
   
35.3
%
   
34.3
%
               

# Not meaningful

Revenue:

Research Publishing & Platforms revenue for the year ended April 30, 2020 increased 1% to $948.8 million on a reported basis and increased 2% on a constant currency basis as compared with the prior year. The increase was primarily due to continued growth in Open Access in Research Publishing primarily due to growth in comprehensive “read and publish” agreements, which was partly offset by lower traditional subscription revenue. Also contributing to the decrease in subscription revenue were delays in renewing subscription agreements due to COVID-19 isolation and university disruption.

Adjusted EBITDA:

On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EBITDA increased 4% as compared with the prior year. This increase was due to higher revenues, and to a lesser extent, lower inventory related costs. These factors were partially offset by an increase in royalty costs, higher operating costs, which reflected investments in additional resources in editorial to support increased article publishing, and marketing related costs, which was partially offset by lower incentive compensation costs.

Society Partnerships

For the year ended April 30, 2020:
 9 new society contracts were signed with a combined annual revenue of approximately $9.3 million;
 99 society contracts were renewed with a combined annual revenue of approximately $51.6 million;
 16 society contracts were not renewed with a combined annual revenue of approximately $5.7 million.

29
Index


 
Year Ended
April 30,
   
% Change
Favorable
   
Constant Currency
% Change Favorable
 
ACADEMIC & PROFESSIONAL LEARNING:
 
2020
   
2019
   
(Unfavorable)
   
(Unfavorable)
 
Revenue:
                       
Education Publishing
 
$
352,188
   
$
372,018
     
(5
)%
   
(4
)%
Professional Learning
   
298,601
     
331,285
     
(10
)%
   
(9
)%
Total Academic & Professional Learning
   
650,789
     
703,303
     
(7
)%
   
(6
)%
                                 
Cost of Sales
   
179,131
     
195,331
     
8
%
   
7
%
Operating Expenses
   
370,363
     
343,859
     
(8
)%
   
(9
)%
Amortization of Intangibles
   
16,649
     
16,709
     
     
(1
)%
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
10,470
     
1,139
     
#
     
#
 
                                 
Contribution to Profit
   
74,176
     
146,265
     
(49
)%
   
(49
)%
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
10,470
     
1,139
                 
Adjusted Contribution to Profit
   
84,646
     
147,404
     
(43
)%
   
(42
)%
Depreciation and Amortization
   
69,807
     
68,126
                 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
154,453
   
$
215,530
     
(28
)%
   
(28
)%
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
   
23.7
%
   
30.6
%
               

# Not meaningful

Revenue:

Academic & Professional Learning revenue decreased 7% to $650.8 million on a reported basis, and 6% on a constant currency basis as compared with the prior year. Excluding revenue from acquisitions, organic revenue declined 9% on a constant currency basis. This decrease was primarily due to the continued decline in book publishing reflecting market conditions, and to a lesser extent, a decrease in test preparation and certification offerings. During the fourth quarter of April 30, 2020, due to the impact of COVID-19, there was a further decrease in revenue for print books due to retail closures, reprioritization of online retailer shipments toward “essential goods” only, test preparation offerings due to cancelled exams, and classroom-dependent corporate training due to office closures.

Adjusted EBITDA:

On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EBITDA decreased 28% as compared with the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to the decline in revenue. Also contributing to lower Adjusted EBITDA, but to a lesser extent, was increased investment in growth initiatives including the acquisitions of zyBooks and Knewton, and an increase in reserves for accounts receivable primarily due to the impact of COVID-19. These factors were partially offset by lower inventory and royalty costs as a result of lower revenue.

30
Index


 
Year Ended
April 30,
   
% Change
Favorable
   
Constant Currency
% Change
Favorable
 
EDUCATION SERVICES:
 
2020
   
2019
   
(Unfavorable)
   
(Unfavorable)
 
Revenue:
                       
Education Services
 
$
214,376
   
$
157,549
     
36
%
   
36
%
mthree
   
17,479
     
     
100
%
   
100
%
Total Education Services Revenue
   
231,855
     
157,549
     
47
%
   
48
%
                                 
Cost of Sales
   
156,197
     
104,831
     
(49
)%
   
(49
)%
Operating Expenses
   
62,991
     
55,754
     
(13
)%
   
(13
)%
Amortization of Intangibles
   
16,511
     
9,847
     
(68
)%
   
(68
)%
Impairment of Goodwill (see Note 11)
   
