stx-20220701
Seagate Technology Holdings plc
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Seagate Technology Holdings 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
_________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended July 1, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 For the transition period from:                to                
Commission File Number 001-31560
SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Ireland98-1597419
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
38/39 Fitzwilliam Square
Dublin 2, Ireland
(Address of principal executive offices)
D02 NX53
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (353) (1) 234-3136
_________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange
on Which Registered
Ordinary Shares, par value $0.00001 per shareSTXThe NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer:
Non-accelerated filer:Smaller reporting company:
Emerging growth company:
       If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
       Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of December 31, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $24.7 billion based upon the closing price reported for such date by the NASDAQ.
The number of outstanding ordinary shares of the registrant as of August 1, 2022 was 208,755,418.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A relating to the registrant’s Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, to be held on October 24, 2022, will be incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K in response to Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III. The definitive proxy statement will be filed with the SEC no later than 120 days after the registrant's fiscal year ended July 1, 2022.


    
SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS PLC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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1B.
2
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7A.
8
9
9A.
9B.
9C.
 
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15




2

Table of Contents
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Form 10-K”), unless the context indicates otherwise, as used herein, the terms “we,” “us,” “Seagate,” the “Company” and “our” refer to Seagate Technology Holdings public limited company (“plc”), an Irish public limited company, and its subsidiaries. References to “$” and “dollars” are to United States dollars.
We have compiled the market size information in this Form 10-K using statistics and other information obtained from several third-party sources.
Various amounts and percentages used in this Form 10-K have been rounded and, accordingly, they may not total 100%.
Seagate, Seagate Technology, LaCie, Maxtor, Lyve, Cortx and the Spiral Logo, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Seagate Technology LLC or one of its affiliated companies in the United States (“U.S.”) and/or other countries. All other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements provide current expectations of future events based on certain assumptions and include any statement that does not directly relate to any historical fact. Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, among other things, statements about our plans, strategies and prospects; market demand for our products; shifts in technology; estimates of industry growth; effects of the economic conditions worldwide resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic; our ability to effectively manage our cash liquidity position and debt obligations, and comply with the covenants in our credit facilities; our restructuring efforts; the sufficiency of our sources of cash to meet cash needs for the next 12 months and our expectations regarding capital expenditures. Forward-looking statements generally can be identified by words such as “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “may,” “will,” “will continue,” “can,” “could,” or negative of these words, variations of these words and comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements are based on information available to the Company as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and are based on management’s current views and assumptions. These forward-looking statements are conditioned upon and involve a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those anticipated by these forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors may be beyond our control and may pose a risk to our operating and financial condition. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to:
the uncertainty in the global economy and adverse changes in the level of economic activity in the major regions in which we do business;
the timing of development and introduction of products based on new technologies and expansion into new data storage markets and market acceptance of new products;
the impact of competitive product announcements and unexpected advances in competing technologies or changes in market trends;
the impact of variable demand, including ongoing demand variation related to the COVID-19 pandemic, changes in market demand, and an adverse pricing environment for storage products;
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related individual, business and government responses on the global economy and their impact on the Company’s business, operations and financial results, including impacts to the Company’s supply chain resulting from governments’ policies and approaches to containing COVID-19;
the Company’s ability to effectively manage its debt obligations and comply with certain covenants in its credit facilities with respect to financial ratios and financial condition tests and its ability to maintain a favorable cash liquidity position;
the Company’s ability to successfully qualify, manufacture and sell its storage products in increasing volumes on a cost-effective basis and with acceptable quality;
any price erosion or volatility of sales volumes through the Company’s distributor and retail channel;
disruptions to the Company’s supply chain or production capabilities, including ongoing shortages of certain materials, any electricity restrictions and increases in logistical, materials and operation costs;
currency fluctuations that may impact the Company’s margins, international sales and results of operations;
changes in tax laws, such as global tax developments applicable to multinational businesses; the impact of trade barriers, such as import/export duties and restrictions, sanctions, tariffs and quotas, imposed by the U.S. or other countries in which the Company conducts business; the evolving legal and regulatory, economic, environmental and administrative climate in the international markets where the Company operates;
the effect of geopolitical uncertainties, such as the Russia-Ukraine conflict, on international commerce, the global economy, and/or our business;
the difficulties in implementing a new global enterprise resource planning system; and
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cyber-attacks or other data breaches that disrupt the Company’s operations or result in the dissemination of proprietary or confidential information and cause reputational harm.
