mms-20220930
MAXIMUS, Inc.
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00010322202022FYFALSE1600 Tysons BoulevardMcLeanVirginia703251-8500Large accelerated 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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022
TRANSITIONAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________to__________.
Commission file number: 1-12997
mms-20220930_g1.jpg
Maximus, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Virginia54-1000588
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1600 Tysons Boulevard, McLean, Virginia
22102
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(703) 251-8500
(Registrant's telephone number, including the area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par valueMMSNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer ☐
 
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No
The aggregate market value of outstanding voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of March 31, 2022 was $4,577,509,491 based on the last reported sale price of the registrant's Common Stock on The New York Stock Exchange as of the close of business on that day.
There were 60,773,258 shares of the registrant's Common Stock outstanding as of November 14, 2022.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2023 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on March 14, 2023, which definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


Table of Contents
Table of Contents to 2022 Form 10-K
 
 
 
 



2

Table of Contents
Table of Contents to 2022 Form 10-K (continued)
3

Table of Contents
Unless otherwise specified, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "our," "we," "us," "Maximus," the "Company," and "our business" refer to Maximus, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as: "anticipate," "intend," "plan," "goal," "seek," "opportunity," "could," "potential," "believe," "project," "estimate," "expect," "continue," "forecast," "strategy," "future," "likely," "may," "should," "will," and similar references to future periods.
Forward-looking statements that are not historical facts, including statements about our confidence, strategies and initiatives, and our expectations about revenues, results of operations, profitability, liquidity, market demand, the impact of the coronavirus ("COVID-19") global pandemic and related policy implications, and our recent acquisitions are forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:
a failure to meet performance requirements in our contracts, which might lead to contract termination and actual or liquidated damages;
our failure to successfully bid for and accurately price contracts to generate our desired profit;
the effects of future legislative or government budgetary and spending changes;
the impact of the Biden Administration on federal procurement, federal funding to states' safety-net programs, and the overall decision-making process related to our industry, including our business and customers;
our ability to manage our growth, including acquired businesses;
difficulties in integrating or achieving projected revenues, earnings, and other benefits associated with acquired businesses;
the outcome of reviews or audits, which might result in financial penalties and impair our ability to respond to invitations for new work;
our ability to manage capital investments and startup costs incurred before receiving related contract payments;
our ability to manage our debt;
the extent and impact of the continuation of the global pandemic and the actions taken or to be taken by us, our customers, and the governments or jurisdictions in which we operate in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the U.S. federal government's ongoing Public Health Emergency declaration;
our ability to maintain technology systems and otherwise protect confidential or protected information;
our ability to attract and retain executive officers, senior managers and other qualified personnel to execute our business;
the ability of government customers to terminate contracts on short notice, with or without cause;
our ability to maintain relationships with key government entities from whom a substantial portion of our revenue is derived;
a failure to comply with laws governing our business, which might result in the Company being subject to fines, penalties, suspension, debarment, and other sanctions;
the costs and outcome of litigation;
the effects of changes in laws and regulations governing our business, including tax laws, and applicable interpretations and guidance thereunder, or changes in accounting policies, rules, methodologies, and practices, and our ability to estimate the impact of such changes;
matters related to business we disposed of or divested; and
other factors set forth in Item 1A, "Risk Factors."
Any forward-looking statement made by us in this report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise.

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Table of Contents
PART I
Item 1. Business
General
We are a leading operator of government health and human services programs and provider of technology solutions to governments. We are a responsible and reliable contracting partner to governments under our mission of Moving People Forward. Governments rely on our financial stability and proven expertise in helping people connect and use critical government programs. We use our experience, business process management expertise, innovation, and technology solutions to help government agencies run effective, efficient, and accountable programs.
Our primary portfolio of work is business process services ("BPS") in the health and human services markets. Our growth over the last decade was driven by new work, an evolving digital transformation effort to meet the modernization needs of our clients, and a growing footprint in clinical services including assessments, appeals, and independent medical reviews in multiple geographies. Over the past decade, legislative and environmental circumstances have driven our growth. The 2010 Affordable Care Act ("ACA") in the United States ("U.S.") created new and enhanced BPS opportunities for both states and the federal government clients. Since the enactment of the law, we have been a go-to service provider for services such as government health insurance program administration, eligibility and enrollment services, and consumer outreach and education. More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic created new opportunities for our U.S. Services and Federal segments. In fiscal year 2021, we were successful in winning new contracts tied to public health initiatives such as vaccine information hotlines and unemployment insurance to help governments respond to COVID-19 crises. While most new COVID-19 related work was short-term, by creating and building positive client relationships, we have been successful in securing several longer-term projects.
Our growth has been supplemented by strategic acquisitions. We have an active program to identify potential strategic acquisitions to enable long-term, sustainable, organic growth by continuing to build scale, enhance our clinical and digital capabilities, and extend into new market areas. As we evaluate potential acquisitions, we are mindful of our goal to create long-term shareholder value. Our recent acquisitions further our progress on our long-term strategy, discussed in greater detail below. An overview of recent acquisitions include:
In October 2021, we acquired the U.S. Department of Education-owned loan servicing contract from Navient. Rebranded as "Aidvantage," the acquisition expanded our track record for supporting Federal Student Aid ("FSA") and demonstrates our strategic commitment to providing strong customer service supported by leading digital capabilities.
In September 2021, we acquired Connect Assist, a market-leading provider of contact center and digital services in the United Kingdom. The Connect Assist partnership is expected to strengthen our already formidable customer service and digital capabilities as we continue our expansion into new markets.
In May 2021, we acquired VES Group, Inc. ("VES"), a leading provider of Medical Disability Examinations ("MDEs") for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs ("VA"). This acquisition accelerates our clinical evolution to meet long-term demand for BPS with a clinical dimension.
In March 2021, we acquired the Federal business of Attain, LLC ("Attain"). The additional capabilities from Attain meaningfully expand our technology consulting and growing systems integration skills, increasing our ability to address the most pressing information technology ("IT") needs of our Federal clients while providing internal opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of our BPS operations. Attain is delivering on complex program challenges for critical clients, while gaining the ability to bid on larger opportunities through newly available contract vehicles.
As the pandemic has underscored, governments around the world need better solutions to deliver on policy priorities that can change rapidly. Social welfare programs that reflect long-term societal commitments and priorities increasingly face rising demand, shifting demographics, and unsustainable program costs. Maximus is well-positioned to address these challenges and be a transformative partner through our scalable, cost-effective, and operationally efficient services for a wide range of government programs.
We have refreshed our strategy and updated the three pillars on which we will focus growth efforts for the next three to five years:
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Customer Services, Digitally Enabled. We apply proven technologies, data, and best practices to make government programs more customer-focused, effective, and deserving of the public's trust. We make it easier for people to connect to government services based on their individual preferences and abilities. We are elevating the customer experience to achieve higher levels of satisfaction, performance, and outcomes through intelligent automation and cognitive computing.
Future of Health. We are expanding our clinical-related services and are experienced at delivering clinical BPS at scale. We have established an extensive set of services that frequently requires a network of healthcare professionals who can complete clinical assessments, provide occupational health and independent medical review services, and adjudicate complicated benefits appeals. With the formation of Maximus Public Health ("MPH"), we are able to serve as a resource to governments as they respond to public health threats.
Advanced Technologies for Modernization. We are furthering our credibility as a technology leader, enabling the transformation of government programs to be resilient, dynamic, integrated and equitable. Leveraging our deep relationships and program knowledge, we are delivering technology-driven business transformation of government missions with a strategic near-term focus on hybrid cloud solutions, information intelligence, and hyper-automation. We believe that these technologies can help our government clients run their programs in a more streamlined manner and make it easier for individuals to interact with these programs.
More information on how each of our business segments align with the execution of our strategy is provided below. Across all segments, there is a common focus on optimizing processes and simplifying our structure. We also continue to focus on our people - the foundation of our strategy. Our commitment to making Maximus an employer of choice is not a new goal, and we continue to prioritize attracting, retaining, developing, and empowering employees as a central part of our plan for achieving future growth. More information on our Human Resource priorities is included below.
Our Business Segments
We operate our business through three segments: U.S. Federal Services, U.S. Services, and Outside the U.S. We operate in the U.S., Australia, United Kingdom ("U.K."), Canada, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Italy, South Korea, Sweden, and United Arab Emirates ("UAE").
For the year ended September 30, 2022, approximately 47% of our revenue was derived from U.S. Federal Government agencies, 35% from U.S. state government agencies, 16% from foreign government agencies, and the balance from other sources, including local municipalities and commercial customers.
For more information on our segment presentation and geographic distribution of our business, including comparative revenue, gross profit, operating income, identifiable assets, and related financial information for the 2022, 2021, and 2020 fiscal years, see "Note 3. Business Segments" within Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
U.S. Federal Services Segment
Our U.S. Federal Services Segment generated 49% of our total revenue in fiscal year 2022.
Our U.S. Federal Services Segment delivers end-to-end solutions that help various U.S. federal government agencies better deliver on their mission, including program operations and management, clinical services, and technology solutions. The segment also contains certain state-based assessments and appeals work that is part of the segment's heritage within the Medicare Appeals portfolio.
Program Operations. Program Operations include business process services, eligibility and enrollment, outreach, and other services for federal health and human services programs. In fiscal year 2022, our contract with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid to support the Contact Center Operations ("CCO") was renewed. This contract supports the federal marketplace under the ACA and serves as the primary support engagement center for Medicare, also known as 1-800-MEDICARE. The contract serves the U.S. population through eleven customer contact centers handling general inquiries for the marketplace and general and claims-based Medicare inquiries.
In October 2021, we acquired the Navient student loan contract, rebranded as Aidvantage. We are an independent and conflict-free provider, as we will not provide loan origination, consolidation, or collection services. We view student loan servicing as an opportunity to apply our insights, expertise, and quality-driven approach through support for Federal Student Aid ("FSA"), and student borrowers. Aidvantage is an extension of long-standing work supporting student loan management and is in line with our core business. Our focus is solely on supporting the student borrowers on behalf of FSA.
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The manner in which we provide these services varies from contract to contract but may include a mix of contact centers, mail-room operations, and mobile and website media.
Clinical Services. In line with our strategic focus for the future, the segment continues to expand its clinical solutions. This is evident in the acquisition of VES, which manages the clinical evaluation process for U.S. veterans and service members on behalf of the VA and the clinical offerings in public health including work supporting the federal government's COVID-19 response efforts.
A leading provider of MDEs, VES brings a deep and longstanding relationship with the VA, as well as a team of experienced clinicians focused on serving veterans. While our independent clinical assessments business has been growing at the state level (through our previous acquisition of Ascend and subsequent organic growth), VES' expertise provides a platform of scale for the first time at the Federal level. We believe that-near term growth should also be realized as a result of the Promise to Address Comprehensive Toxics Act of 2022 ("PACT") Act, passed in August 2022. The PACT Act expands certain conditions under which veterans would presumptively qualify for benefits and would result in increases in MDE volumes. We expect to realize and deliver on higher volumes related to the PACT Act beginning in fiscal year 2023.
The independent health and disability assessments and appeals portion of our business will comprise a larger share of our overall portfolio, lending further credibility to our organic growth efforts with other Federal departments and in non-Federal markets.
This segment performed some services to assist the U.S. federal government response to the pandemic, including contact tracing and vaccine distribution support.
Technology Solutions. Also aligned with our strategic focus, and benefiting from the Attain platform, the Technology and Consulting Services ("TCS") division executes on its digital strategy to deliver technology solutions that advance agency missions, including the challenge to modernize, provide better customer experience, and drive process efficiencies. The TCS division is comprised of experts who helped successfully pioneer the first large-scale implementation of a cloud-computing solution for a federal department. TCS's core capabilities build further upon our cloud-based solutions and include:
Application development & modernization: Modernize, develop, and deliver solutions utilizing automation, agile, and DevSecOps practices.
Enterprise Business Solutions: Integrate and manage disparate business processes and systems.
Advanced Analytics & Emerging Technologies: Provide technology services to leverage and integrate the latest technologies for AI and machine learning, automation, and high-performance computing.
Cybersecurity: Deliver full spectrum cybersecurity services, including cyber engineering and operations, digital forensics, and incident response.
Infrastructure and Engineering: Deploy solutions that leverage cloud-hosted and on-premise designs to optimize costs.
TCS has also built digital qualifications in the market. The division utilizes artificial intelligence and machine learning to build bespoke data models, providing predictive analytics to maximize process efficiency, as well as identify systemic process issues that can be isolated and prioritized for troubleshooting. End-to-end automation of software development and business processes achieves speed, efficiency, and error reduction as well as advanced tool capabilities resulting in greater operational efficiency, enhanced customer experiences, and increased ROI. Finally, high performance computing clusters support mission requirements for data mining, scientific modeling, advanced analytics, research, and machine learning.
The segment contains performance-based contracts where revenue is earned based upon participant numbers or other transaction-based measures, such as the number and type of assessments or appeals processed. Many contracts in this segment earn their revenue on a cost-plus or time-and-materials basis, which typically carry lower levels of risk and lower levels of profit margin as compared to performance-based contracts. The segment may experience fluctuations as a result of volume variations or program maturity, with contracts recording lower revenue and profitability during program startup.
Our primary competitors in the U.S. Federal Services Segment are Serco, General Dynamics Information Technology, Amentum, Cognosante, and Conduent. Within the technology sector, our primary competitors are IBM, Oracle, Leidos, Accenture, Deloitte, Booz Allen Hamilton, and other federal contractors.
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U.S. Services Segment
Our U.S. Services Segment generated 35% of our total revenue in fiscal year 2022.
Our U.S. Services Segment provides a variety of BPS such as program administration, appeals and assessments, and related consulting work for U.S. state and local government programs. These services support a variety of programs, including ACA, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program ("CHIP"), Temporary Assistance to Needy Families ("TANF"), and child support programs. As part of the governments' COVID-19 response efforts, the segment supported contact tracing, disease investigation, and vaccine distribution support services during the peak of the pandemic. The segment also successfully expanded into the unemployment insurance market where longer term opportunities have materialized. As part of the broader strategy to evolve clinically and address societal macro trends such as aging populations and rising costs, the segment continues to expand its offerings in public health with new work in in-person assessments.
Program Operations. Program operations includes our comprehensive program administration services for government health benefit programs. The services we provide vary from program to program but may include:
Program eligibility support and enrollment services to help beneficiaries make the best choice for their health insurance coverage to improve their access to healthcare;
Centralized multilingual customer contact centers and multichannel, digital self-service options for simplified enrollment to better serve citizens' needs;
Application assistance and independent health plan choice counseling to beneficiaries; and
Beneficiary outreach, education, eligibility assistance, enrollment, and redeterminations services. In programs such as Medicaid, Maximus does not make the final determination of eligibility.
We also provide some specialized services, including substance abuse, diversion program support and administration of subsidized telephony services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we provided support in contact tracing.
As a leading player in many of the health program administration markets that we serve, we believe we are one of the largest providers of Medicaid enrollment services in the U.S and that we are a leading provider of CHIP services and state-based health insurance exchange operations.
Clinical Services. This service type includes our independent appeals and person-centered assessments services, primarily under Medicaid Long-Term Care. The growth of our clinical services demonstrates successful execution of our continued strategy and focus on clinical services. These services help governments engage with program recipients while at the same time help them improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, quality, and accountability of their health and disability benefits programs. These include person-centered independent disability, long-term sick, and other health assessments, including those related to long-term services and supports such as Preadmission Screening and Resident Reviews ("PASRR") and Independent Developmental Disability ("IDD") assessments. We are a leading provider of such services in the U.S. In addition, we provide connected wellness services which promote healthy living habits amongst participants.
Employment Services. Employment services cover a number of attributes, including eligibility support, case management, job-readiness preparation, job search and employer outreach, job retention and career advancement, and selected educational and training services, including vocational training. Maximus supports 14 states and their efforts with unemployment insurance. These contracts were initially procured in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, but have transitioned into long-term programs. Children services include full and specialized child support case management services, including collection of child-support funds, through customer contact center operations and program and systems consulting services.
Technology Solutions. Technology solutions offer assistance with system planning, implementation oversight and the construction and maintenance of client systems to allow processing of transactions. We also provide system implementation project management services to state and local clients, giving our customers peace of mind that their business requirements have been met on time and within budget. Consistent with our overall corporate strategy, technology solutions in our U.S. Services Segment is an area of focus for growth.
The rest of the segment's revenue is from specialized consulting services. These services include business process assessment and design, quality assurance processes, including independent verification and validation services as well as policy and procedure reviews, and audit preparation and compliance, including grant and proposal reviews. The segment also includes a tax credit service, which assists commercial customers in claiming workforce and location-based tax benefits.
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Payment for our services varies from contract to contract based upon factors such as the priorities of the customer and their willingness to share risks and rewards. Some contracts are performed on a cost-plus basis, where we receive revenue based upon the hours and costs incurred and typically operate at lower margins. Most contracts include a level of performance-based compensation, a fixed fee, or a mixture of both, with fees being based upon call volumes, populations served, or appeals processed. Our employment services contracts typically have outcome-based payments in an effort to incentivize providers to ensure that we help job seekers find long-term sustained employment and achieve economic independence.
The segment may experience seasonality due to transaction-based work, such as program open enrollment periods. Other fluctuations may arise from changes in programs directed by our clients and activity related to contract life cycles. Contracts with government clients often contain "termination without cause" provisions. Such contractual language generally allows the government to terminate a contract at any time and enables us to recover only our costs incurred or committed and settlement expenses and profit, if any, on the work completed prior to termination.
A small number of large states comprise a significant share of this segment's revenue. In addition, even though the majority of our direct clients are state governments, a significant amount of our revenue is ultimately funded via the U.S. Federal Government in the form of cost-sharing arrangements with the states, as is the case with Medicaid.
Our primary competitors are government in-sourced operations. External competitors include Conduent, Automated Health Systems, Faneuil, KePro, MTX Group, and Deloitte. In some services, we compete against specialized private companies and nonprofit organizations such as The Salvation Army and Goodwill Industries. We consider ourselves to be a significant competitor in the markets in which we operate as we are one of the largest providers of Medicaid and CHIP administrative programs and operate many of the state-based health insurance exchanges.
Outside the U.S. Segment
Our Outside the U.S. Segment generated 16% of our total revenue in fiscal year 2022.
Our Outside the U.S. Segment provides BPS for international governments and commercial clients, transforming the lives of people around the world. Helping people find employment, access vital support, and remain healthy, these services include health and disability assessments, program administration for employment services, wellbeing solutions, and other job seeker-related services. We support programs and deliver services in the U.K., including the Health Assessment Advisory Service ("HAAS") and Restart; Australia, including Workforce Australia (formerly jobactive) and Disability Employment Service; Canada, including Health Insurance British Columbia and the Employment Program of British Columbia; in addition to Italy, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, and UAE, where we predominantly provide employment support and job seeker services.
Employment Services. Comprehensive employment services help vulnerable individuals transition from government assistance programs to sustainable employment and economic independence. These services cover a number of attributes, including eligibility determination, case management, job-readiness preparation and work capability assessments, job search and employer outreach, job retention and career advancement, and selected educational and training services. Payment terms are typically focused on achieving employment outcomes.
Clinical Services. Clinical services includes appeals and assessments work. On these contracts, we are typically reimbursed for each transaction. The HAAS contract is a hybrid contract with cost-plus elements coupled with a number of incentives and penalties to achieve the programmatic outcomes defined by the government in order to ensure quality and timeliness of service to our customers. Maximus carries out these assessments on behalf of the Department for Work and Pensions ("DWP"), and the DWP makes the final decision on the level of benefit.
The balance of the segment provides program administration and some specialized services.
Seasonality is not significant to this segment. Contracts with government clients often contain "termination without cause" provisions. Such contractual language generally allows the government to terminate a contract at any time and enables us to recover only our costs incurred or committed and settlement expenses and profit, if any, on the work completed prior to termination.
Our primary competitors in this segment include Atos, Capita, Optum, Serco, Staffline, Shaw Trust, Ingeus, Sarina Russo, Advanced Personnel Management, IBM, Telus-Health, NTT Data, Pacific Blue Cross, and other specialized private companies and nonprofit organizations. Although the basis for competition varies from contract to contract, we believe that typical contracts are awarded based upon a mix of comprehensive solution and price. In some cases, clients award points for past performance tied to program outcomes.

