CMS Energy Corporation
10-K on 02/06/2020   Download
SEC Document
SEC Filing
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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____to_____
Commission File Number
Registrant; State of Incorporation;
Address; and Telephone Number
IRS Employer Identification No.
1-9513
CMS ENERGY CORPORATION
38-2726431
(A Michigan Corporation)
One Energy Plaza, Jackson, Michigan 49201
(517) 788‑0550
1-5611
CONSUMERS ENERGY COMPANY
38-0442310
(A Michigan Corporation)
One Energy Plaza, Jackson, Michigan 49201
(517) 788‑0550
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
 
 
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
CMS
 
New York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.625% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2078
 
CMSA
 
New York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.875% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2078
 
CMSC
 
New York Stock Exchange
CMS Energy Corporation 5.875% Junior Subordinated Notes due 2079
 
CMSD
 
New York Stock Exchange
Consumers Energy Company Cumulative Preferred Stock, $100 par value: $4.50 Series
 
CMS-PB
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:
Yes
No
 
Consumers Energy Company:
Yes
No
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:
Yes
No
 
Consumers Energy Company:
Yes
No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
CMS Energy Corporation:
Yes
No
 
Consumers Energy Company:
Yes
No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S‑T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
CMS Energy Corporation:
Yes
No
 
Consumers Energy Company:
Yes
No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non‑accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:
 
 
 
 
 
Consumers Energy Company:
 
 
 
 
 
Large accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Large accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Non‑accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Non‑accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
 
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
CMS Energy Corporation:
 
 
 
 
Consumers Energy Company:
 
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act).
CMS Energy Corporation:
Yes
No
 
Consumers Energy Company:
Yes
No
 
The aggregate market value of CMS Energy voting and non‑voting common equity held by non‑affiliates was $16.352 billion for the 282,365,464 CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock shares outstanding on June 30, 2019 based on the closing sale price of $57.91 for CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange on such date. There were no shares of Consumers common equity held by non‑affiliates as of June 30, 2019.
There were 283,882,207 shares of CMS Energy Corporation Common Stock outstanding on January 10, 2020, including 12,322 shares owned by Consumers. On January 10, 2020, CMS Energy held all 84,108,789 outstanding shares of common stock of Consumers.
Documents incorporated by reference in Part III: CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ proxy statement relating to their 2020 Annual Meetings of Shareholders to be held May 1, 2020.



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CMS Energy Corporation
Consumers Energy Company
Annual Reports on Form 10-K to the Securities and Exchange Commission for the Year Ended December 31, 2019
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Glossary
Certain terms used in the text and financial statements are defined below.
2016 Energy Law
Michigan’s Public Acts 341 and 342 of 2016, which became effective in April 2017
ABATE
The Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity
ABO
Accumulated benefit obligation; the liabilities of a pension plan based on service and pay to date, which differs from the PBO in that it does not reflect expected future salary increases
AFUDC
Allowance for borrowed and equity funds used during construction
AOCI
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
ARO
Asset retirement obligation
ASC 715
Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715, Retirement Benefits
ASU
Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Update
Bay Harbor
A residential/commercial real estate area located near Petoskey, Michigan, in which CMS Energy sold its interest in 2002
bcf
Billion cubic feet
Cantera Gas Company
Cantera Gas Company LLC, a non‑affiliated company, formerly known as CMS Field Services
Cantera Natural Gas, Inc.
Cantera Natural Gas, Inc., a non‑affiliated company that purchased CMS Field Services
CAO
Chief Accounting Officer
CCR
Coal combustion residual
CEO
Chief Executive Officer
CERCLA
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended


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CFO
Chief Financial Officer
city-gate contract
An arrangement made for the point at which a local distribution company physically receives gas from a supplier or pipeline
Clean Air Act
Federal Clean Air Act of 1963, as amended
Clean Energy Plan
Consumers’ long-term strategy for delivering clean, reliable, and affordable energy to its customers through the increased use of energy efficiency and customer demand management programs, additional renewable energy generation, and conservation voltage reduction
Clean Water Act
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended
CMS Capital
CMS Capital, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
CMS Energy
CMS Energy Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted; the parent of Consumers and CMS Enterprises
CMS Enterprises
CMS Enterprises Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
CMS ERM
CMS Energy Resource Management Company, formerly known as CMS MST, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises
CMS Field Services
CMS Field Services, Inc., a former wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Gas Transmission
CMS Gas Transmission
CMS Gas Transmission Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises
CMS Land
CMS Land Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Capital
CMS MST
CMS Marketing, Services and Trading Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, whose name was changed to CMS ERM in 2004
Consumers
Consumers Energy Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise noted; a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
Consumers 2014 Securitization Funding
Consumers 2014 Securitization Funding LLC, a wholly owned consolidated bankruptcy-remote subsidiary of Consumers and special-purpose entity organized for the sole purpose of purchasing and


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owning securitization property, issuing securitization bonds, and pledging its interest in securitization property to a trustee to collateralize the securitization bonds
Craven
Craven County Wood Energy Limited Partnership, a variable interest entity in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
CSAPR
The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule of 2011, as amended
DB Pension Plan A
Defined benefit pension plan of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries, created as of December 31, 2017 for active employees who were covered under the defined benefit pension plan that closed in 2005
DB Pension Plan B
Defined benefit pension plan of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries, amended as of December 31, 2017 to include only retired and former employees who were covered under the defined benefit pension plan that closed in 2005
DB Pension Plans
Defined benefit pension plans of CMS Energy and Consumers, comprising DB Pension Plan A and DB Pension Plan B
DB SERP
Defined Benefit Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
DCCP
Defined Company Contribution Plan
DC SERP
Defined Contribution Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
DIG
Dearborn Industrial Generation, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of Dearborn Industrial Energy, L.L.C., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Energy
Dodd-Frank Act
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010
DTE Electric
DTE Electric Company, a non‑affiliated company
EBITDA
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization
EGLE
The Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, formerly known as the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
EnerBank
EnerBank USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Capital


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energy waste reduction
The reduction of energy consumption through energy efficiency and demand-side energy conservation, as established under the 2016 Energy Law
Entergy
Entergy Corporation, a non‑affiliated company
EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPS
Earnings per share
Exchange Act
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FERC
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
First Mortgage Bond Indenture
The indenture dated as of September 1, 1945 between Consumers and The Bank of New York Mellon, as Trustee, as amended and supplemented
FLI Liquidating Trust
Trust formed in Missouri bankruptcy court to accomplish the liquidation of Farmland Industries, Inc., a non‑affiliated entity
FTR
Financial transmission right
GAAP
U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GCC
Gas Customer Choice, which allows gas customers to purchase gas from alternative suppliers
GCR
Gas cost recovery
Genesee
Genesee Power Station Limited Partnership, a variable interest entity in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
Grayling
Grayling Generating Station Limited Partnership, a variable interest entity in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
GWh
Gigawatt-hour, a unit of energy equal to one billion watt-hours


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Internal Revenue Code
Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended
IRP
Integrated resource plan
IRS
Internal Revenue Service
ITC
International Transmission Company, wholly owned by ITC Holdings Corp., a non‑affiliated company
kV
Thousand volts, a unit used to measure the difference in electrical pressure along a current
kVA
Thousand volt-amperes, a unit used to reflect the electrical power capacity rating of equipment or a system
kWh
Kilowatt-hour, a unit of energy equal to one thousand watt-hours
LIBOR
The London Interbank Offered Rate
Ludington
Ludington pumped-storage plant, jointly owned by Consumers and DTE Electric
MATS
Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, which limit mercury, acid gases, and other toxic pollution from coal‑fueled and oil‑fueled power plants
mcf
Thousand cubic feet
MCV Facility
A 1,647 MW natural gas-fueled, combined-cycle cogeneration facility operated by the MCV Partnership
MCV Partnership
Midland Cogeneration Venture Limited Partnership
MCV PPA
PPA between Consumers and the MCV Partnership
METC
Michigan Electric Transmission Company, LLC, wholly owned by ITC Holdings, Corp., a non‑affiliated company
MGP
Manufactured gas plant