Information concerning these and other risks, uncertainties and factors, among others, that could cause results to differ materially from our expectations statements is also set forth in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which we encourage you to carefully read. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date on which they were made and we undertake no obligation to update forward-looking statements except as required by law.

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
We are a leading provider of data storage technology and infrastructure solutions. Our principal products are hard disk drives, commonly referred to as disk drives, hard drives or HDDs. In addition to HDDs, we produce a broad range of data storage products including solid state drives (“SSDs”), solid state hybrid drives (“SSHDs”), storage subsystems, and offer storage solutions such as a scalable edge-to-cloud mass data platform that includes data transfer shuttles and a storage-as-a-service cloud.
HDDs are devices that store digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating disks with magnetic surfaces. HDDs continue to be the primary medium of mass data storage due to their performance attributes, reliability, high capacities, superior quality and cost effectiveness. Complementing existing storage architectures, SSDs use integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data, and most SSDs use NAND flash memory. In contrast to HDDs and SSDs, SSHDs combine the features of SSDs and HDDs in the same unit, containing a high-capacity HDD and a smaller SSD acting as a cache to improve performance.
Our HDD products are designed for mass capacity storage and legacy markets. Mass capacity storage involves well-established use cases—such as hyperscale data centers and public clouds as well as emerging use cases. Legacy markets are those that we continue to sell to but we do not plan to invest in significantly. Our HDD and SSD product portfolio includes Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (“SATA”), Serial Attached SCSI (“SAS”) and Non-Volatile Memory Express (“NVMe”) based designs to support a wide variety of mass capacity and legacy applications.
Our systems portfolio includes storage subsystems for enterprises, cloud service providers, scale-out storage servers and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”). Engineered for modularity, mobility, capacity and performance, these solutions include our enterprise HDDs and SSDs, enabling customers to integrate powerful, scalable storage within existing environments or create new ecosystems from the ground up in a secure, cost-effective manner.
Our Lyve portfolio provides a simple, cost-efficient and secure way to manage massive volumes of data across the distributed enterprise. The Lyve platform includes a shuttle solution that enables enterprises to transfer massive amounts of data from endpoints to the core cloud, a storage-as-a-service cloud offering that provides frictionless mass capacity storage at the metro edge, and Cortx, an open-source object storage software optimized for mass capacity and data intensive workloads.
Industry Overview
Data Storage Industry
The data storage industry includes companies that manufacture components or subcomponents designed for data storage devices, as well as providers of storage solutions, software and services for enterprise cloud, big data, computing platforms and consumer markets. The rapid growth of data generation and the intelligent application of data are driving demand for data storage. As more data is created at endpoints outside traditional data centers, which requires processing at the edge and in the core or cloud, the need for data storage and management between the edge and cloud has also increased. Use cases include connected and autonomous vehicles, smart manufacturing and smart cities. We believe the proliferation and personal creation of media-rich digital content, further enabled by fifth-generation wireless (“5G”) technology, the edge, the Internet of Things (“IoT”), machine learning (“ML”) and artificial intelligence (“AI”), will continue to create demand for higher capacity storage solutions. The resulting mass data ecosystem is expected to require increasing amounts of data storage at the edge, in the core and in between.

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Markets
The principal data storage markets include:
Mass Capacity Storage Markets
Mass capacity storage supports high capacity, low-cost per terabyte (“TB”) storage applications, including nearline, video and image applications (“VIA”) and network-attached storage (“NAS”) and edge-to-cloud data storage infrastructures.