110,000
     
     
100
%
   
100
%
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
3,671
     
389
     
#
     
#
 
                                 
Contribution to Loss
   
(117,515
)
   
(13,272
)
   
#
     
#
 
Impairment of Goodwill (see Note 11)
   
110,000
     
                 
Restructuring Charges (see Note 7)
   
3,671
     
389
                 
Adjusted Contribution to Profit
   
(3,844
)
   
(12,883
)
   
70
%
   
70
%
Depreciation and Amortization
   
24,131
     
18,117
                 
Adjusted EBITDA
 
$
20,287
   
$
5,234
     
#
     
#
 
Adjusted EBITDA Margins
   
8.7
%
   
3.3
%
               

# Not meaningful

Revenue:

Education Services revenue increased 47% to $231.9 million on a reported basis and 48% on a constant currency basis as compared with the prior year. Excluding revenue from acquisitions, organic revenue increased 11% on a constant currency basis. The increase was mainly driven by an increase in fee-based online program management revenue.

Adjusted EBITDA:

On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EBITDA increased by $15.1 million as compared with the prior year. This was due to higher revenue, partially offset by higher costs of sales from employment related costs, and to a lesser extent, higher marketing costs.

Education Services Partners and Programs:

As of April 30, 2020, Wiley had 69 university partners under contract.

CORPORATE EXPENSES:

Corporate Expenses for the year ended April 30, 2020 increased 7% to $180.1 million as compared with the prior year. On a constant currency basis and excluding restructuring charges, these expenses decreased 1%. This was primarily due to a decrease in employment and technology related costs, and a life insurance recovery of $2.0 million. These factors were partially offset by additional legal related expense.

31
Index


FISCAL YEAR 2019 AS COMPARED TO FISCAL YEAR 2018 SUMMARY RESULTS

Revenue:

Revenue for the year ended April 30, 2019 was flat at $1,800 million, as compared with prior year. On a constant currency basis, revenue increased 2% as compared with prior year. This increase was primarily due to the following:
the incremental impact of the acquisition of Learning House on November 1, 2018, which contributed $31.5 million of revenue;
increased revenue in our Research Publishing & Platforms segment primarily driven by open access; and to a lesser extent, licensing, reprints, backfiles, and other offerings; and,
increased revenue in our Education Services segment businesses, excluding the impact of Learning House.

These increases were offset by declines in Academic & Professional Learning print product sales.

Refer to Note 4, “Acquisitions,” for more information related to the acquisition of Learning House.

See the “Segment Operating Results” below for additional details on each segment’s revenue and Adjusted EBITDA performance.

Cost of Sales:

Cost of sales for the year ended April 30, 2019 increased $23.7 million, or 4%, as compared with prior year. On a constant currency basis, cost of sales increased 6%. This increase was primarily due to the following factors:
the incremental impact of Learning House, primarily due to marketing and employment related costs;
an increase in legacy Education Services business marketing costs of $8.1 million primarily due to increased investments to support revenue growth;
higher royalty costs of $6.6 million; and, to a lesser extent,
higher employment costs of $3.4 million.

These increases were offset by lower inventory costs of $5.8 million primarily due to lower Academic & Professional Learning print sales.

Operating and Administrative Expenses:

Operating and administrative expenses for the year ended April 30, 2019 increased $6.8 million, or 1%, as compared with prior year and 2% on a constant currency basis. The increase was primarily due to higher costs related to increased resources in editorial resources to increase article output, as well as higher marketing, advertising and sales costs and the incremental impact of the acquisition of Learning House. These factors were partially offset by lower technology costs and the impairment charge in the prior year related to one of our Publishing brands of $3.6 million.

Restructuring and Related Charges:

Restructuring and Reinvestment Program

For the years ended April 30, 2019 and 2018, we recorded pre-tax restructuring charges of $3.1 million and $28.6 million, respectively, related to this program. These charges are reflected in Restructuring and Related Charges in the Consolidated Statements of (Loss) Income. See Note 7, “Restructuring and Related Charges” for more details on these charges.

For the impact of this restructuring program on diluted earnings per share, see the section below, “Diluted Earnings per Share (“EPS”).”