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Economic and Market Environments
In all the markets and locations in which we operate, we are seeing consistent themes that drive our long-term strategy.
Investment in Technology. Many federal agencies must address the maintenance of legacy IT systems and the pressing need for IT infrastructure modernization continues to grow. Legacy processes and systems are fundamental to government operations, yet they are expensive to operate in an environment that requires online agility and rapid response to new demands, requirements, and global challenges. We are delivering and supporting the priorities set by the Federal CIO: Cybersecurity, IT modernization, and customer service and customer experience. By aligning our priorities with that of the government, we believe that we are well-positioned to meet agency change and to provide enterprise-wide solutions and strategies.
Public Health Emergency. We believe that effectively managing healthcare costs, as well as improving quality and access to healthcare, is a major policy priority for governments. This was particularly evident in the federal government's Public Health Emergency ("PHE"), which increased Medicaid funding to states that allowed ongoing eligibility of benefits. While the PHE has impacted our volumes and revenues on certain Medicaid eligibility contracts, our teams are actively preparing for the lift of the PHE by collaborating with current and prospective state clients.
Further, President Biden has indicated that his healthcare platform will use the foundation of the ACA to expand access, lower costs, and simplify the process for individuals and families. We believe the current market environment for our services positions us to benefit from continued demand across all of our geographies in service areas such as operations program management and independent health and benefit assessments. Overall, we still expect the underlying demand for our services to increase over the next several years, particularly as economies emerge from this global health crisis.
Decentralization. The U.S. federal government recently clarified federal regulations that now allow states the flexibility to use contractors to help agencies provide services. We anticipate future changes to this operating model as states evaluate options such as replacing staff, retaining contractors, and implementing technology. We believe that these changes to funding and government mechanics allow state and local authorities enhanced flexibility to shape their benefit programs.
Unemployment. As different geographies emerge from the pandemic, we are cautiously optimistic that new opportunities for expanded employment services programs will materialize. Given our deep experience, strong financial condition, and trusted brand reputation, we believe we are well-positioned with unique competitive advantages to meet an anticipated expanded need for our services and pent-up demand to help governments provide their citizens employment opportunities. Furthermore, this segment has historically benefited from increased caseloads in employment services programs during past economic downturns and recoveries.
Competitive Advantages
Some of the competitive advantages that allow us to capitalize on various market opportunities are as follows:
Subject matter, clinical, and digital expertise. Our workforce includes many individuals who possess substantial subject matter expertise in areas critical to the successful design, implementation, administration, and operation of government health and human services programs. We also employ a diverse set of experts, including a wide network of clinicians and an experienced team of digital technologists. Many of our employees worked for governments in management positions and can offer insights into how we can best provide valuable, practical, and effective services to our clients.
Digital engagement, analytics, and automation solutions to enhance government programs. Participants in government programs expect the same types of digital engagement they rely upon when interacting with consumer-oriented businesses. We believe our clients value our ability to infuse digital, such as mobile applications, omnichannel solutions, and digital media, into our BPS solutions to make it easier for beneficiaries to engage with government programs. Analytics enable us to optimize our operations and provide our clients with improved outcomes through greater insight into the populations we serve. Process automation incorporated into our BPS solutions increases the efficiency and quality of the programs we operate.
Flexibility and scalability. We are experienced in launching large-scale complex operations under compressed time frames. We offer clients the flexibility and scalability to deliver the people, processes, and technology to complete short- and long-term contractual assignments in an efficient and cost-effective manner.
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Financial strength. Our business provides us with robust cash flows from operations as a result of our profitability and our management of customer receivables. In the event that we have significant cash outlays at the commencement of projects or where delays in payments result in short-term working capital needs, we may borrow up to $600 million through a credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase N.A. (the Credit Agreement), subject to standard covenants. We have the ability to borrow under the Credit Agreement in all of the principal currencies in which we operate. We believe we have strong, constructive relationships with the lenders on the Credit Agreement. We believe our financial strength provides reassurance to government agencies that we will be able to establish and maintain the services they need to operate high-profile public health and human services programs.
Focused portfolio of services. We are one of the largest publicly traded companies that provide a portfolio of BPS almost exclusively to government customers. Our government program expertise and proven ability to deliver defined, measurable outcomes differentiate us from other firms and nonprofit organizations, including large consulting firms that serve multiple industries and lack the focus necessary to manage the complexities of serving government efficiently.
Established presence outside the United States. Governments outside the U.S. are seeking to improve government-sponsored health and human services programs, manage increasing caseloads, and contain costs. We have an established presence in the U.K., Australia, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Italy, Sweden, South Korea, and UAE. Our international efforts are focused on delivering cost-effective welfare-to-work and health benefits services to program participants on behalf of governments.
Expertise in competitive bidding. Government agencies typically award contracts through a comprehensive, complex, and competitive request for proposals ("RFP") and bidding process. Although the bidding criteria varies from contract to contract, typical contracts are awarded based upon a mix of technical solution and price. In some cases, governments award points for past performance tied to program outcomes. With more than 40 years of experience in responding to RFPs, we believe we have the necessary experience to navigate government procurement processes and to assess and allocate the appropriate resources necessary for successful project completion in accordance with contractual terms.
Barriers to entry. The market for providing our services to government agencies is competitive and subject to rapid change. However, given the specialized nature of our services, market entry can be difficult for new or inexperienced firms. The complex nature of competitive bidding, qualifying criteria related to past performance, the required investment in subject-matter expertise, repeatable processes and support infrastructure, and the need to achieve specific program outcomes creates barriers to entry for potential new competitors unfamiliar with the nature of government procurement. In some areas of our business, notably contracts with the U.S. federal government, there are requirements for bidders seeking contracts to be pre-approved on registered contract vehicles, further limiting the pool of competitors.
Human Resources
As of September 30, 2022, we had approximately 39,500 employees and 12,550 contingent workers, consisting of 18,500 employees in our U.S. Federal Services Segment, 10,350 employees in the U.S. Services Segment, 8,400 employees in the Outside the U.S. Services Segment and 2,250 corporate administrative employees.
Global Core Values
In fiscal year 2022 we announced Global Core Values to establish a universal voice throughout the Company. These values focus on elements of our strategic objectives with input solicited from our employees, globally, taking into consideration not only where we are but where we want to be. The six global core values that were identified are Respect, Compassion, Innovation, Accountability, Collaboration, and Customer Focus. These values are a mix of our current beliefs and our aspirations, illustrating how we can execute our strategic objectives and look for opportunities of growth.
Talent Acquisition
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract talent globally to meet the needs of our customers and comply with our contracts. This makes our hiring efforts significant and extensive, and as a result, our talent acquisition team focuses on finding top, diverse talent quickly. We believe our culture values individual skills, experiences, and differences that allow Maximus to deliver robust and innovative approaches to solving some of our communities' most challenging needs. Our recruiting programs focus on identifying and evaluating talent through practices that welcome a diverse workforce, including people with disabilities, language barriers, and those from varying socioeconomic backgrounds.
Demand for talent is highly competitive, with additional pressures influenced by the pandemic. We continue to invest in our employees through a variety of benefits and overall program enhancements. Our teams continue to adapt to the recruiting, hiring, and training needs of our customers in both remote and onsite settings to ensure continuity of vital services.
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Talent Development
We value ongoing development and continuous learning, and we strive to support and provide learning opportunities to all Maximus employees. Maximus supports enterprise-wide professional development by offering a variety of instructor-led and self-paced learning programs for diverse audiences ranging from individual contributors to frontline supervisors and executive leadership. Additionally, our project training teams manage customized programs supporting contract requirements, customer service, local leadership development, and employee engagement. We also provide online learning tools that have role-based and skill-based paths to many of our employees.
Total Rewards
As part of our compensation philosophy, we offer and maintain market-competitive total rewards programs for our employees to attract and retain superior talent. In addition to competitive base wages, additional programs include incentive bonus opportunities, restricted stock units, company-matched 401(k) Plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, family leave, family care resources, flexible work schedules, employee assistance programs, and supplemental programs to support our employees' physical, mental, and financial well-being.
During the fiscal year 2022, we made significant improvements to the employee value proposition, including increasing the 401(k)-employer match, removing the vesting schedule for all new matching contributions and lowering the deductible for our most populated SCA medical plan, from $4,500 to $2,500, in order to make healthcare more accessible for our mission-critical employees. We also made great strides in closing the gender and ethnicity pay gap, instituting an annual review to identify and close any new or persistent unsubstantiated differences in pay between our employees.
We improved the hourly wage in fiscal year 2022 to at least $15 an hour for approximately 95% of our U.S. population. We also developed a plan to get the remaining contracts to that internal minimum wage and ultimately to a living wage.
Diversity and Inclusion
We assist some of the most vulnerable individuals and families each day. Diversity, equity, and inclusion are central to our company identity. We are proud to contribute to and positively impact our communities by treating every person we serve, and each other, with dignity and respect. We assert that an equitable and inclusive environment with diverse teams produces creative solutions, innovative products and services, and attracts and retains key talent. We are focused on building and sustaining a diverse, equitable, and inclusive culture through a variety of initiatives, including implementing international and strategic hiring, internal development, promotions, and retention practices. In 2022, we successfully sourced and employed more than 2,500 persons with disabilities in the U.S. 70% of our U.S. hires were People of Color, and over 75% of our total U.S. hires were women. We continue to refine our focus on recruiting employees from under-represented and historically excluded groups, People of Color, and military Veterans at all levels of the organization to better reflect the populations we serve.
Employee Engagement
Our employees are essential, and their well-being is paramount. During the pandemic, we launched a global engagement survey to measure our employees’ engagement for being stewards of Maximus. Engaged employees typically stay longer, provide a better consumer experience, and influence other employees. Since we’ve launched the survey, our Global engagement score has increased by over 250%.
Freedom of Association
Approximately 5% of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements or similar arrangements. No other employees are covered under any similar agreement. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Running our Business Ethically and with Integrity
Our commitment to conduct our business ethically and with integrity extends to our responsibility to respect human rights as guided by international human rights principles. It is our duty to conduct our business through responsible workplace practices as described in the Maximus Human Rights Principles, available at www.maximus.com.
We strive to be champions for an inclusive and collaborative culture that is free from discrimination and harassment, where everyone is treated with respect and dignity. Our expectation is that Maximus and its employees always conduct business according to the highest standards of ethics and performance and in compliance with all applicable laws.
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Maximus has a confidential, third-party-operated, 24/7 reporting ethics hotline. Violations of our ethics standards and policies are taken seriously and include remediation processes and disciplinary action, as applicable. Any director, officer, or employee may anonymously report suspected violations of the Maximus Standards of Business Conduct and Ethics, Company policies, or applicable laws and regulations.
The ethics hotline is a comprehensive and confidential reporting tool to assist management and employees in working together to address any type of misconduct in the workplace. Maximus is committed to an environment where open, honest communications are the expectation, not the exception. We want employees to feel comfortable in approaching a supervisor or anyone in management in instances where they believe violations of policies or standards have occurred. By creating open channels of communication, we aim to promote a positive work environment.
Employees understand our commitment to act with integrity, which is summarized in our Standards for Business Conduct and Ethics, which includes the confidential ethics hotline contact information and is available at www.maximus.com.
Cyber Security
Our government clients maintain the role as data owners and regulate access to and use of this data through extensive federal, state, and international privacy and data security laws requiring certain privacy protections and security safeguards. Our Information Security Office is led by the Chief Information Security Officer to provide oversight over the Company's security obligations, as well as a Privacy Office under the Privacy Official to provide oversight over our privacy obligations within these contracts. The Board of Directors Technology Committee provides oversight with respect to our global IT, including, but not limited to, IT infrastructure, product development, digital services portfolio, cybersecurity, IT aspects of mergers and acquisitions, and intellectual property protection. Maximus uses various technological and procedural security measures in order to protect the personal information we collect from loss, misuse, alteration, or destruction. We have documented Information Security & Privacy policies to address data protection. We regularly provide information security and privacy awareness training to our employees.
Environment
Our operations may be subject to various local, state, federal, and international environmental laws and regulations. Given the nature of our business, we do not currently anticipate that the costs of complying with, or the liabilities associated with, environmental laws will materially affect us. However, we cannot ensure that we will not incur material costs or liabilities in the future. The Board of Directors' Nominating and Governance Committee has oversight responsibility for Environment, Social, and Governance ("ESG") matters, which includes climate-related risks and opportunities.
Government Regulations
Our business is heavily regulated. In the U.S., we must adhere to local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Within the U.S. Federal Services Segment, we must also comply with the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("FAR"), which regulates the procurement, award, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts. Outside the U.S., we must also comply with local laws and regulations as determined by geography, as well as U.S. government laws. Adherence includes human rights protections, environmental regulation, and contract specifications. Our government clients have strict policies, procedures, and requirements in the procurement process, as well as regulations governing contract pricing and reimbursable costs.
Community Involvement
We aim to give back to the communities where we live and work and believe that this commitment helps in our efforts to attract and retain employees. We offer employees the opportunity to give back through the Maximus Foundation. The Foundation focuses our grant giving to carefully selected partners who have the expertise and capability to enhance our communities and the quality of life of the people we serve. We provide financial support for nonprofit organizations and charities that share our commitment in helping disadvantaged populations and underserved communities.
Other Information
Maximus, Inc. is a Virginia corporation founded in 1975.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1600 Tysons Boulevard, McLean, Virginia, 22102. Our telephone number is 703-251-8500.
Our website address is www.maximus.com. We make our website available for informational purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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We make our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and the proxy statement for our annual shareholders' meeting, as well as any amendments to those reports, available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practical after we file that material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). Our SEC filings may be accessed through the Investor Relations page of our website. These materials, as well as similar materials for other SEC registrants, may be obtained directly from the SEC through its website at www.sec.gov.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our operations are subject to many risks that could adversely affect our future financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows, and, therefore, the market value of our securities. The risks described below highlight some of the factors that have affected, and, in the future, could affect our operations. Additional risks we do not yet know of or that we currently think are immaterial may also affect our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Pertaining to the Performance of Our Business
If we fail to satisfy our contractual obligations or to meet performance standards, our contracts may be terminated, and we may incur significant costs or liabilities, including actual or liquidated damages and penalties, which could adversely impact our operating results, financial condition, cash flows, and our ability to compete for future contracts.
Our contracts may be terminated due to our failure to satisfy our contractual obligations or to meet performance standards and often require us to indemnify customers for their damages. In addition, some of our contracts contain substantial liquidated damages provisions and financial penalties related to performance failures. Although we have errors and omissions insurance, the policy coverage and limits may not be adequate to provide protection against all potential liabilities. Further, for certain contracts, we may post significant performance bonds or issue letters of credit to secure our performance, indemnification, and other obligations. If a claim is made against a performance bond or letter of credit, we may be required to reimburse the issuer for the amount of the claim. Consequently, as a result of the above matters, we may incur significant costs or liabilities, including penalties, which could adversely impact our operating results, cash flows, financial condition, and our ability to compete for future contracts.
If we fail to accurately estimate the factors upon which we base our contract pricing, we may generate less profit than expected or incur losses on those contracts.
We derived approximately 14% of our fiscal year 2022 revenue from fixed-price contracts and approximately 45% of our fiscal year 2022 revenue from performance-based contracts. For fixed-price contracts, we receive our fee based on services provided. Those services might include operating a Medicaid enrollment center pursuant to specified standards, designing and implementing information systems or applications, or delivering a planning document under a consulting arrangement. For performance-based contracts, we receive our fee on a per-transaction basis or upon meeting specified milestones. These contracts include workforce services contracts in which we receive a payment based on a participant maintaining employment for a specified time period. To earn a profit on these contracts, we must accurately estimate the likely volume of work that will occur, costs, and resource requirements involved and assess the probability of completing individual transactions or milestones within the contracted time period. If our estimates prove to be inaccurate, we may not achieve the level of profit we expected or we may incur a net loss on a contract.
Our growth initiatives could adversely affect our profitability.
We may encounter start-up challenges, new compliance requirements, unforeseen costs, and other risks as we enter these markets. If we are unable to manage the risks of operating in these new markets, our reputation, and profitability could be adversely affected.
We may incur significant costs before receiving related contract payments, which could result in an increased use of cash and risk of impairment charges.
From time to time, when we are awarded a contract, we incur significant expenses before we receive any contract payments. These expenses include leasing and outfitting office space, purchasing office equipment, and hiring personnel. In other situations, contract terms provide for billing upon achievement of specified project milestones. As a result, in these situations, we are required to expend significant sums of money before receiving related contract payments. In addition, payments due to us from government agencies may be delayed due to billing cycles or as a result of failures by the government to approve governmental budgets in a timely manner. In addition to these factors, poor execution on project startups could impact us by increasing our use of cash.
In certain circumstances, we may defer recognition of costs incurred at the inception of a contract. That deferral assumes we will be able to recover these costs over the life of the contract. To the extent that a project does not perform as anticipated, these deferred costs may not be considered recoverable resulting in an impairment charge.