Nearline. Nearline applications require mass capacity devices and mass capacity subsystems that provide end-to-end solutions to businesses for the purpose of modular and scalable storage. Enterprise storage applications require both high-capacity and energy efficient storage devices to support low total cost of ownership. Seagate systems offer mass capacity storage solutions that provide foundational infrastructure for public and private clouds. The nearline market includes storage for cloud computing, content delivery, archival, backup services and newer use cases.
VIA and NAS. VIA and NAS drives are specifically designed to ensure the appropriate performance and reliability of the system for video analytics and camera enabled environments or network storage environments. These markets include storage for security and smart video installations.
Edge-to-cloud data storage infrastructures, transport, and activation of mass data. The Seagate Lyve portfolio grew out of our mass capacity storage portfolio. It provides a simple, cost-efficient and secure way to manage, transport and activate massive volumes of data across the distributed enterprise. Among other elements, the Lyve portfolio includes a shuttle solution that enables enterprises to transfer vast amounts of data from endpoints to the core cloud and a storage-as-a-service cloud that provides frictionless mass capacity storage at the metro edge.
Legacy Markets
Legacy markets include consumer, mission critical and client applications. We continue to sell to these markets but do not plan significant additional investment.
Consumer storage. Consumer applications are externally connected storage, both HDD and SSD-based, used to provide backup capabilities, augmented storage capacity, or portable storage for PCs, mobile devices and gaming consoles.
Mission critical storage. Mission critical applications are defined as those that use very high-performance enterprise class HDDs and SSDs with sophisticated firmware to reliably support very high workloads. We expect that enterprises utilizing dedicated storage area networks will continue to drive market demand for mission critical enterprise storage solutions.
Client storage. Client applications include desktop and notebook storage that rely on low cost-per-HDD and SSD devices to provide built-in storage, digital video recorder (“DVR”) storage for video streaming in always-on consumer premise equipment and media center, and gaming storage for PC-based gaming systems as well as console gaming applications including both internal and external storage options.
Participants in the data storage industry include:
Major subcomponent manufacturers. Companies that manufacture components or subcomponents used in data storage devices or solutions include companies that supply spindle motors, heads and media, and application specific integrated circuits (“ASICs”).
Storage device manufacturers. Companies that transform components into storage products include disk drive manufacturers and semiconductor storage manufacturers that integrate flash memory into storage products such as SSDs.
Storage solutions manufacturers and system integrators. Companies, such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (“OEMs”), that bundle and package storage solutions, distributors that integrate storage hardware and software into end-user applications, cloud service providers (“CSPs”) that provide cloud based solutions to businesses for the purpose of scale-out storage solutions and modular systems, and producers of solutions such as storage racks.
Hyperscale data centers. Large hyperscale data center companies, many of which are CSPs, are increasingly designing their own storage subsystems and having them built by contract manufacturers for their own data centers. This trend is reshaping the storage system and subsystem market, driving both innovation in system design and changes in the competitive landscape of large storage system vendors.
Storage services. Companies that provide and host services and solutions, which include storage, backup, archiving, recovery and discovery of data.
Demand for Data Storage
In the Seagate-sponsored “Worldwide Global DataSphere Forecast, 2022-2026”, the International Data Corporation (“IDC”) forecasted that the global datasphere should grow from 84 zettabytes in 2021 to 221 zettabytes by 2026. According to
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IDC, we are fast approaching a new era of the Data Age, which we expect will have a positive impact on storage demand. The digital transformation has given rise to many new applications, all of which rely on faster access to and secure storage of data proliferating from endpoints through edge to cloud.
The DataSphere Forecast study found that data is shifting to both the core and the edge, and by 2026 nearly 65% of the world’s data will be stored in the core and edge, up from 41% in 2016.
As more applications require real-time decision making, some data processing and storage is moving closer to the network edge. We believe this will result in a buildup of private and edge cloud environments that will enable fast and secure access to data throughout the IoT ecosystem.