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Michigan Mercury Rule
Michigan Air Pollution Control Rules of 2009, as amended: Part 15, Emission Limitations and Prohibitions—Mercury
MISO
Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.
MISS DIG Act
MISS DIG Underground Facility Damage Prevention and Safety Act of 2013
mothball
To place a generating unit into a state of extended reserve shutdown in which the unit is inactive and unavailable for service for a specified period, during which the unit can be brought back into service after receiving appropriate notification and completing any necessary maintenance or other work; generation owners in MISO must request approval to mothball a unit, and MISO then evaluates the request for reliability impacts
MPSC
Michigan Public Service Commission
MRV
Market-related value of plan assets
MW
Megawatt, a unit of power equal to one million watts
MWh
Megawatt-hour, a unit of energy equal to one million watt-hours
NAAQS
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NERC
The North American Electric Reliability Corporation, a non‑affiliated company responsible for developing and enforcing reliability standards, monitoring the bulk power system, and educating and certifying industry personnel
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, a permit system for regulating point sources of pollution under the Clean Water Act
NREPA
Part 201 of Michigan’s Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act of 1994, as amended
NSR
New Source Review, a construction-permitting program under the Clean Air Act
OPEB
Other Post-Employment Benefits
OPEB Plan
Postretirement health care and life insurance plans of CMS Energy and Consumers, including certain present and former affiliates and subsidiaries


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OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Palisades
Palisades nuclear power plant, sold by Consumers to Entergy in 2007
PBO
Projected benefit obligation
PCB
Polychlorinated biphenyl
PFAS
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
PHMSA
The U.S. Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
PISP
Performance Incentive Stock Plan
PPA
Power purchase agreement
PSCR
Power supply cost recovery
PURPA
The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978
RCRA
The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
REC
Renewable energy credit
ROA
Retail Open Access, which allows electric generation customers to choose alternative electric suppliers pursuant to Michigan’s Public Acts 141 and 142 of 2000, as amended
S&P
Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC
SEC
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
securitization
A financing method authorized by statute and approved by the MPSC which allows a utility to sell its right to receive a portion of the rate payments received from its customers for the repayment of securitization bonds issued by a special-purpose entity affiliated with such utility


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Smart Energy
Consumers’ Smart Energy grid modernization project, which includes the installation of smart meters that transmit and receive data, a two-way communications network, and modifications to Consumers’ existing information technology system to manage the data and enable changes to key business processes
TCJA
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017
T.E.S. Filer City
T.E.S. Filer City Station Limited Partnership, a variable interest entity in which HYDRA‑CO Enterprises, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of CMS Enterprises, has a 50-percent interest
USW
United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union, AFL-CIO-CLC
UWUA
Utility Workers Union of America, AFL-CIO
VEBA trust
Voluntary employees’ beneficiary association trusts accounts established specifically to set aside employer-contributed assets to pay for future expenses of the OPEB Plan