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Our business could be materially and adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic or other similar outbreaks.
We face various risks related to health epidemics, pandemics, and similar outbreaks, including the global outbreak of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted worldwide economic activity and resulted in travel and work restrictions, commercial disruptions, and affected companies' operations around the world. We have been and continue to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, including through operational disruptions and changes in working practices. If significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, government actions, facility closures, or other restrictions in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our operations will likely be adversely impacted. If our operations are materially restricted, we may be unable to perform fully on our contracts and our costs may increase significantly as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. These cost increases may not be fully recoverable or adequately covered by insurance.
During 2022, the spread of COVID-19 led to disruptions and volatility in the global capital markets, which could increase the cost of capital and impede our ability to access capital if we need to do so in the future.
We continue to work with our customers, employees, and suppliers to responsibly address this global pandemic. We will continue to monitor the situation, assess further possible implications to our business and our stakeholders, and will take appropriate actions in an effort to mitigate adverse consequences. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in any such mitigation efforts.
Our customers, and therefore our business and revenues, are sensitive to negative changes in general economic conditions.
A new surge in COVID-19 cases or the emergence of new variants could result in vaccine or testing requirements by governments in areas where we operate. Our implementation of these requirements may result in workforce attrition and difficulty meeting our existing or future hiring needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Demand for talent is highly competitive with additional pressures influenced by the pandemic. Our portfolio includes fixed-price and cost-plus contracts for which employment requirements are contract specific. In cost-plus contracts, we work with our customer to come to agreement with amendments for wage increases to meet the current demand and hiring needs. It is a challenge across the industry in how we estimate wage inflation rates and the impact of an ongoing pandemic as we submit proposals, particularly for fixed-price contracts. Our investments in technology and digital innovation have further enabled us to drive efficiency in our program delivery.
The competitive labor market requires that we continue to monitor and evaluate our related risks and opportunities. We continue to focus on human resources investments to position ourselves as an employer of choice and differentiate the company by leveraging flexibility, compensation and benefits, training and development, and other efforts.
In 2020 and 2021, we experienced procurement delays, including delays in procuring laptops and personal protective equipment, increased labor and technology costs, and reductions in outcome-based contract revenue. If these conditions recur as a result of new strains of COVID-19, it could have a material effect on our business, disrupt our ability to perform on contracts, cause delays, or limit the ability of our customers to perform, including in making timely payments to us.
We cannot at this time predict the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any resulting economic effects, but COVID-19 and unknown future pandemics could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
We face competition from a variety of organizations, many of which have substantially greater financial resources than we do; we may be unable to compete successfully with these organizations.
We face competition from a number of different organizations depending upon the market and geographic location in which we are competing. A summary of our most significant competitors is included in Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Many of these companies are international in scope, larger than us, and have greater financial resources, name recognition, and larger technical staffs. Substantial resources could enable certain competitors to initiate severe price cuts or take other measures in an effort to gain market share. In addition, we may be unable to compete for the limited number of large contracts because we may not be able to meet an RFP's requirement to obtain and post a large performance bond. Also, in some geographic areas, we face competition from smaller firms with established reputations and political relationships. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully against our existing or any new competitors.
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From time to time, we engage subcontractors, teaming partners, or other third parties to provide our customers with a single-source solution. While we believe that we perform appropriate due diligence on our subcontractors and teaming partners, we cannot guarantee that those parties will comply with the terms set forth in their agreements or remain financially sound. We may have disputes with our subcontractors, teaming partners, or other third parties arising from the quality and timeliness of their work, customer concerns about them, or other matters. Subcontractor or teaming partner performance deficiencies could result in a customer terminating our contract for default. We may be exposed to liability, and we and our clients may be adversely affected if a subcontractor or teaming partner fails to meet its contractual obligations.
Risks Pertaining to Our Client Relationships
We obtain most of our business through competitive bidding in response to government RFPs. We may not be awarded contracts through this process at the same level in the future as in the past, and contracts we are awarded may not be profitable.
Substantially all of our customers are government agencies. To market our services to government customers, we are often required to respond to government RFPs, which may result in contract awards on a competitive basis. To do so effectively, we must accurately estimate our cost structure for providing the required services, the time required to establish operations, and likely terms of the proposals submitted by competitors. We must also assemble and submit a large volume of information within an RFP's rigid timetable. Our ability to respond successfully to RFPs will greatly impact our business. There is no assurance that we will continue to obtain contracts in response to government RFPs and our proposals may not result in profitable contracts. In addition, competitors may protest contracts awarded to us through the RFP process that may cause the award to be delayed, overturned, or require the customer to reinitiate the RFP process.
Even where we are an incumbent, our ability to secure continued work or work at similar margins may be affected by competitive rebids or contract changes and cancellations. If we do not win certain recompetes, this may adversely affect our revenues and profitability, potentially resulting in impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets. Although it is difficult to track all the reasons for changes in our contracts, we believe that this contract erosion has typically affected approximately 7% to 10% of our business annually, with the erosion largely being replaced by new or expanded work elsewhere. Our erosion rates were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic as we received a significant volume of temporary work.
Our business could be adversely affected by future legislative or government budgetary and spending changes.
The market for our services depends largely on domestic and international legislative programs and the budgetary capability to support programs, including the continuance of existing programs. Many of our contracts are not fully funded at inception and rely upon future appropriations of funds. Accordingly, a failure to receive additional anticipated funding may result in an early termination of a contract. In addition, many of our contracts include clauses that allow clients to unilaterally modify or terminate contracts with little or no recompense.
Changes in state or federal government initiatives or in the level of government spending due to budgetary or deficit considerations may have a significant impact on our future financial performance. For example, regulatory steps taken under the ongoing PHE in the United States have affected the level of work on many of our contracts and the timing and nature of the termination of the PHE are uncertain.
Similarly, increased or changed spending on defense, security, or anti-terrorism threats may impact the level of demand or funding for the health and human services programs that we operate. Many state programs in the United States, such as Medicaid, are federally mandated and fully or partially funded by the U.S. Federal Government. Changes to those programs, such as program eligibility, benefits, or the level of federal funding, could reduce the level of demand for our services, which could materially adversely impact our future financial performance. For example, President Biden’s executive order to forgive certain student loan indebtedness for qualified borrowers could adversely affect our student loan servicing business.