Factors contributing to the growth of digital content include:
Creation, sharing and consumption of media-rich content, such as high-resolution photos, high definition videos and digital music through smart phones, tablets, digital cameras, personal video cameras, DVRs, gaming consoles or other digital devices;
Increasing use of video and imaging sensors to collect and analyze data used to improve traffic flow, emergency response times and manufacturing production costs, as well as for new security surveillance systems that feature higher resolution digital cameras and thus require larger data storage capacities;
Creation and collection of data through the development and evolution of the IoT ecosystem, big data analytics, AI and new technology trends such as autonomous vehicles and drones, smart manufacturing, and smart cities, as well as emerging trends that converge the digital and physical worlds such as the metaverse or use of digital twins;
The growing use of analytics, especially for action on data created at the edge instead of processing and analyzing at the data center, which is particularly important for verticals such as autonomous vehicles, property monitoring systems, and smart manufacturing;
Cloud migration initiatives and the ongoing advancement of the cloud, including the build out of large numbers of cloud data centers by CSPs and private companies transitioning on-site data centers into the cloud; and
Need for protection of increased digital content through redundant storage on backup devices and externally provided storage services.
As a result of these factors, we anticipate that the nature and volume of data being created will require greater storage capability, which is more efficiently and economically facilitated by higher capacity mass storage devices.
In addition, the economics of storage infrastructure are also evolving. The utilization of public and private hyperscale storage and open-source solutions is reducing the total cost of ownership of storage while increasing the speed and efficiency with which customers can leverage massive computing and storage devices. Accordingly, we expect these trends will continue to create significant demand for data storage products and solutions going forward.
Demand Trends
We believe that continued growth in digital content creation will require increasingly higher storage capacity in order to store, aggregate, host, distribute, analyze, manage, protect, back up and use such content. We also believe that as architectures evolve to serve a growing commercial and consumer user base throughout the world, storage solutions will evolve as well.
Mass capacity is and will continue to be the enabler of scale. We expect increased data creation will lead to the expansion of the need for storage in the form of HDDs, SSDs and systems. While the advance of solid state technology in many end markets is expected to increase, we believe that in the foreseeable future, cloud, edge and traditional enterprise which require high-capacity storage solutions will be best served by HDDs due to their ability to deliver reliable, energy-efficient and the most cost effective mass storage devices. We also believe that as HDD capacities continue to increase, a focus exclusively on unit demand does not reflect the increase in demand for exabytes. As demand for higher capacity drives increases, the demand profile has shifted to reflect fewer total HDD units, but with higher average capacity per drive and higher overall exabyte demand.
Industry Supply Balance
From time to time, the storage industry has experienced periods of imbalance between supply and demand. To the extent that the storage industry builds or maintains capacity based on expectations of demand that do not materialize, price erosion may become more pronounced. Conversely, during periods where demand exceeds supply, price erosion is generally muted.

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Our Business
Data Storage Technologies
The design and manufacturing of HDDs depends on highly advanced technology and manufacturing techniques. Therefore, it requires high levels of research and development spending and capital equipment investments. We design, fabricate and assemble a number of the most important components in our disk drives, including read/write heads and recording media. Our design and manufacturing operations are based on technology platforms that are used to produce various disk drive products that serve multiple data storage applications and markets. Our core technology platforms focus on the areal density of media and read/write head technologies, including innovations like shingled-magnetic-recording ("SMR") technology, the high-capacity enabling heat-assisted magnetic recording (“HAMR”) technology, and the throughput-optimizing multi actuator MACH.2 technology. This design and manufacturing approach allows us to deliver a portfolio of storage products to service a wide range of data storage applications and industries.