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Filing Format
This combined Form 10‑K is separately filed by CMS Energy and Consumers. Information in this combined Form 10‑K relating to each individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf. Consumers makes no representation regarding information relating to any other companies affiliated with CMS Energy other than its own subsidiaries. None of CMS Energy, CMS Enterprises, nor any of CMS Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than Consumers) has any obligation in respect of Consumers’ debt securities and holders of such debt securities should not consider the financial resources or results of operations of CMS Energy, CMS Enterprises, nor any of CMS Energy’s other subsidiaries (other than Consumers and its own subsidiaries (in relevant circumstances)) in making a decision with respect to Consumers’ debt securities. Similarly, neither Consumers nor any other subsidiary of CMS Energy has any obligation in respect of debt securities of CMS Energy.
Forward-Looking Statements and Information
This Form 10‑K and other CMS Energy and Consumers disclosures may contain forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The use of “might,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” “forecasts,” “predicts,” “assumes,” and other similar words is intended to identify forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainty. This discussion of potential risks and uncertainties is designed to highlight important factors that may impact CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ businesses and financial outlook. CMS Energy and Consumers have no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements regardless of whether new information, future events, or any other factors affect the information contained in the statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to various factors that could cause CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ actual results to differ materially from the results anticipated in these statements. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following, all of which are potentially significant:
the impact of new regulation by the MPSC, FERC, and other applicable governmental proceedings and regulations, including any associated impact on electric or gas rates or rate structures
potentially adverse regulatory treatment or failure to receive timely regulatory orders affecting Consumers that are or could come before the MPSC, FERC, or other governmental authorities
changes in the performance of or regulations applicable to MISO, METC, pipelines, railroads, vessels, or other service providers that CMS Energy, Consumers, or any of their affiliates rely on to serve their customers
the adoption of federal or state laws or regulations or challenges to federal or state laws or regulations, or changes in applicable laws, rules, regulations, principles, or practices, or in their interpretation, such as those related to energy policy, ROA, and PURPA, infrastructure integrity or security, gas pipeline safety, gas pipeline capacity, energy waste reduction, the environment, regulation or deregulation, reliability, health care reforms (including comprehensive health care reform enacted in 2010), taxes, accounting matters, climate change, air emissions, renewable energy, potential effects of the Dodd-Frank Act, and other business issues that could have an impact on CMS Energy’s, Consumers’, or any of their affiliates’ businesses or financial results
factors affecting operations, such as costs and availability of personnel, equipment, and materials; weather conditions; natural disasters; catastrophic weather-related damage; scheduled or unscheduled equipment outages; maintenance or repairs; environmental incidents; failures of


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equipment or materials; electric transmission and distribution or gas pipeline system constraints; interconnection requirements; and changes in trade policies or regulations
increases in demand for renewable energy by customers seeking to meet sustainability goals
the ability of Consumers to execute its cost-reduction strategies
potentially adverse regulatory or legal interpretations or decisions regarding environmental matters, or delayed regulatory treatment or permitting decisions that are or could come before EGLE, the EPA, and/or the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and potential environmental remediation costs associated with these interpretations or decisions, including those that may affect Consumers’ routine maintenance, repair, and replacement classification under NSR regulations
changes in energy markets, including availability and price of electric capacity and the timing and extent of changes in commodity prices and availability and deliverability of coal, natural gas, natural gas liquids, electricity, oil, and certain related products
the price of CMS Energy common stock, the credit ratings of CMS Energy and Consumers, capital and financial market conditions, and the effect of these market conditions on CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ interest costs and access to the capital markets, including availability of financing to CMS Energy, Consumers, or any of their affiliates
the potential effects of a future transition from LIBOR to an alternative reference interest rate in the capital markets
the investment performance of the assets of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ pension and benefit plans, the discount rates, mortality assumptions, and future medical costs used in calculating the plans’ obligations, and the resulting impact on future funding requirements
the impact of the economy, particularly in Michigan, and potential future volatility in the financial and credit markets on CMS Energy’s, Consumers’, or any of their affiliates’ revenues, ability to collect accounts receivable from customers, or cost and availability of capital
changes in the economic and financial viability of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ suppliers, customers, and other counterparties and the continued ability of these third parties, including those in bankruptcy, to meet their obligations to CMS Energy and Consumers
population changes in the geographic areas where CMS Energy and Consumers conduct business
national, regional, and local economic, competitive, and regulatory policies, conditions, and developments
loss of customer demand for electric generation supply to alternative electric suppliers, increased use of distributed generation, or energy waste reduction and storage
adverse consequences of employee, director, or third-party fraud or non‑compliance with codes of conduct or with laws or regulations
federal regulation of electric sales and transmission of electricity, including periodic re‑examination by federal regulators of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ market-based sales authorizations