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Government entities have in the past terminated, and may in the future terminate their contracts with us earlier than we expect, which may result in revenue shortfalls and unrecovered costs.
Many of our government contracts contain base periods of one or more years, as well as option periods covering more than half of the contract's potential duration. Government agencies do not have to exercise these option periods, and they may elect not to exercise them for budgetary, performance, or any other reason. Our contracts also typically contain provisions permitting a government customer to terminate the contract on short notice, with or without cause. Termination without cause provisions generally allow the government to terminate a contract at any time and enable us to recover only our costs incurred or committed and settlement expenses and profit, if any, on the work completed prior to termination. We may or may not be able to recover all the costs incurred during the startup phase of a terminated contract. The unexpected termination of significant contracts could result in significant revenue shortfalls. If revenue shortfalls occur and are not offset by corresponding reductions in expenses, our business could be adversely affected. We cannot anticipate if, when, or to what extent a customer might terminate their contracts with us.
If we fail to establish and maintain important relationships with government entities and agencies, our ability to successfully bid under RFPs may be adversely affected.
To facilitate our ability to prepare bids in response to RFPs, we rely in part on establishing and maintaining relationships with officials of various government entities and agencies. These relationships enable us to provide informal input and advice to the government entities and agencies prior to the development of an RFP. We also engage marketing consultants, including lobbyists, to establish and maintain relationships with elected officials and appointed members of government agencies. The effectiveness of these consultants may be reduced or eliminated if a significant political change occurs. In that circumstance, we may be unable to successfully manage our relationships with government entities and agencies and with elected officials and appointees. Any failure to maintain positive relationships with government entities and agencies may adversely affect our ability to successfully bid in response to RFPs.
Our customers may limit or prohibit the outsourcing of certain programs or may refuse to grant consents and/or waivers necessary to permit contractors, such as us, to perform certain elements of government programs.
Governments could limit or prohibit private contractors like us from operating or performing elements of certain programs. Within the U.S., state or local governments could be required to operate such programs with government employees as a condition of receiving federal funding. Moreover, under current law, in order to privatize certain functions of government programs, the U.S. federal government must grant a consent and/or waiver to the petitioning state or local agency. If the U.S. federal government does not grant a necessary consent or waiver, the state or local agency will be unable to outsource that function to a private entity, such as us. This situation could eliminate or reduce the value of an existing contract.
We rely on key contracts with state, local and federal governments for a significant portion of our revenue. A substantial reduction in those contracts would materially adversely affect our operating results.
In fiscal year 2022, approximately 47% of our total revenue was derived from the U.S. federal government and approximately 35% of our total revenue was derived from contracts with state and local government agencies. Any significant disruption or deterioration in our relationship with federal, state, and local governments and a corresponding reduction in these contracts would significantly reduce our revenue and could substantially harm our business.
Our contracts typically run for a fixed number of years and may be extended for an additional specified number of years if the contracting entity or its agent elects to do so. When these contracts expire, they may be opened for bidding by competing bidders, and there is no guarantee that the contracts will be renewed or extended. Our clients may elect to open bidding processes up earlier than anticipated, resulting in increased competition prior to the anticipated end of contracts.
Our reputation and relationships with our clients are key factors in maintaining our business. Negative press reports or publicity, regardless of accuracy, could harm our reputation. If our reputation is negatively affected, our clients may decrease or cease business with us. In addition, we are subject to various reviews, audits, and investigations to verify our compliance with the terms of our contracts, as well as compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Any adverse review, audit, or investigation could result in, among other things, cancellation of contracts; refunding of amounts that have been paid pursuant to contracts; imposition of fines, penalties, and other sanctions; loss of rights to participate on various programs; loss of licenses; lowered quality ratings; or changes to the way we do business. In addition, under government procurement regulations and practices, a negative determination from a government audit could result in a contractor being fined, debarred, and/or suspended from being able to bid on, or be awarded, new government contracts for a period of time.
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Within our U.S. Federal business, our ability to participate in many competitive bids in response to government RFPs may be managed through Government-Wide Acquisition Contracts ("GWACs") or the process by which agencies of the federal government purchase goods and services. Eligibility to remain on a GWAC changes over time. We may not be invited to bid, and therefore be unable to be awarded contracts through this process at the same level in the future as in the past if we do not maintain full eligibility requirements over time.
A GWAC is a pre-competed, multiple-award, indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity ("IDIQ") contract that agencies can use to buy total IT solutions. All IDIQs, including GWACs, are regulated by the FAR, which sets forth rules and regulations that must be followed by federal agencies and providers of goods and services to the government in the procurement process. For instance, in 2018, Maximus Federal was named a recipient of the U.S. General Services Administration's ("GSA") Alliant 2 GWAC. Alliant 2 is an unrestricted, IDIQ, multi-vendor award with a contract ceiling of $50 billion. If we are unable to adapt to changing eligibility requirements for a specific GWAC, we would risk losing access to related contracts and awards.
Risks related to our acquisitions
We may experience difficulties in integrating our operations with those of acquired businesses and realizing the expected benefits of these acquisitions.
Our growth strategy includes a program to identify and execute acquisitions to enable long-term, sustainable, organic growth by continuing to expand the business, enhance our clinical and digital capabilities, and extend into new market areas. Although we anticipate that acquisitions will create long-term shareholder value, this expectation is based on assumptions about our acquisitions and preliminary estimates of their performance, which may change materially. The benefits of acquisitions depend, in part, on our ability to successfully integrate the acquired businesses and realize the anticipated benefits, including business opportunities and growth prospects from combining our businesses. We may not achieve these objectives within the anticipated time frame or may never realize these benefits and the value of our common stock may be harmed. Integration of acquired businesses may result in material challenges, including, without limitation:
Our management might have its attention diverted from ongoing business concerns while trying to integrate these operations, and we could experience performance shortfalls within our existing or acquired businesses as a result of the devotion of management's attention to integration efforts.
The integration process could take longer than anticipated and could result in the loss of key employees, the disruption of each company's ongoing businesses, tax costs or inefficiencies, or inconsistencies in standards, controls, information technology systems, procedures and policies, any of which could materially adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, employees, or other third parties, or our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transactions, and could harm our financial performance.
We could encounter unanticipated issues in integrating information technology, communications, and other systems that could harm our financial performance.
If we are unable to successfully or timely integrate our operations with those of our acquisitions, we may incur unanticipated liabilities and be unable to realize the revenue growth, synergies, and other anticipated benefits, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
In connection with the acquisitions, we may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment, or other charges that could negatively affect our business, assets, liabilities, prospects, outlook, financial condition, and results of operations.
Although we conducted due diligence on our acquisitions, we cannot assure that this diligence will reveal all material issues that may be present, that it would be possible to uncover all material issues through customary due diligence, or that factors outside of our control will not later arise. We have also purchased representations and warranties insurance policies in connection with certain acquisitions, but there is no assurance that those policies will cover any losses we might experience from breaches of the sellers' representations and warranties or otherwise arising from the acquisitions. Even if our due diligence successfully identifies certain risks, unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis. We are required to identify the fair value of assets acquired, such as customer relationships and technology, using estimates which are based upon factors such as expected future operations and the manner in which we will utilize these assets, which may be inaccurate or may change post-acquisition. We may be required to take write-offs or write-downs, restructuring and impairment, or other charges that could negatively affect business, assets, liabilities, prospects, outlook, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Risks Pertaining to Legal Compliance and Data Security
We are subject to review and audit by governments at their sole discretion and, if any improprieties are found, we may be required to refund revenue we have received or forego anticipated revenue, which could have a material adverse impact on our revenue and our ability to bid in response to RFPs.
We are subject to audits, investigations, and reviews relating to compliance with the laws and regulations that govern our role as a contractor to agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government, state, local, and foreign governments, and otherwise in connection with performing services in countries outside of the United States. Adverse findings could lead to criminal, civil, or administrative proceedings, and we could be faced with penalties, fines, suspension, or debarment. Adverse findings could also have a material adverse effect on us because of our reliance on government contracts. We are subject to periodic audits by U.S., federal, state, local, and foreign governments for taxes. We are also involved in various claims, arbitrations, and lawsuits arising in the normal conduct of our business, including but not limited to bid protests, employment matters, contractual disputes, and charges before administrative agencies. Although we can give no assurance, based upon our evaluation and taking into account the advice of legal counsel, we do not believe that the outcome of any existing matter would likely have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
We may be subject to fines, penalties, and other sanctions if we fail to comply with laws governing our business.
Our business lines operate within a variety of complex regulatory schemes, including but not limited to the FAR, Federal Cost Accounting Standards, the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (and similar national, state, and foreign laws), the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act, as well as the regulations governing Medicaid and Medicare and accounting standards. If a government audit finds improper or illegal activities by us or we otherwise determine that these activities have occurred, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or disqualification from doing business with the government. Any adverse determination could adversely impact our ability to bid in response to RFPs in one or more jurisdictions. Further, as a government contractor subject to the types of regulatory schemes described above, we are subject to an increased risk of investigations, criminal prosecution, civil fraud, whistleblower lawsuits, and other legal actions and liabilities to which other private sector companies are not, the result of which could have a material adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition.
Adverse judgments or settlements in legal disputes could harm our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition.
From time to time, we are subject to a variety of lawsuits and other claims. These may include lawsuits and claims related to contracts, subcontracts, securities compliance, employment and wage claims, and compliance with Medicaid and Medicare regulations, as well as laws governing student loans and child support enforcement. Adverse judgments or settlements in some or all of these legal disputes may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief. In addition, litigation and other legal claims are subject to inherent uncertainties, and management's view of these matters may change in the future. Those uncertainties include, but are not limited to, costs of litigation, unpredictable court or jury decisions, and the differing laws and attitudes regarding damage awards among the states and countries in which we operate.
Our systems and networks may be subject to cybersecurity breaches.
We are a trusted provider to government and other clients of critical health and human services that rely heavily upon technology systems, software, and networks to receive, input, maintain, and communicate participant and client data. The risk of a security breach, system disruption, ransom-ware attack, or similar cyber-attack or intrusion, including by computer hackers, cyber terrorists, or foreign governments, is persistent and substantial as the volume, intensity, and sophistication of attempted attacks, intrusions and threats from around the world increase daily. If our systems or networks were compromised, we could be adversely affected by losing confidential or protected information of program participants and clients or by facing a demand for ransom to restore access to such information. The loss, theft, or improper disclosure of that information could subject us to sanctions under the relevant laws, breach of contract claims, contract termination, class action, or individual lawsuits from affected parties, negative press articles, reputational damage, and a loss of confidence from our government clients, all of which could adversely affect our existing business, future opportunities, and financial condition.
Similarly, if our internal networks were compromised, we could suffer the loss of proprietary, trade secret, or confidential technical and financial data. That could make us less competitive in the marketplace and adversely affect our existing business, future opportunities, and financial condition.
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Many of our projects handle protected health information or other forms of confidential personal information, the loss or disclosure of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and reputation.
As a provider of services under government health and human services programs, we often receive, maintain, and transmit protected health information or other types of confidential personal information. That information may be regulated by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ("HIPAA") as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 ("HITECH"), Internal Revenue Service regulations, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"), or similar U.S. or foreign laws. The loss, theft, or improper use or disclosure of that information could subject us to sanctions under the relevant laws, breach of contract claims, class action or individual lawsuits from affected parties, negative press articles, and a loss of confidence from our government clients, all of which could adversely affect our existing business, future opportunities, and financial condition.
We may be precluded from bidding and performing certain work due to other work we currently perform.
Various laws and regulations prohibit companies from performing work for government agencies that might be viewed as an actual or apparent conflict of interest. These laws limit our ability to pursue and perform certain types of work. For example, some of our businesses assist government agencies in developing RFPs for various government programs. In those situations, the divisions involved in operating such programs would likely be precluded from bidding on those RFPs. Similarly, regulations governing the independence of Medicaid enrollment brokers and Medicare appeal providers prevent us from providing services to other organizations such as health plans and providers.
We may face liabilities arising from divested or discontinued businesses.
We have divested a number of businesses. The transaction documents for those divestitures typically contain a variety of representations, warranties, and indemnification obligations. We could face indemnification claims and liabilities from alleged breaches of representations or warranties.
During 2009, we exited the revenue maximization business. Although we no longer provide those services, former projects that we performed for state clients remain subject to federal audits. Our contracts for that business generally provide that we will refund the portion of our fee associated with any federal disallowance. Accordingly, we may be obligated to refund amounts paid for such revenue maximization services depending on the outcome of federal audits.
Risks Pertaining to our Human Resources
We may lose executive officers and senior managers on whom we rely to generate business and execute projects successfully.
The ability of our executive officers and our senior managers to generate business and execute projects effectively is important to our success. The loss of an executive officer or senior manager, including executives or managers who have joined us through acquisitions, could impair our ability to secure and manage engagements, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We may be unable to attract and retain sufficient qualified personnel to sustain our business.
Our delivery of services is labor-intensive. When we are awarded a government contract, we must quickly hire project leaders and operational staff. Some larger projects have required us to hire and train thousands of operational staff in a short time period. That effort can be especially challenging in geographic areas with low unemployment rates. The additional operational staff also creates a concurrent demand for increased administrative personnel. Our success requires that we attract, develop, motivate, and retain:
experienced and innovative executive officers globally;
senior managers who have successfully managed or designed government services programs; and
information technology professionals who have designed or implemented complex information technology projects within and outside the U.S.
Innovative, experienced, and technically proficient individuals are in great demand and are likely to remain a limited resource. There can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to attract and retain desirable executive officers, senior managers, and management personnel. Our inability to hire sufficient personnel on a timely basis or the loss of significant numbers of executive officers and senior managers could adversely affect our business.