Disk drives that we manufacture are commonly differentiated by the following key characteristics:
input/output operations per second (“IOPS”), commonly expressed in megabytes per second, which is the maximum number of reads and writes to a storage location;
storage capacity, commonly expressed in TB, which is the amount of data that can be stored on the disk drive;
spindle rotation speed, commonly expressed in revolutions per minute (“RPM”), which has an effect on speed of access to data;
interface transfer rate, commonly expressed in megabytes per second, which is the rate at which data moves between the disk drive and the computer controller;
average seek time, commonly expressed in milliseconds, which is the time needed to position the heads over a selected track on the disk surface;
data transfer rate, commonly expressed in megabytes per second, which is the rate at which data is transferred to and from the disk drive;
product quality and reliability, commonly expressed in annualized return rates; and
energy efficiency, commonly measured by the power output such as energy per TB necessary to operate the disk drive.
Areal density is measured by storage capacity per square inch on the recording surface of a disk. The storage capacity of a disk drive is determined by the size and number of disks it contains as well as the areal density capability of these disks.
We also offer SSDs as part of our storage solutions portfolio. Our portfolio includes devices with SATA, SAS and NVMe interfaces. The SSDs differ from HDDs in that they are without mechanical parts.
SSDs store data on NAND flash memory cells, or metal-oxide semiconductor transistors using a charge on a capacitor to represent a binary digit. SSD technology offers fast access to data and robust performance. SSDs complement hyperscale applications, high-density data centers, cloud environments and web servers. They are also used in mission-critical enterprise applications, consumer, gaming and NAS applications.
The SSHDs that we manufacture contain technology that fuses some features of SSDs and HDDs. They include HDDs with flash memory that acts as a cache to improve performance of frequently accessed data and are primarily targeted at PC gaming applications.
Manufacturing
We primarily design and manufacture our own read/write heads and recording media, which are critical technologies for disk drives. This integrated approach enables us to lower costs and to improve the functionality of components so that they work together efficiently.
We believe that because of our vertical design and manufacturing strategy, we are well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities to leverage the close interdependence of components for disk drives. Our manufacturing efficiency and flexibility are critical elements of our integrated business strategy. We continuously seek to improve our manufacturing efficiency and reduce manufacturing costs by:
employing manufacturing automation;
employing machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence;
improving product quality and reliability;
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integrating our supply chain with suppliers and customers to enhance our demand visibility and reduce our working capital requirements;
coordinating between our manufacturing group and our research and development organization to rapidly achieve volume manufacturing; and
operating our facilities at optimal capacities.
A vertically integrated model, however, tends to have less flexibility when demand declines as it exposes us to higher unit costs when capacity utilization is not optimized.
Components and Raw Materials
Disk drives incorporate certain components, including a head disk assembly and a printed circuit board mounted to the head disk assembly, which are sealed inside a rigid base and top cover containing the recording components in a contamination-controlled environment. We maintain a highly integrated approach to our business by designing and manufacturing a significant portion of the components we view as critical to our products, such as read/write heads and recording media.
Read/Write Heads. The function of the read/write head is to scan across the disk as it spins, magnetically recording or reading information. The tolerances of read/write heads are extremely demanding and require state-of-the-art equipment and processes. Our read/write heads are manufactured with thin-film and photolithographic processes similar to those used to produce semiconductor integrated circuits, though challenges related to magnetic film properties and topographical structures are unique to the disk drive industry. We perform all primary stages of design and manufacture of read/write heads at our facilities. We use a combination of internally manufactured and externally sourced read/write heads, the mix of which varies based on product mix, technology and our internal capacity levels.
Media. Data is written to or read from the media, or disk, as it rotates at very high speeds past the read/write head. The media is made from non-magnetic substrates, usually an aluminum alloy or glass and is coated with thin layers of magnetic materials. We use a combination of internally manufactured and externally sourced finished media and aluminum substrates, the mix of which varies based on product mix, technology and our internal capacity levels. We purchase all of our glass substrates from third parties.
Printed Circuit Board Assemblies. The printed circuit board assemblies (“PCBAs”) are comprised of standard and custom ASICs and ancillary electronic control chips. The ASICs control the movement of data to and from the read/write heads and through the internal controller and interface, which communicates with the host computer. The ASICs and control chips form electronic circuitry that delivers instructions to a head positioning mechanism called an actuator to guide the heads to the selected track of a disk where the data is recorded or retrieved. Disk drive manufacturers use one or more industry standard interfaces such as SATA, SCSI, or SAS to communicate to the host systems.