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the impact of credit markets, economic conditions, increased competition, and any new banking and consumer protection regulations on EnerBank
the availability, cost, coverage, and terms of insurance, the stability of insurance providers, and the ability of Consumers to recover the costs of any insurance from customers
the effectiveness of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ risk management policies, procedures, and strategies, including strategies to hedge risk related to interest rates and future prices of electricity, natural gas, and other energy-related commodities
factors affecting development of electric generation projects and gas and electric transmission and distribution infrastructure replacement, conversion, and expansion projects, including factors related to project site identification, construction material pricing, schedule delays, availability of qualified construction personnel, permitting, acquisition of property rights, and government approvals
potential disruption to, interruption of, or other impacts on facilities, utility infrastructure, operations, or backup systems due to accidents, explosions, physical disasters, cyber incidents, vandalism, war, or terrorism, and the ability to obtain or maintain insurance coverage for these events
changes or disruption in fuel supply, including but not limited to supplier bankruptcy and delivery disruptions
potential costs, lost revenues, reputational harm, or other consequences resulting from misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data, or operational disruption in connection with a cyber attack or other cyber incident
potential disruption to, interruption or failure of, or other impacts on information technology backup or disaster recovery systems
technological developments in energy production, storage, delivery, usage, and metering
the ability to implement technology successfully
the impact of CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ integrated business software system and its effects on their operations, including utility customer billing and collections
adverse consequences resulting from any past, present, or future assertion of indemnity or warranty claims associated with assets and businesses previously owned by CMS Energy or Consumers, including claims resulting from attempts by foreign or domestic governments to assess taxes on or to impose environmental liability associated with past operations or transactions
the outcome, cost, and other effects of any legal or administrative claims, proceedings, investigations, or settlements
the reputational impact on CMS Energy and Consumers of operational incidents, violations of corporate policies, regulatory violations, inappropriate use of social media, and other events
restrictions imposed by various financing arrangements and regulatory requirements on the ability of Consumers and other subsidiaries of CMS Energy to transfer funds to CMS Energy in the form of cash dividends, loans, or advances


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earnings volatility resulting from the application of fair value accounting to certain energy commodity contracts or interest rate contracts
changes in financial or regulatory accounting principles or policies
other matters that may be disclosed from time to time in CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ SEC filings, or in other public documents
All forward-looking statements should be considered in the context of the risk and other factors described above and as detailed from time to time in CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ SEC filings. For additional details regarding these and other uncertainties, see Item 1A. Risk Factors; Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Outlook; and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 3, Regulatory Matters and Note 4, Contingencies and Commitments.


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Part I
Item 1.    Business
General
CMS Energy
CMS Energy was formed as a corporation in Michigan in 1987 and is an energy company operating primarily in Michigan. It is the parent holding company of several subsidiaries, including Consumers, an electric and gas utility; CMS Enterprises, primarily a domestic independent power producer and marketer; and EnerBank, an industrial bank located in Utah. Consumers serves individuals and businesses operating in the alternative energy, automotive, chemical, food, and metal products industries, as well as a diversified group of other industries. CMS Enterprises, through its subsidiaries and equity investments, is engaged in domestic independent power production, including the development and operation of renewable generation, and the marketing of independent power production. EnerBank provides unsecured consumer installment loans, largely for financing home improvements.
CMS Energy manages its businesses by the nature of services each provides, and operates principally in four business segments: electric utility; gas utility; enterprises, its non‑utility operations and investments; and EnerBank. Consumers’ consolidated operations account for the substantial majority of CMS Energy’s total assets, income, and operating revenue. CMS Energy’s consolidated operating revenue was $6.8 billion in 2019, $6.9 billion in 2018, and $6.6 billion in 2017.
For further information about operating revenue, income, and assets and liabilities attributable to all of CMS Energy’s business segments and operations, see Item 6. Selected Financial Data and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—CMS Energy Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Consumers
Consumers has served Michigan customers since 1886. Consumers was incorporated in Maine in 1910 and became a Michigan corporation in 1968. Consumers owns and operates electric generation, transmission, and distribution facilities and gas transmission, storage, and distribution facilities. It provides electricity and/or natural gas to 6.7 million of Michigan’s 10 million residents. Consumers’ rates and certain other aspects of its business are subject to the jurisdiction of the MPSC and FERC, as well as to NERC reliability standards, as described in Item 1. Business—CMS Energy and Consumers Regulation.
Consumers’ consolidated operating revenue was $6.4 billion in 2019, $6.5 billion in 2018, and $6.2 billion in 2017. For further information about operating revenue, income, and assets and liabilities attributable to Consumers’ electric and gas utility operations, see Item 6. Selected Financial Data and Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Consumers Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Consumers owns its principal properties in fee, except that most electric lines and gas mains are located below or adjacent to public roads or on land owned by others and are accessed by Consumers through easements and other rights. Almost all of Consumers’ properties are subject to the lien of its First Mortgage Bond Indenture. For additional information on Consumers’ properties, see Item 1. Business—Business SegmentsConsumers Electric Utility—Electric Utility Properties and Business Segments—Consumers Gas Utility—Gas Utility Properties.