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Government unions may oppose outsourcing of government programs to outside vendors such as us, which could limit our market opportunities and could impact us adversely. In addition, our unionized workers outside the United States could disrupt our operations, and our non-unionized workers could attempt to unionize which could disrupt our operations and impose higher costs on us.
Our success depends in part on our ability to win profitable contracts to administer and manage health and human services programs traditionally administered by government employees. Many government employees, however, belong to labor unions with considerable financial resources and lobbying networks. Unions have in the past applied, and are likely to continue to apply, political pressure on legislators and other officials seeking to outsource government programs. Union opposition to these programs may result in fewer opportunities for us to service government agencies, prolonged and more complex procurement cycles, and the potential for adverse media coverage as the unions seek to discredit Maximus through their network of NewsGuild journalists who belong to the Communications Workers of America ("CWA") union.
We do operate outsourcing programs using unionized employees in Canada and the U.K. We have historically experienced opposition from the union in Canada, which does not favor the outsourcing of government programs. Adverse press coverage and union opposition may have a negative effect on the willingness of government agencies to outsource such projects, as well as certain contracts that are operated within a unionized environment. Our unionized workers could also declare a strike that could adversely affect our performance and financial results.
Non-unionized workers could initiate organizing efforts to unionize at one or more of our locations. Such organizing efforts could be disruptive to our business operations and result in adverse publicity. A successful union organizing effort could substantially increase our personnel costs.
General Risk Factors
A number of factors may cause our cash flows and results of operations to vary from quarter to quarter.
Factors that may cause our cash flows and results of operations to vary from quarter to quarter include:
the terms and progress of contracts;
caseloads and other factors where revenue is derived on transactional volume on contracts;
the levels of revenue earned and profitability of fixed-price and performance-based contracts;
expenses related to certain contracts which may be incurred in periods prior to revenue being recognized;
increasing rates of inflation which may increase our costs of labor and other goods and services;
the commencement, completion, or termination of contracts during any particular quarter;
the schedules of government agencies for awarding contracts;
government budgetary delays or shortfalls;
the timing of change orders being signed;
the terms of awarded contracts; and
potential acquisitions.
Changes in the volume of activity and the number of contracts commenced, completed, or terminated during any quarter may cause significant variations in our cash flows and results of operations because a large amount of our expenses are fixed.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our business and our ability to meet our obligations.
At September 30, 2022, we owed $1.4 billion under our credit facilities. At September 30, 2022, our effective interest rate was 4.69%, compared to 2.05% at September 30, 2021. Our credit facilities are subject to variable rates that expose us to interest rate risk. When interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness increase even though the amount borrowed remains the same.

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Our indebtedness contains financial or other covenants that limit our operational flexibility in a number of other ways, including:
causing us to be less able to take advantage of business opportunities, such as other acquisition opportunities, and to react to changes in market or industry conditions;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry, or competitive developments;
affecting our ability to pay or refinance debts as they become due during adverse economic, financial market, and industry conditions;
requiring us to use a larger portion of cash flow for debt service, reducing funds available for other purposes;
decreasing our profitability and/or cash flow;
causing us to be disadvantaged compared to competitors with less leverage; and
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds in the future to fund working capital, capital expenditures, and other general corporate purposes.
Further, we anticipate amending our credit facilities to switch the benchmark rate from the London Interbank Offering Rate (“LIBOR”) to the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) during fiscal year 2023 as LIBOR is phased out. SOFR is a relatively new reference rate, has a very limited history and is based on short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. Changes in SOFR can be volatile and difficult to predict, and there can be no assurance that SOFR will perform similarly to the way LIBOR would have performed at any time. As a result, the amount of interest we may pay on our credit facilities is difficult to predict.
We are subject to the risks of doing business internationally.
For the year ended September 30, 2022, 16% of our revenue was driven from jurisdictions outside the U.S. As a result, a significant portion of our business operations are subject to foreign financial, tax, and business risks which could arise in the event of:
foreign currency exchange fluctuations;
unexpected increases in tax rates or changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws;
non-compliance with international laws and regulations, such as data privacy, employment regulations, and trade barriers;
non-compliance with U.S. laws affecting the activities of U.S. companies in international locations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
local restrictions pertaining to the COVID-19 pandemic that could disrupt our business operations;
the absence in some jurisdictions of effective laws to protect our intellectual property rights;
new regulatory requirements or changes in local laws that materially affect the demand for our services or directly affect our foreign operations;
local economic and political conditions, including severe or protracted recessions in foreign economies and inflation risk;
the length of payment cycles and potential difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
difficulty managing and communicating with teams outside the U.S.;
unusual or unexpected monetary exchange controls, price controls, or restrictions on transfers of cash; or
civil disturbance, terrorism, or other catastrophic events that reduce business activity in other parts of the world.
These factors may lead to decreased revenues and profits, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Inaccurate, misleading, or negative media coverage could adversely affect our reputation and our ability to bid for government contracts.
Because of the public nature of many of our business lines, the media frequently focuses their attention on our contracts with government agencies. If the media coverage is negative, it could influence government officials to slow the pace of outsourcing government services, which could reduce the number of RFPs. The media also focus their attention on the activities of political consultants engaged by us, and we may be tainted by adverse media coverage about their activities, even when those activities are unrelated to our business. Moreover, inaccurate, misleading, or negative media coverage about us could harm our reputation and, accordingly, our ability to bid for and win government contracts.
Our Articles of Incorporation and bylaws include provisions that may have anti-takeover effects.
Our Articles of Incorporation and bylaws include provisions that may delay, deter, or prevent a takeover attempt that shareholders might consider desirable. For example, our Articles of Incorporation provide that our shareholders may not take any action in writing without a meeting. This prohibition could impede or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by requiring that any corporate actions initiated by shareholders be adopted only at properly called shareholder meetings.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
During fiscal year 2022, we sold the building in which our corporate headquarters was located. We lease offices for operations, management, and administrative functions in connection with the performance of our services.
As of September 30, 2022, the Company leased approximately 171 offices in the U.S. totaling approximately 4.0 million square feet. In nine countries outside the U.S., the Company leased approximately 366 offices totaling approximately 0.9 million square feet. The lease terms vary from month-to-month to ten-year leases and are generally entered into at market rates. In the event that a property is used for our services in the U.S., we typically negotiate clauses to allow termination of the lease if the service contract is terminated by our customer. Such clauses are not standard in foreign leases.
We believe that our properties are maintained in good operating condition and are suitable and adequate for our purposes.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Refer to our disclosures included in "Note 15. Commitments and Contingencies" included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the symbol "MMS."
As of October 27, 2022, there were 37 holders of record of our outstanding common stock. The number of holders of record is not representative of the number of beneficial owners due to the fact that many shares are held by depositories, brokers, or nominees. We estimate there are approximately 114,807 beneficial owners of our common stock.
During the first fiscal quarter of 2023, we declared a quarterly dividend of $0.28 per share of Maximus stock. Our quarterly dividends during fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020 were $0.28 per share, respectively.
We intend to continue paying regular cash dividends, although there is no assurance as to future dividends. Future cash dividends, if any, will be paid at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend, among other things, upon our future operating results, capital requirements and surplus, general financial condition, contractual restrictions, and other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.
Common Stock Repurchase Activity During the Three Months Ended September 30, 2022
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of the Publicly Announced Plans (1)Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans (in thousands)
July 1, 2022 - July 31, 2022353,848 $62.86 353,848 $50,588 
August 1, 2022 - August 31, 2022— — — $50,588 
September 1, 2022 - September 30, 2022 (2)146,447 57.87 — $50,588 
500,295 $61.40 353,848 
(1) Under a resolution adopted in March 2020, the Board of Directors authorized the purchase, at management's discretion, of up to an aggregate of $200 million of our common stock.
(2) The total number of shares purchased includes 146,447 restricted stock units which vested in September 2022, but which were utilized by the recipients to settle personal income tax obligations.
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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock for the five-year period from September 30, 2017, to September 30, 2022, with the cumulative total returns for the S&P MidCap 400 Index. In addition, we compared the results of a peer group to our performance. This new peer group is based upon the companies with similar revenue by end market. This peer group is comprised of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp., CACI International Inc., Conduent, Inc., ICF International, Inc., Leidos, Inc., and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The old peer group was based upon companies listed within our proxy statement as entities whom we used as data points in establishing executive compensation. The old peer group is comprised of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp., CACI International Inc., Conduent, Inc., Gartner Inc., ICF International, Inc., Leidos, Inc., ManTech International Corp., Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Unisys Corp., Tetra Tech Inc., and KBR, Inc.
This graph assumes the investment of $100 on September 30, 2017, in our common stock, the S&P MidCap 400 Index, and our peer groups, weighted by market capitalization and assumes dividends are reinvested.
mms-20220930_g2.jpg
Notes:
The lines represent index levels derived from compounded daily returns that include all dividends.
The indexes are reweighted daily, using the market capitalization on the previous trading day.
If the monthly interval, based on the fiscal year-end, is not a trading day, the preceding trading day is used.
The index level for all series was set to $100.00 on September 30, 2017.
Item 6. Reserved