Amortization of Intangibles:

Amortization of intangibles was $54.7 million for the year ended April 30, 2019, an increase of $6.4 million as compared with prior year. On a constant currency basis, amortization of intangibles increased 14%. The increase in amortization was primarily due to the acquisition of intangibles as part of the acquisition of Learning House and, to a lesser extent, in the Research Publishing & Platforms segment due to the timing of the acquisitions of publishing rights in the second half of 2018.

32
Index


Operating Income:

Operating income was $224.0 million for the year ended April 30, 2019, a decrease of $7.5 million, or 3%, as compared with prior year. On a constant currency basis, excluding the impact from Learning House, which reported an operating loss of $8.0 million, and restructuring charges and the brand impairment charge in the prior year, operating income decreased 6%, due to higher expenses, partially offset by higher revenue.

Interest Expense:

Interest expense for the year ended April 30, 2019 increased $2.8 million to $16.1 million on a reported basis. This increase was due to a higher average debt balances outstanding, which included borrowings for the funding of the acquisition of Learning House, and a higher weighted average effective borrowing rate.

Foreign Exchange Transaction Gains (Losses):

Foreign exchange transaction losses were $6.0 million for the year ended April 30, 2019 and were primarily due to the net impact of the change in average foreign exchange rates as compared to the U.S. dollar on our intercompany accounts receivable and payable balances. For the year ended April 30, 2018, foreign exchange transaction losses were $12.8 million which were primarily due to the impact of changes in average foreign exchange rates as compared to the U.S. dollar on our intercompany and third-party accounts receivable and payable balances.

Provision for Income Taxes:

The following table summarizes the effective tax rate for the years ended April 30, 2019 and 2018:

 
2019
 
2018
Effective tax rate as reported
 
21.0%
   
10.2%
State tax adjustment in 2019
 
1.3%
   
Deferred Tax from the Tax Act Rate Change
 
(0.1)%
   
11.7%
Effective tax rate excluding the deferred tax from the Tax Act and state tax adjustment
 
22.2%
   
21.9%

The effective tax rate for the year ended April 30, 2019 was greater than the rate for the year ended April 30, 2018 due to the net deferred tax benefit from the Tax Act in the year ended April 30, 2018 compared to the relatively small net deferred benefit in the year ended April 30, 2019 from state tax apportionment changes.

The effective tax rate was equal to the U.S. statutory rate for the year ended April 30, 2019 as the increase from higher taxes on non-U.S. income and various other items was offset by a state tax benefit from more favorable apportionment factors which reduced our deferred tax liabilities, net of federal benefit.

The Tax Act
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation. The Tax Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax system. We recorded a significant nonrecurring benefit from the Tax Act during the year ended April 30, 2018.

EPS:

EPS for the year ended April 30, 2019 was $2.91 per share compared with $3.32 per share in the prior year. Excluding the impact of the items included in the table below, Adjusted EPS for the year ended April 30, 2019 decreased 14% to $2.96 per share compared with $3.43 per share in the prior year.
 
2019
   
2018
 
U.S. GAAP EPS
 
$
2.91
   
$
3.32
 
Adjustments:
               
Restructuring and related charges
   
0.04
     
0.39
 
Foreign exchange losses on intercompany transactions
   
0.06
     
0.15
 
Impact of Tax Cuts and Job Act
   
     
(0.43
)
Impact of reduction in certain U.S. state tax rates in 2019
   
(0.05
)
   
 
Non-GAAP Adjusted EPS
 
$
2.96
   
$
3.43
 

33
Index


On a constant currency basis, Adjusted EPS decreased 8% due to lower Adjusted Operating Income. Adjusted EPS for the year ended April 30, 2019 was also lower as compared with prior year due to an $0.15 per share dilutive impact of the Learning House acquisition.

SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS:

As previously announced, we have changed our segment reporting structure to align with our strategic focus areas: (1) Research Publishing & Platforms, which continues to include the Research publishing and Atypon businesses, (2) Academic & Professional Learning, which is the former “Publishing” segment combined with our corporate training businesses – previously noted as Professional Assessment and Corporate Learning; and (3) Education Services, which includes our Online Program Management and mthree training, upskilling and talent placement services for professionals and businesses. Prior period segment results have been revised to the new segment presentation. Ther