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In 2019, Consumers served 1.8 million electric customers and 1.8 million gas customers in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Presented in the following map are Consumers’ service territories:
map-migeneratingfacilities.jpg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electric Service Territory
 
 
 
 
 
Gas Service Territory
 
 
 
 
 
Combination Electric and
Gas Service Territory
 
 
 
 
 
 
Electric Generation Facilities
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CMS Energy and ConsumersThe Triple Bottom Line
For information regarding CMS Energy’s and Consumers’ purpose and impact on the “triple bottom line” of people, planet, and profit, see Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Executive Overview.
Business Segments
Consumers Electric Utility
Electric Utility Operations: Consumers’ electric utility operations, which include the generation, purchase, transmission, distribution, and sale of electricity, generated operating revenue of $4.4 billion in 2019, $4.6 billion in 2018, and $4.4 billion in 2017. Consumers’ electric utility customer base consists of a mix of primarily residential, commercial, and diversified industrial customers in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.


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Presented in the following illustration is Consumers’ 2019 electric utility operating revenue of $4.4 billion by customer class:
chart-ceelectricutiloperrev.jpg
Consumers’ electric utility operations are not dependent on a single customer, or even a few customers, and the loss of any one or even a few of Consumers’ largest customers is not reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect on Consumers’ financial condition.
In 2019, Consumers’ electric deliveries were 37 billion kWh, which included ROA deliveries of four billion kWh, resulting in net bundled sales of 33 billion kWh. In 2018, Consumers’ electric deliveries were 38 billion kWh, which included ROA deliveries of four billion kWh, resulting in net bundled sales of 34 billion kWh.
Consumers’ electric utility operations are seasonal. The consumption of electric energy typically increases in the summer months, due primarily to the use of air conditioners and other cooling equipment.


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Presented in the following illustration are Consumers’ monthly weather-normalized electric deliveries (deliveries adjusted to reflect normal weather conditions) to its customers, including ROA deliveries, during 2019 and 2018:
chart-ceweathnormelectricdel.jpg
Consumers’ 2019 summer peak demand was 8,039 MW, which included ROA demand of 562 MW. For the 2018-2019 winter season, Consumers’ peak demand was 5,745 MW, which included ROA demand of 440 MW. As required by MISO reserve margin requirements, Consumers owns or controls, through long-term PPAs and short-term capacity purchases, all of the capacity required to supply its projected firm peak load and necessary reserve margin for summer 2020.
Electric Utility Properties: Consumers owns and operates electric generation, transmission, and distribution facilities. For details about Consumers’ electric generation facilities, see the Electric Utility Generation and Supply Mix section that follows this Electric Utility Properties section. Consumers’ transmission and distribution systems consist of:
213 miles of transmission overhead lines operating at 138 kV
205 miles of high-voltage distribution overhead lines operating at 138 kV
4 miles of high-voltage distribution underground lines operating at 138 kV
4,430 miles of high-voltage distribution overhead lines operating at 46 kV and 69 kV
19 miles of high-voltage distribution underground lines operating at 46 kV
66,917 miles of electric distribution overhead lines
9,314 miles of underground distribution lines
substations with an aggregate transformer capacity of 26 million kVA
two battery facilities with storage capacity of 2 MW
Consumers is interconnected to the interstate high-voltage electric transmission system owned by METC and operated by MISO. Consumers is also interconnected to neighboring utilities and to other transmission systems.