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read together with the Company's audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2022, 2021, and 2020 included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The discussion below contains management's comments on our business strategy and outlook, and such discussions contain forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements reflect the expectations, beliefs, plans, and objectives of management about future financial performance and assumptions underlying management's judgment concerning the matters discussed, and accordingly, involve estimates, assumptions, judgments, and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements and the discussion below is not necessarily indicative of future results. Factors that could cause or contribute to any differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in Item 1A. Risk Factors and in "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."
Business Overview
For an overview of our business, including our business segments and discussion of the services we provide, see Item 1. Business of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Financial Overview
A number of factors have affected our fiscal year 2022 results, the most significant of which we have listed below. More detail on these changes is presented below within our "Results of Operations" section.
During fiscal year 2021, we acquired VES Group, Inc. ("VES") and the Federal Division of Attain, LLC ("Attain"). We acquired Aidvantage at the beginning of fiscal year 2022. These acquisitions have been supplemented by several smaller acquisitions in fiscal years 2021 and 2022. In fiscal year 2022, we recognized a full year of revenue and operating costs from the 2021 acquisitions and Aidvantage, as well as intangible asset amortization. To fund the acquisition of VES, we entered into a new credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase N.A. (the Credit Agreement). The Credit Agreement provides both fixed-term debt and a new revolving credit facility. The cost of servicing this debt for a full year, as well as increasing interest rates, have resulted in an increase in our interest expense.
In both fiscal years 2021 and 2022, we received benefits from short-term work assisting governments with their responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. This work was often profitable and mitigated profit declines on established programs where transaction volume was reduced. The short-term work declined by approximately $800 million compared to fiscal year 2021, but the ongoing Public Health Emergency ("PHE") has meant many of our established U.S. programs continue to operate at reduced capacity. The timing and nature of the end of the PHE should have a favorable effect on our business. This could occur in fiscal year 2023.
Within our Outside the U.S. Segment, we recorded charges totaling $16.8 million on a single contract, anticipating a loss of the remaining life of the arrangement. If our current forecast remains unchanged, this project is forecasted to record a breakeven profit over its remaining life.
Our Outside the U.S. Segment has benefited from the U.K. Restart contract, which commenced in late-fiscal year 2021. This growing contract has offset declines within the same segment from the contraction of our Australian business.
During the fourth quarter of the fiscal year, we completed the sale of our former headquarters building. This resulted in a gain of $11.0 million and a cash inflow of $16.4 million.
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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth, for the fiscal years indicated, information derived from our statements of operations. In preparing our discussion and analysis of these results, we focused on the comparison between fiscal years 2022 and 2021. A discussion comparing our results between fiscal years 2021 and 2020 can be found in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2021, which we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 18, 2021.
Table MD&A 1: Consolidated Results of Operations
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Revenue$4,631,018 $4,254,485 
Cost of revenue3,691,208 3,307,510 
Gross profit939,810 946,975 
Gross profit percentage20.3 %22.3 %
Selling, general, and administrative expenses534,493 494,088 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue11.5 %11.6 %
Amortization of intangible assets90,465 44,357 
Gain on sale of land and building11,046 — 
Operating income325,898 408,530 
Operating margin7.0 %9.6 %
Interest expense45,965 14,744 
Other expense, net2,835 10,105 
Income before income taxes277,098 383,681 
Provision for income taxes73,270 92,481 
Effective tax rate26.4 %24.1 %
Net income$203,828 $291,200 
Earnings per share:
Basic$3.30 $4.69 
Diluted$3.29 $4.67 
Our business segments have different factors driving revenue fluctuations and profitability. The sections that follow cover these segments in greater detail. Our revenue reflects fees earned for services provided. Cost of revenue consists of direct costs related to labor and related overhead, subcontractor labor, outside vendors, rent, and other direct costs. The largest component of cost of revenue, approximately two-thirds, is labor, including subcontracted labor.
Table MD&A 2: Changes in Revenue, Cost of Revenue, and Gross Profit for the Year Ended September 30, 2022
RevenueCost of RevenueGross Profit
Dollars% ChangeDollars% ChangeDollars% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Fiscal year 2021$4,254,485 $3,307,510 $946,975 
Organic effect(249,058)(5.9) %(65,687)(2.0) %(183,371)(19.4) %
Acquired growth667,384 15.7  %484,552 14.7  %182,832 19.3  %
Currency effect compared to the prior period(41,793)(1.0) %(35,167)(1.1) %(6,626)(0.7) %
Fiscal year 2022$4,631,018 8.9  %$3,691,208 11.6  %$939,810 (0.8) %
Selling, general, and administrative expenses ("SG&A") consist of indirect costs related to general management, marketing, and administration. It is primarily composed of labor costs. These costs may be incurred at a segment level, for dedicated resources that are not client-facing, or at a corporate level. Corporate costs are allocated to segments on a consistent and rational basis. Fluctuations in our SG&A are primarily driven by changes in our administrative cost base, which is not directly driven by changes in our revenue. As part of our work for the U.S. federal government and many states, we allocate these costs using a methodology driven by the U.S. Federal Cost Accounting Standards.
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Our SG&A expense has increased year-over-year due primarily to the increased cost base from our acquisitions. Our SG&A for fiscal year 2021 includes $9.5 million of acquisition expenses, primarily related to the VES and Attain transactions. In fiscal year 2022, we had a lower level of acquisition activity. We have also recorded a net benefit of $3.4 million from a reduction in contingent considerations due to the sellers of our acquired businesses.
Our amortization of intangible assets increased by $46.1 million from fiscal year 2021 to fiscal year 2022. This is the result of acquisitions in both fiscal years, partially offset by amortization related to the Census Questionnaire Assistance contract, which was acquired in November 2018 and fully amortized through November 2020.
Table MD&A 3: Changes in Amortization of Intangible Assets Expense for The Year Ended September 30, 2022
Dollars% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Year Ending September 30, 2021$44,357 
VES acquisition36,889 83.2 %
Attain acquisition4,375 9.9 %
Aidvantage acquisition7,432 16.8 %
Other 2022 acquisitions735 1.7 %
CQA contract(2,313)(5.2) %
Other, including foreign exchange(1,010)(2.3) %
Year Ending September 30, 2022$90,465 $90,465 
Our intangible amortization expense is based upon assumptions of the value and economic life of assets acquired, typically established at the acquisition date. If these assumptions change, the pattern of future expense may be affected. The table below shows our results excluding the effects of intangible asset amortization.
Table MD&A 4: Non-GAAP Adjusted Results Excluding Amortization of Intangible Assets
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Operating income$325,898 $408,530 
Add back: Amortization of intangible assets90,465 44,357 
Adjusted operating income excluding amortization of intangible assets (Non-GAAP)$416,363 $452,887 
Adjusted operating income margin excluding amortization of intangible assets (Non-GAAP)9.0 %10.6 %
Net income$203,828 $291,200 
Add back: Amortization of intangible assets, net of tax66,786 32,752 
Adjusted net income excluding amortization of intangible assets (Non-GAAP)$270,614 $323,952 
Diluted earnings per share$3.29 $4.67 
Add back: Effect of amortization of intangible assets on diluted earnings per share1.08 0.52 
Adjusted diluted earnings per share excluding amortization of intangible assets (Non-GAAP)$4.37 $5.19 
Our interest expense increased from $14.7 million in fiscal year 2021 to $46.0 million in fiscal year 2022. This increase is driven by the costs of our cash borrowings utilized to acquire VES. As stated in Note 8 - Debt and Derivatives, our interest rate will vary based upon both prevailing interest rates and our leverage ratio. Additional details on our borrowings are included within the "Liquidity and Capital Resources" section.
Our other income and expense relates to miscellaneous expenses which do not relate to our ongoing operating or financing needs. In fiscal year 2021, we incurred $8.5 million related to interim financing for the VES acquisition. This financing was not used and the cost was expensed. Expenses related to the current credit facilities have been deferred and are being recognized over the life of the agreement.
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Our effective income tax rate for the year ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, was 26.4 % and 24.1 %, respectively. The increase in effective tax rate was mainly due to the decreased value of our restricted stock units at vesting compared to the value expensed. For fiscal year 2023, we expect the effective tax rate to be between 24.5% and 25.5%.
U.S. Federal Services Segment
Our U.S. Federal Services Segment delivers end-to-end solutions that help various U.S. federal government agencies better deliver on their mission, including program operations and management, clinical services, and technology solutions. This also includes appeals and assessments services, system and application development, IT modernization, and maintenance services. The segment also contains certain state-based assessments and appeals work that is part of the segment's heritage within the Medicare Appeals portfolio which continues to be managed within this segment. Benefited by the Maximus Attain platform, the segment executes on its digital strategy to deliver technology solutions that advance agency missions, including the challenge to modernize, provide better customer experience, and drive process efficiencies. The segment continues to expand its clinical solutions and manages the clinical evaluation process for U.S. veterans and service members on behalf of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The segment further supports clinical offerings in public health with new work supporting the U.S. Federal Government's COVID-19 response efforts. This included expanded work with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC") for their helpline and increased support for the IRS Wage and Investment Division's response efforts to general inquiries regarding the Coronavirus Aid Relief & Economic Security ("CARES") Act and Economic Impact Payment Service Plan.
Table MD&A 5: U.S. Federal Services Segment - Financial Results
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue$2,259,744 $1,893,284 
Cost of revenue1,740,304 1,460,733 
Gross profit519,440 432,551 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses284,509 243,485 
Operating income234,931 189,066 
Gross profit percentage23.0  %22.8  %
Operating margin percentage10.4  %10.0  %
Table MD&A 6: U.S. Federal Services Segment - Changes in Revenue, Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
RevenueCost of RevenueGross Profit
Amount% ChangeAmount% ChangeAmount% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Balance for fiscal year 2021$1,893,284 $1,460,733 $432,551 
Organic effect(274,569)(14.5) %(188,911)(12.9) %(85,658)(19.8) %
Acquired growth641,029 33.9  %468,482 32.1  %172,547 39.9  %
Balance for fiscal year 2022$2,259,744 19.4  %$1,740,304 19.1  %$519,440 20.1  %
Our U.S. Federal Services Segment increased in size significantly in fiscal year 2022.
We received a full year of benefit from the acquisitions of VES (May 2021), Attain (March 2021), and Aidvantage (October 2021). The VES and Attain work is also more profitable than our legacy business.
Fiscal year 2021 included a significant amount of short-term, profitable work related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Much of this work ceased in late 2021 or early 2022. In addition, fiscal year 2021 includes approximately $67 million of non-recurring revenue related to the CQA contract, which ended in that year. Our organic profit margins have been tempered as we accepted a lower return on an existing contract in exchange for increased funding and anticipated future revenues.
We anticipate that our U.S. Federal Services business will continue to grow in fiscal year 2023, driven primarily by additional volumes anticipated in the VES business. We anticipate operating margins will range between 10% and 11%.