Head Disk Assembly. The head disk assembly consists of one or more disks attached to a spindle assembly powered by a spindle motor that rotates the disks at a high constant speed around a hub. Read/write heads, mounted on an arm assembly, similar in concept to that of a record player, fly extremely close to each disk surface, and record data on and retrieve it from concentric tracks in the magnetic layers of the rotating disks. The read/write heads are mounted vertically on an E-shaped assembly (“E-block”) that is actuated by a voice-coil motor to allow the heads to move from track to track. The E-block and the recording media are mounted inside the head disk assembly. We purchase spindle motors from outside vendors and from time to time participate in the design of the motors that go into our products.
Disk Drive Assembly. Following the completion of the head disk assembly, it is mated to the PCBA, and the completed unit goes through extensive defect mapping and machine learning prior to packaging and shipment. Disk drive assembly and machine learning operations occur primarily at our facilities located in China and Thailand. We perform subassembly and component manufacturing operations at our facilities in China, Malaysia, Northern Ireland, Singapore, Thailand and the United States.
Contract Manufacturing. We outsource the manufacturing and assembly of certain components and products to third parties in various countries worldwide. This includes outsourcing the PCBAs used in our disk drives, SSDs and storage subsystems. We continue to participate in the design of our components and products, and we are directly involved in qualifying key suppliers and components used in our products.
Suppliers of Components and Industry Constraints. There are a limited number of independent suppliers of components, such as recording heads and media, available to disk drive manufacturers. Vertically integrated disk drive manufacturers like us, who manufacture their own components, are less dependent on external component suppliers than less vertically integrated disk drive manufacturers. However, certain parts of our business have been adversely affected by our suppliers’ capacity constraints and this could occur in the future.
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Commodity and Other Manufacturing Costs. The production of disk drives requires rare earth elements, precious metals, scarce alloys and industrial commodities, which are subject to fluctuations in price and the supply of which has at times been constrained. In addition to increased costs of components and commodities, volatility in fuel and other transportation costs may also increase our costs related to commodities, manufacturing and freight. As a result, we may increase our use of alternative shipment methods to help offset any increase in freight costs, and we will continually review various forms of shipments and routes in order to minimize the exposure to higher freight costs.
Products
We offer a broad range of storage solutions for mass capacity storage and legacy applications. We differentiate products on the basis of capacity, performance, product quality, reliability, price, form factor, interface, power consumption efficiency, security features and other customer integration requirements. Our industry is characterized by continuous and significant advances in technology that contribute to rapid product life cycles. Currently our product offerings include:
Mass Capacity Storage
Enterprise Nearline HDDs. Our high-capacity enterprise HDDs ship in capacities of up to 20TB. These products are designed for mass capacity data storage in the core and at the edge, as well as server environments and cloud systems that require high capacity, enterprise reliability, energy efficiency and integrated security. They are available in SATA and SAS interfaces.
Enterprise Nearline SSDs. Our enterprise SSDs are designed for high-performance, hyperscale, high-density and cloud applications. They are offered with multiple interfaces, including SAS, SATA, and NVMe and in capacities up to 15TB.
Enterprise Nearline Systems. Our systems portfolio provides modular storage arrays, storage server platforms, multi-level configuration for disks (commonly referred as JBODs) and expansion shelves to expand and upgrade data center storage infrastructure and other enterprise applications. They feature speed, scalability and security. Our capacity-optimized systems feature multiple scalable configurations and can accommodate up to 106 20TB drives per chassis. We offer capacity and performance-optimized systems that include all-flash, all-disk and hybrid arrays for workloads demanding high performance, capacity and efficiency.
VIA. Our video and image HDDs are built to support the high-write workload of an always-on, always-recording video systems. These optimized drives are built to support the growing needs of the video imaging market with support for multiple streams and capacities up to 20TB.