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Electric Utility Generation and Supply Mix: Presented in the following table are details about Consumers’ 2019 electric generation and supply mix:
 
Number of Units and Year Entered Service
2019 Generation Capacity

1 
        2019 Electric Supply

 
Name and Location (Michigan)
(MW)

 
(GWh)

 
Coal steam generation
 
 
 
 
 
J.H. Campbell 1 & 2 – West Olive
2 Units, 1962-1967
609

 
3,124

 
J.H. Campbell 3 – West Olive2
1 Unit, 1980
782

 
4,890

 
D.E. Karn 1 & 2 – Essexville3
2 Units, 1959-1961
503

 
1,762

 
 
 
1,894

 
9,776

 
Oil/Gas steam generation
 
 
 
 
 
D.E. Karn 3 & 4 – Essexville
2 Units, 1975-1977
1,135

 
42

 
Hydroelectric
 
 
 
 
 
Ludington – Ludington
6 Units, 1973
1,097

4 
(308
)
5 
Conventional hydro generation – various locations
35 Units, 1906-1949
75

 
512

 
 
 
1,172

 
204

 
Gas combined cycle
 
 
 
 
 
Jackson – Jackson
1 Unit, 2002
547

 
2,177

 
Zeeland – Zeeland
3 Units, 2002
533

 
3,740

 
 
 
1,080

 
5,917

 
Gas combustion turbines
 
 
 
 
 
Zeeland (simple cycle) – Zeeland
2 Units, 2001
317

 
335

 
Wind generation
 
 
 
 
 
Cross Winds® Energy Park – Tuscola County
114 Turbines,
2014, 2018, and 2019
29

 
473

 
Lake Winds® Energy Park – Mason County
56 Turbines, 2012
18

 
268

 
 
 
47

 
741

 
Solar generation
 
 
 
 
 
Solar Gardens – Allendale and Kalamazoo
15,100 Panels, 2016
3

 
5

 
Total owned generation
 
5,648

 
17,020

 
Purchased power6
 
 
 
 
 
Coal generation – primarily T.E.S. Filer City
 
60

 
462

 
Gas generation – MCV Facility7
 
1,240

 
5,677

 
Other gas generation – various locations
 
172

 
1,135

 
Nuclear generation – Palisades7
 
813

 
6,946

 
Wind generation – various locations
 
61

 
1,156

 
Solar generation – various locations
 
3

 
7

 
Other renewable generation – various locations
 
244

 
1,224

 
 
 
2,593

 
16,607

 
Net interchange power8
 

 
2,059

 
Total purchased and interchange power
 
2,593

 
18,666

 
Total supply
 
8,241

 
35,686

 
Less distribution and transmission loss
 
 
 
2,636

 
Total net bundled sales
 
 
 
33,050

 


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1 
Represents generation capacity during the summer months (planning year 2019 capacity as reported to MISO and limited by interconnection service limits), except for Cross Winds® Energy Park Phase III, which began operation in December 2019. For wind and solar generation, the amount represents the effective load-carrying capability.
2 
Represents Consumers’ share of the capacity of the J.H. Campbell 3 unit, net of the 6.69-percent ownership interest of the Michigan Public Power Agency and Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative, Inc.
3
Consumers plans to retire these coal-fueled generating units in 2023.
4 
Represents Consumers’