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U.S. Services Segment
Our U.S. Services Segment provides a variety of business process services ("BPS"), such as program administration, appeals and assessments, and related consulting work for U.S. state and local government programs. These services support a variety of programs, including the Affordable Care Act ("ACA"), Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program ("CHIP"), Temporary Assistance to Needy Families ("TANF"), and child support programs. As part of the governments' COVID-19 response efforts, the segment supported contact tracing, disease investigation, and vaccine distribution support services during the peak of the pandemic. The segment also successfully expanded into the unemployment insurance market where longer term opportunities have materialized. As part of the broader strategy to evolve clinically and address societal macro trends such as aging populations and rising costs, the segment continues to expand its offerings in public health with new work in in-person assessments.
Table MD&A 7: U.S. Services Segment - Financial Results
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue$1,607,612 $1,662,110 
Cost of revenue1,264,608 1,254,060 
Gross profit343,004 408,050 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses160,902 153,609 
Operating income182,102 254,441 
Gross profit percentage21.3  %24.6  %
Operating margin percentage11.3  %15.3  %
Our revenue and cost of revenue for the year ended September 30, 2022, decreased 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively, compared to fiscal year 2021. All movement was organic.
As anticipated, our revenue and profit margins have declined in fiscal year 2022 as short-term, COVID-19 related work, which typically earn higher margins, has slowed but many of our core programs which rely upon transactions are still running at low volumes due to the ongoing PHE. Our results in fiscal year 2021 include a write-down of approximately $12 million of assets related to a contract in the start-up phase.
The timing and nature of the end of the PHE, which could occur in fiscal year 2023, will have a significant effect on our results in fiscal year 2023. Assuming that the PHE does not end, we anticipate operating margins between 8% and 10% in 2023.
Outside the U.S. Segment
Our Outside the U.S. Segment provides BPS for international governments and commercial clients, transforming the lives of people around the world. Helping people find employment, access vital support, and remain healthy, these services include health and disability assessments, program administration for employment services, wellbeing solutions, and other job seeker related services. We support programs and deliver services in the U.K., including the Health Assessment Advisory Service ("HAAS") and Restart; Australia, including Workforce Australia (formerly jobactive) and the Disability Employment Service; Canada, including Health Insurance British Columbia and the Employment Program of British Columbia; in addition to Italy, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, and UAE, where we predominantly provide employment support and job seeker services.
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Table MD&A 8: Outside the U.S. Segment - Financial Results
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue$763,662 $699,091 
Cost of revenue686,296 592,717 
Gross profit77,366 106,374 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses92,536 86,248 
Operating (loss)/income(15,170)20,126 
Gross profit percentage10.1  %15.2  %
Operating margin percentage(2.0) %2.9  %
Table MD&A 9: Outside the U.S. Segment - Changes in Revenue, Cost of Revenue and Gross Profit
RevenueCost of RevenueGross Profit
Amount% ChangeAmount% ChangeAmount% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Balance for fiscal year 2021$699,091 $592,717 $106,374 
Organic effect80,009 11.4  %112,676 19.0  %(32,667)(30.7) %
Acquired growth26,355 3.8  %16,070 2.7  %10,285 9.7  %
Currency effect compared to the prior period(41,793)(6.0)%(35,167)(5.9)%(6,626)(6.2)%
Balance for fiscal year 2022$763,662 9.2  %$686,296 15.8  %$77,366 (27.3) %
This segment experienced organic growth in revenue and costs, as well as acquired growth. This benefit was partially offset by significant declines in the value of international currencies against the United States Dollar.
Organic revenue growth in fiscal year 2022 reflects the benefit of our United Kingdom Restart contract, which commenced in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2021, partially offset by declines in our Australian business. The Australian business reported strong results in fiscal year 2021 as the COVID-19 pandemic effect declined and opportunities reopened for work placements. Our fiscal year 2022 results initially returned to standard operating levels before a decline in the level of work following the third quarter. The detriment to our profit margin was primarily driven by the Australian business, where the reduction in revenues was not immediately matched with a decline in the cost base; in addition, some short-term severance costs were incurred. Profit margins were also tempered by charges totaling $16.8 million related to an implementation of a software product.
Acquired growth is from Connect Assist Holdings Limited, acquired in September 2021; BZ Bodies Limited, acquired in January 2022; and Stirling Institute of Australia Pty Ltd, acquired in June 2022.
Much of our revenue growth stems from our employment services contracts, where we are paid based upon our ability to place individuals in long-term sustained employment. As a result, changes in our estimates of our ability to place people in work and the time that this will take can have significant effects on our revenue. These estimates are based upon our current expectations as to how the effects of the pandemic, including regulations adopted by governments and employment practices adopted by employers, will progress. Our estimates are based upon historical performance, where appropriate and available.
We anticipate our Outside the United States Segment will experience greater stability in fiscal year 2023, with less disruption from residual pandemic factors and underpinned by our core programs. We anticipate operating margins will be in the low single digits.
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Backlog
Backlog represents estimated future revenue from:
existing signed contracts;
contracts that have been awarded but not yet signed; and
unexercised priced contract options.
As of September 30, 2022, we estimate that we had approximately $19.8 billion in backlog.
Table MD&A 10: Backlog by Segment
As of September 30,
20222021
(in millions)
U.S. Federal Services$13,168 $4,298 
U.S. Services5,205 4,865 
Outside the U.S.1,441 2,052 
Backlog$19,814 $11,215 
At September 30, 2022, the average weighted remaining life of the contracts in our backlog was approximately 6.8 years, including option periods.
Increases in backlog result from the award of new contracts and the extension or renewal of existing contracts. Reductions in backlog come from fulfilling contracts or the early termination of contracts which our experience shows to be a rare occurrence. See "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report. The backlog associated with our performance-based contracts is an estimate based upon management's experience of caseloads and similar transaction volume, which is subject to revision based upon the latest information available. Additionally, backlog estimates may be affected by foreign currency fluctuations.
We believe that comparisons of backlog period-to-period are difficult. We also believe that it is difficult to predict future revenue solely based on analysis of backlog. The actual timing of revenue from projects included in backlog will vary. We also may experience periods in which there is a greater concentration of rebids, resulting in a comparatively reduced backlog balance until subsequent award or extension on those contracts.
The longevity of these contracts assists management in predicting revenue, operating income, and cash flows for the purposes of business planning. We expect approximately 24% of the backlog balance to be realized as revenue in fiscal year 2022, which is 90% of the midpoint of fiscal year 2022 revenue guidance. Our standard forecasting process includes analyzing new work pipelines and submitted responses to requests for proposals ("RFPs") when predicting future revenue, operating income, and cash flows.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our primary sources of liquidity are cash on hand, cash from operations, and availability under our revolving credit facilities. As of September 30, 2022, we had $40.7 million in cash and cash equivalents. We believe that our current cash position, access to our revolvers, and cash flow generated from operations should be not only sufficient for our operating requirements but also to enable us to fund required long-term debt repayments, dividends and any share purchases we might choose to make. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for a more detailed discussion of our debt financing arrangements.
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Table MD&A 11: Net Change in Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Operating activities:
Net cash provided by operating activities$289,839 $517,322 
Net cash used in investing activities(54,009)(1,835,480)
Net cash (used in)/provided by financing activities(248,271)1,385,693 
Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(7,334)474 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash$(19,775)$68,009 
Net Cash Provided By Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities decreased by $227.5 million in fiscal year 2022 compared to fiscal year 2021. This decline was driven by a reduction in profits, the timing of payments from customers, and the timing of our payments to vendors.
Both years have received the benefit of faster cash collections. Our Days Sales Outstanding ("DSO") improved from September 30, 2020, when it was 77 days, through September 30, 2021 (68 days) and September 30, 2022 (62 days). Improved collections were driven by the recovery of payments delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic and the timing of large payments at the end of fiscal year 2022.
Fiscal year 2021 received cash from up-front payments on contracts, notably in the United Kingdom, as new projects started. These cash flows did not recur to the same degree in fiscal year 2022.
The timing of both vendor and employee payments across both years also resulted in higher cash outflows from operations in fiscal year 2022. Increased interest payments on our debt, which we held for a full year in fiscal year 2022, were offset by reduced tax payments.
Net Cash Used In Investing Activities
Investing activities for fiscal year 2022 include payments for current-year acquisitions and the settlement of the VES purchase price. This is offset by cash received from the sale of our former headquarters building, which was completed in August 2022. The prior year's cash flows include payments for the acquisitions of VES, Attain and Connect Assist.
Net Cash (Used In)/Provided By Financing Activities
The principal drivers of financing cash flows are the Credit Agreement, our equity transactions and restricted cash flows where we hold funds on behalf of customers or vendors.
In fiscal year 2021, we received net cash flows of $1.47 billion, principally from borrowings and costs for the Credit Agreement. These funds were used to acquire VES. In fiscal year 2022, we have made net debt repayments of $155.7 million.
In addition to our dividend, we have purchased $96.1 million of Maximus common stock in fiscal year 2022, compared to $3.4 million in fiscal year 2021.
On certain contracts, we maintain funds within our treasury system which is owned by our client. We treat this cash as restricted cash and hold a corresponding liability on our balance sheet reflecting balances to be disbursed on behalf of our client. Although we do not own these funds, they are within our control and are considered financing cash flows. In fiscal year 2022, we received the benefit of the Receivables Purchase Agreement ("RPA") we entered into with Wells Fargo N.A., under which we can sell certain US-originated accounts receivable balances. Prior to September 30, 2022, we sold a customer invoice for $60.4 million. Although we sold these receivables, we maintained administrative responsibilities over cash collection. Having sold the invoice, the customer payment was received on September 30, 2022, resulting in excess cash flow. This cash receipt was treated as restricted cash and remitted to Wells Fargo in October 2022. We have recorded this transaction as "other" cash flows from financing activities.


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Cash in Foreign Locations
We have no requirement to remit funds from our foreign locations to the United States. We will continue to explore opportunities to remit additional funds, taking into consideration the working capital requirements and relevant tax rules in each jurisdiction. When we are unable to remit funds back without incurring a penalty, we will consider these funds indefinitely reinvested until such time as these restrictions are changed. As a result, we do not record U.S. deferred income taxes on any funds held in foreign jurisdictions. We have not attempted to calculate our potential liability from any transfer of these funds, as any such transaction might include tax planning strategies that we have not fully explored. Accordingly, it is not possible to estimate the potential tax obligations if we were to remit all of our funds from foreign locations to the United States.
Free Cash Flow
Table MD&A 12: Free Cash Flow
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities$289,839 $517,322 
Purchases of property and equipment and capitalized software(56,145)(36,565)
Free cash flow$233,694 $480,757 
Material Cash Requirements from Contractual Obligations
Credit Facilities
As of September 30, 2022, we had total outstanding borrowing under our term loans and subsidiary loan agreements of $1.37 billion and $0.1 million, respectively. We had no outstanding balances under the Credit Agreement revolver as of September 30, 2022 and $600 million available. The Credit Agreement has annual repayment requirements and the balance must be repaid or refinanced at the termination of the agreements. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the terms of the Credit Agreement, including obligations by fiscal year.
Leases
As of September 30, 2022, we reported current and long-term operating lease liabilities of $64.0 million and $86.2 million, respectively. These balances represent our contractual obligation to make future payments on our leases, discounted to reflect our cost of borrowing. The majority of these leases are for real estate. In the event that we vacate a location, we may be obliged to continue making lease payments. Where possible, we mitigate this risk by including clauses allowing for the termination of lease agreements if the contract the location covers is terminated by our customer. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding our leases, including obligations by fiscal year.
Deferred compensation plan
As of September 30, 2022, we reported liabilities of $43.1 million related to our deferred compensation plan. These balances are due to our employees based upon elections they make at the time of deferring their funds. The timing of these payments may change based upon factors, including termination of our employment arrangement with a participant. We maintain a rabbi trust to fund this liability.
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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported. We consider the accounting policies below to be the most important to our financial position and results of operations either because of the significance of the financial statement item or because of the need to use significant judgment in recording the balance. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Our significant accounting policies are summarized in "Note 2. Significant Accounting Policies" of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Revenue Recognition
Although much of our revenue is recognized concurrently with billing or with the passage of time, some of our revenue requires us to make estimates. These estimates are reviewed quarterly, with any changes being recorded as a cumulative catch-up in revenue.
Some of our performance-based contract revenue is recognized based upon future outcomes defined in each contract. This is the case in many of our employment services contracts in the Outside the U.S. Segment, where we are paid as individuals attain employment goals, which may take many months to achieve. We recognize revenue on these contracts over the period of performance. Our estimates vary from contract to contract but may include estimates of the number of participants reaching employment milestones and the service delivery period for participants reaching employment milestones. We are required to estimate these outcome fees ahead of their collection and recognize this estimated fee as revenue over the period of delivery. In almost all of the jurisdictions in which we operate, the employment markets have experienced significant changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As the pandemic commenced, many employment opportunities were terminated. Our volume of new program participants is beginning to increase as governments shift their focus to addressing the residual impacts of the pandemic, such as the economy and unemployment, particularly in those countries where the pandemic has stabilized, and economies are beginning to reopen. During the year ended September 30, 2022, we recognized revenue from these performance-based fees of $142.4 million. At September 30, 2022, we recorded $55.4 million of these estimated outcome fees as unbilled receivables which will be billed and then collected when we reach the targets we anticipate.
Business Combinations and Goodwill
Our balance sheet as of September 30, 2022, includes $1.78 billion of goodwill and $804.9 million of net intangible assets. These assets are created through business acquisitions and their creation and maintenance requires certain critical estimates.
During an acquisition, we are required to estimate the fair value of all acquired tangible and intangible assets, as well as liabilities assumed, in order to allocate the purchase price. For many assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the calculation of fair value requires little judgment as balances may be readily convertible to cash receipts or cash payments or there may be an active market against which to measure value. For the valuation of intangible assets, significant judgment is necessary in identifying and valuing such assets. This valuation will also involve identifying the useful economic life of this asset. Our estimates of these fair values and useful economic lives are based upon assumptions we believe to be reasonable and, where appropriate, include assistance from third-party appraisal firms. The accounting for our acquisitions included determining the fair value of intangible assets representing customer relationships, the VES provider network and VES technology. In making our determination of the fair value of these assets, we utilized estimates, the most significant of which were forecasts related to future revenues and profit margins. These assumptions relate to the future performance of the acquired business, are forward-looking, and could be affected by future economic and market conditions. The asset values and asset lives determined at acquisition may change based upon circumstances such as contract terminations or changes in strategy. When this occurs, we may need to accelerate our amortization charges. These assets are also subject to impairment if events indicate that the carrying value of the assets may not be recoverable. For example, our intangible asset balance includes customer relationship assets which, if the customer relationship ends, would require evaluation of the remaining asset life and asset value.
The excess purchase price over the identified net assets is considered to be goodwill. Goodwill is recorded at the reporting unit level. The identification of our reporting units requires judgment based upon the manner in which our business is operated and the services performed. We believe our reporting units are consistent with our segments. Where we have acquisitions that provide services to more than one segment, or where the acquisition provides benefits across all of our segments, we use judgment to allocate the goodwill balance based upon the relative value we anticipate that each segment will realize.
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Goodwill is not amortized but is subject to impairment testing on an annual basis, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. Impairment testing is performed at the reporting unit level. This process requires judgment in assessing the fair value of these reporting units. As of July 1, 2022, the Company performed its annual impairment test and determined that there was no impairment of goodwill. In performing this assessment, we utilized a quantitative approach. In all cases, we determined that the fair value of our reporting units was significantly in excess of our carrying value to the extent that a 25% decline in fair value in any reporting unit would not have resulted in an impairment charge.
Contingencies
From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings, including contract and employment claims, in the ordinary course of business. We assess the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes to these contingencies, as well as potential ranges of probable losses and establish reserves accordingly. The amount of reserves required may change in future periods due to new developments or changes in approach to a matter, such as a change in settlement strategy. We are also subject to audits by our government clients on many of our contracts based upon measures such as costs incurred or transactions processed. These audits may take place several years after a contract has been completed. We maintain reserves where we are able to estimate any potential liability that is updated as audits are completed.
Non-GAAP and Other Measures
We utilize non-GAAP measures where we believe it will assist users of our financial statements in understanding our business. The presentation of these measures is meant to complement, but not replace, other financial measures in this document. The presentation of non-GAAP numbers is not meant to be considered in isolation, nor as an alternative to revenue growth, cash flows from operating activities, net income, or earnings per share as measures of performance. These non-GAAP measures, as determined and presented by us, may not be comparable to related or similarly titled measures presented by other companies.
In fiscal year 2022, 16% of our revenue was generated outside the U.S. We believe that users of our financial statements wish to understand the performance of our foreign operations using a methodology that excludes the effect of year-over-year exchange rate fluctuations. To calculate year-over-year currency movement, we determine the current fiscal year's results for all foreign businesses using the exchange rates in the prior fiscal year.
In recent years, we have made a number of acquisitions. We believe users of our financial statements wish to evaluate the performance of our operations, excluding changes that have arisen due to businesses acquired or disposed of. We identify acquired revenue and cost of revenue by showing these results for periods for which no comparative results exist within our financial statements. We identify revenue and cost of revenue that has been disposed of in a similar manner. This information is supplemented by our calculations of organic growth. To calculate organic growth, we compare current fiscal year results excluding transactions from acquisitions or disposals, to our prior fiscal year results.
Our recent acquisitions have resulted in significant intangible assets which are amortized over their estimated useful lives. We believe users of our financial statements wish to understand the performance of the business by using a methodology that excludes the amortization of our intangible assets. Accordingly, we have calculated our operating profit, net income, and earnings per share, excluding the effect of the amortization of intangible assets. We have included a table showing our reconciliation of these income measures to their corresponding GAAP measures.
In order to sustain our cash flows from operations, we regularly refresh our fixed assets and technology. We believe that users of our financial statements wish to understand the cash flows that directly correspond with our operations and the investments we must make in those operations using a methodology that combines operating cash flows and capital expenditures. We provide free cash flow to complement our statement of cash flows. Free cash flow shows the effects of our operations and replacement capital expenditures and excludes the cash flow effects of acquisitions, purchases of our common stock, dividend payments, and other financing transactions. We have provided a reconciliation of cash flows from operations to free cash flow in "Liquidity and Capital Resources."
To sustain our operations, our principal source of financing comes from receiving payments from our customers. We believe that users of our financial statements wish to evaluate our efficiency in converting revenue into cash receipts. Accordingly, we provide DSO, which we calculate by dividing billed and unbilled receivable balances at the end of each quarter by revenue per day for the period. Revenue per day for a quarter is determined by dividing total revenue by 91 days. Where our DSO is affected by acquisitions, such as the Connect Assist acquisition in September 2021, we will perform the DSO calculation on a pro forma basis, including the acquired revenue for the fiscal quarter.
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Our Credit Agreement includes the defined term Consolidated EBITDA and our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA conforms to the Credit Agreement. We believe our investors appreciate the opportunity to understand the possible restrictions which arise from our Credit Agreement.
Adjusted EBITDA is also a useful measure of performance that focuses on the cash generating capacity of the business as it excludes the non-cash expenses of depreciation and amortization, and makes for easier comparisons between the operating performance of companies with different capital structures by excluding interest expense and therefore, the impacts of financing costs.
The measure of Adjusted EBITA is a step in calculating Adjusted EBITDA and facilitates comparisons to similar businesses as it isolates the amortization effect of business combinations.
The Credit Agreement requires us to calculate Adjusted EBITDA on a pro forma basis, as though we had owned any significant acquired business for a full twelve months. Accordingly, we have included the effects of VES and Attain in the table below. The Credit Agreement also requires us to adjust for unusual, non-recurring expenses, certain non-cash adjustments and estimated synergies from acquisitions.
We have provided a reconciliation from net income to Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITA, Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA, and Non-GAAP Pro Forma Adjusted EBITDA as shown below.
Table MD&A 13: Reconciliation of Net Income to Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITA, Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA, and Non-GAAP Pro Forma Adjusted EBITDA
For the Year Ended September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Net income$203,828 $291,200 
Adjustments:
Interest expense45,965 14,744 
Other expense2,835 10,105 
Provision for income taxes73,270 92,481 
Amortization of intangibles90,465 44,357 
Stock compensation expense30,476 28,554 
Acquisition-related expenses332 10,820 
Gain on sale of land and building(11,046)— 
Adjusted EBITA - Non-GAAP measure436,125 492,261 
Depreciation and amortization of property, equipment, and capitalized software42,330 46,361 
Adjusted EBITDA - Non-GAAP measure478,455 $538,622 
Pro forma and other adjustments permitted by our credit agreement - Non-GAAP measure30,032 92,398 
Pro forma adjusted EBITDA - Non-GAAP measure$508,487 $631,020 
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
In the normal course of business, we are exposed to financial risks such as changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and counterparty risk.
Foreign Currency Risk
As of September 30, 2022, we held net assets denominated in currencies other than the U.S. Dollar of $156.6 million. Of this balance, we had net monetary assets of $61.3 million and cash and cash equivalents of $38.7 million. We consider monetary assets to be those which hold a fair value close to their book value and which represent a recent cash outflow or which will become a cash inflow or outflow within a short period of time. These assets and liabilities are typically cash, billed, billable, and unbilled accounts receivable, current prepaid expenses, operating lease right-of-use assets, accounts payable, accrued compensation, deferred revenue, lease liabilities, and debt.
A hypothetical 10% favorable or unfavorable exchange rate movement across currencies would have the following incremental effects on our comprehensive income and our cash flow statement.
Table 7A.1: Exposure to Currency Risk
As of September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Change in comprehensive income attributable to Maximus$15,657 $18,900 
Change in net monetary assets$6,127 $6,900 
Change in cash and cash equivalents$3,867 $9,100 
Where possible, we mitigate our foreign currency risks. Our operations typically incur costs and cash outflows in the same currency as their revenue. We identify surplus funds in foreign locations and place them in entities with the U.S. Dollar as their functional currency.
Interest Rate Risk
Our principal exposure to interest rates relates to our debt. At September 30, 2022, we owed a gross balance of $1.4 billion associated with debt in the United States and in foreign locations.
Our U.S. debt, in the form of term loans and a revolving credit facility, pay interest based upon a fixed rate and a market rate. At September 2022, the market rate is based upon the London Interbank Offering Rate ("LIBOR"), which we anticipate switching to the Secured Overseas Funding Rate ("SOFR") during fiscal year 2023. A rise of interest rate levels would increase our interest expense, and a reduction in interest rates to the floor would decrease our interest expense. We mitigate this risk through an interest rate swap with a notional amount of $300.0 million related to one of the term loans. We based this sensitivity calculation on the LIBOR rate of 3.125% in accordance with the most recent measurement date specified in our credit agreement. A 100 basis point change in interest rates would have the following impact in annual earnings.
Table 7A.2: Exposure to Interest Rate Risk
As of September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
100 basis point increase impact on earnings$(10,633)$(10,600)
100 basis point decrease impact on earnings$10,633 $1,500 
During the first quarter of fiscal year 2023, we reduced our exposure to interest rate changes through an additional interest rate swap with a notional amount of $200.0 million.
Counterparty Risk
We are exposed to credit losses in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties to our derivative instrument. Our counterparty has investment-grade credit ratings; accordingly, we anticipate that the counterparty will be able to fully satisfy their obligations under the contracts. Our agreement outlines the conditions upon which we or the counterparty are required to post collateral. As of September 30, 2022, we had no collateral posted with our counterparty related to the derivatives.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Maximus, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Maximus, Inc. (the Company) as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, changes in shareholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at September 30, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated November 22, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts, and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements, and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
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Revenue recognition – Measuring Variable Consideration in Certain Performance-based Revenue Contracts
Description of the Matter
As described in Note 2 and Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements, in certain performance-based contracts, the Company recognizes revenue based on outcomes defined in each contract. Revenue recognition for certain of these contracts involves estimation of variable consideration utilizing management's judgments about performance related to future outcomes. Significant changes in these estimates could have a material effect on the Company's results of operations. During the year ended September 30, 2022 approximately $142 million of revenue was recorded on contracts that included an estimate related to contract performance for future outcomes.
Auditing the Company's measurement of variable consideration for these performance-based contracts requires judgment because the calculation involves estimates of future outcomes. This estimate reflects management's estimates of the number of participants reaching employment milestones and the service delivery period for participants reaching employment milestones.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company's process to calculate variable consideration, including determining the underlying assumptions about the number of participants reaching employment milestones and the service delivery period for participants reaching employment milestones.
To test the variable consideration, our audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the significant judgments and the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used in management's calculation of variable consideration. For example, we tested management's estimate of the number of participants reaching employment milestones by comparing the amounts estimated to historical results, inclusive of changes to the current period environment, and performing sensitivity analyses to evaluate the changes in variable consideration that could result from changes in the Company's significant assumptions.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company's auditor since 1996.
Tysons, Virginia
November 22, 2022
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Maximus, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
For the Year Ended September 30,
202220212020
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Revenue$4,631,018 $4,254,485 $3,461,537 
Cost of revenue3,691,208 3,307,510 2,750,535 
Gross profit939,810 946,975 711,002 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses534,493 494,088 387,090 
Amortization of intangible assets90,465 44,357 35,634 
Gain on sale of land and building11,046   
Operating income325,898 408,530 288,278 
Interest expense45,965 14,744 2,059 
Other expense/(income), net2,835 10,105 (843)
Income before income taxes277,098 383,681 287,062 
Provision for income taxes73,270 92,481 72,553 
Net income$203,828 $291,200 $214,509 
Earnings per share:
Basic$3.30 $4.69 $3.40 
Diluted$3.29 $4.67 $3.39 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic61,774 62,072 63,062 
Diluted61,969 62,365 63,322 
Dividends declared per share$1.12 $1.12 $1.12 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Maximus, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
For the Year Ended September 30,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Net income$203,828 $291,200 $214,509 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustments(17,504)3,033 2,742 
Net gains/(losses) on cash flow hedge, net of tax effect of $8,368, $(107), and $0, respectively
23,451 (303) 
Other comprehensive income5,947 2,730 2,742 
Comprehensive income$209,775 $293,930 $217,251 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Maximus, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
As of September 30,
20222021
(in thousands)
Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$40,658 $135,061 
Accounts receivable, net807,110 834,819 
Income taxes receivable2,158 5,413 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets182,387 104,201 
Total current assets1,032,313 1,079,494 
Property and equipment, net52,258 62,627 
Capitalized software, net58,740 42,868 
Operating lease right-of-use assets132,885 179,349 
Goodwill1,779,415 1,774,406 
Intangible assets, net804,904 879,168 
Deferred contract costs, net47,732 36,486 
Deferred compensation plan assets37,050 46,738 
Deferred income taxes4,970 990 
Other assets42,447 16,839 
Total assets$3,992,714 $4,118,965 
Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity:
Liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities$264,553 $305,565 
Accrued compensation and benefits178,199 186,809 
Deferred revenue, current portion87,146 98,588 
Income taxes payable718 6,782 
Long-term debt, current portion63,458 80,555 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion63,999 76,077 
Other current liabilities116,374 35,057 
Total current liabilities774,447 789,433 
Deferred revenue, non-current portion21,414 35,932 
Deferred income taxes206,099 194,638 
Long-term debt, non-current portion1,292,483 1,429,137 
Deferred compensation plan liabilities, non-current portion40,210 47,405 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current portion86,175 121,771 
Other liabilities22,515 20,320 
Total liabilities2,443,343 2,638,636 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)
Shareholders' equity:
Common stock, no par value; 100,000 shares authorized; 60,774 and 61,954 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively (shares in thousands)
557,978 532,411 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(33,961)(39,908)
Retained earnings1,025,354 987,826 
Total shareholders' equity1,549,371 1,480,329 
Total liabilities and shareholders' equity$3,992,714 $4,118,965 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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Maximus, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
For the Year Ended September 30,
202220212020
(in thousands)
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$203,828 $291,200 $214,509 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash flows from operations:
Depreciation and amortization of property, equipment and capitalized software42,330 46,361 64,527 
Amortization of intangible assets90,465 44,357 35,634 
Amortization of debt issuance costs and debt discount3,012 865  
Costs related to debt financing 8,509  
Gain on sale of land and building(11,046)  
Deferred income taxes10,204 (6,577)(19,145)
Stock compensation expense30,476 28,554 23,708 
Gain on sale of a business  (1,718)
Change in assets and liabilities, net of effects of business combinations:
Accounts receivable14,132 38,578 (180,747)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(6,745)(16,726)(9,839)
Deferred contract costs(12,056)(15,426)(1,911)
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities(32,722)26,904 79,930 
Accrued compensation and benefits3,288 18,112 29,484 
Deferred revenue(19,342)53,652 2,391 
Income taxes(13,510)(2,733)3,490 
Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities(1,112)5,314 (556)
Other assets and liabilities(11,363)(3,622)4,835 
Net cash provided by operating activities289,839 517,322 244,592 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment and capitalized software(56,145)(36,565)(40,707)
Acquisitions of businesses, net of cash acquired(14,295)(1,798,915)(7,066)
Proceeds from the sale of land and building16,431   
Proceeds from the sale of a business  3,250 
Other  385 
Net cash used in investing activities(54,009)(1,835,480)(44,138)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Cash dividends paid to Maximus shareholders(68,716)(68,838)(70,155)
Purchases of Maximus common stock(96,119)(3,363)(166,959)
Tax withholding related to RSU vesting(9,673)(9,818)(10,614)
Payments for contingent consideration(1,369)  
Payments for debt financing costs (23,213) 
Proceeds from borrowings615,000 2,318,129 638,048 
Principal payments for debt(