NAS. Our NAS drives are built to support the performance and reliability demanded by small and medium businesses, and incorporate interface software with custom-built health management, error recovery controls, power settings and vibration tolerance. Our NAS HDD solutions are available in capacities up to 20TB. We also offer NAS SSDs with capacities up to 2TB.
Legacy Applications
Mission Critical HDDs and SSDs. We continue to support 10,000 and 15,000 RPM HDDs, offered in capacities up to 2.4TB, which enable increased throughput while improving energy efficiency. Our enterprise SSDs are available in capacities up to 15TB, with endurance options up to 10 drive writes per day and various interfaces. Our SSDs deliver the speed and consistency required for demanding enterprise storage and server applications.
Consumer Solutions. Our external storage solutions, with capacities up to 20TB are shipped, under the Seagate Ultra Touch, One Touch, Expansion and Basics product lines, as well as under the LaCie brand name. We strive to deliver the best customer experience by leveraging our core technologies, offering services such as Seagate Recovery Services (data recovery) and partnering with leading brands such as Microsoft’s Xbox, Sony’s PlayStation and Disney’s Star Wars and Marvel.
Client Applications. Our 3.5-inch desktop drives offer up to 8TB of capacity, designed for personal computers and workstation applications and our 2.5-inch notebook drives offer up to 5TB for HDD and up to 2TB for SSD designed for applications such as traditional notebooks, convertible systems and external storage to address a range of performance needs and sizes for affordable, high-capacity storage. Our DVR HDDs are optimized for video streaming in always-on consumer premise equipment applications with capacities up to 6TB. Our gaming SSDs are specifically optimized internal storage for gaming rigs and are designed to enhance the gaming experience during game load and game play with capacities up to 4TB for SSD.
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Lyve Edge-to-Cloud Mass Capacity Platform
Lyve. Lyve is our new platform built with mass data in mind. These solutions, including modular hardware and software, deliver a portfolio that streamlines data access, transport and management for today’s enterprise.
Cloud. Lyve Cloud storage-as-a-service platform is an S3-compatible storage-only cloud designed to allow enterprises to unlock the value of their massive unstructured datasets. We collaborate with certain partners to maximize accessibility and provide extensive interconnect opportunities for additional cloud services and geographical expansion.
Data Services. Lyve Mobile Data Transfer Services consists of Lyve Mobile modular and scalable hardware, purpose-built for simple and secure mass-capacity edge data storage, lift-and-shift initiatives, and other data movement for the enterprise. These products are cloud-vendor agnostic and can be integrated seamlessly with public or private cloud data centers and providers.
Cortx. Cortx is an intelligent object storage software that is optimized for mass capacity and data-intensive workloads. This software is open source and has cloud interoperability, including S3-compatibility.
Customers
We sell our products to major OEMs, distributors and retailers.
OEM customers, including large hyperscale data center companies and CSPs, typically enter into master purchase agreements with us. Deliveries are scheduled only after receipt of purchase orders. In addition, with limited lead-time, customers may defer most purchase orders without significant penalty. Anticipated orders from many of our customers have in the past failed to materialize or OEM delivery schedules have been deferred or altered as a result of changes in their business needs.
Our distributors generally enter into non-exclusive agreements for the resale of our products. They typically furnish us with a non-binding indication of their near-term requirements and product deliveries are generally scheduled accordingly. The agreements and related sales programs typically provide the distributors with limited rights of return and price protection. In addition, we offer sales programs to distributors on a quarterly and periodic basis to promote the sale of selected products in the sales channel.
Our retail channel consists of our branded storage products sold to retailers either by us directly or by our distributors. Retail sales made by us or our distributors typically require greater marketing support, sales incentives and price protection periods.
See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 16. Business Segment and Geographic Information” contained in this report for a description of our major customers.
Competition
We compete primarily with manufacturers of hard drives used in the mass capacity storage and legacy markets, and with other companies in the data storage industry that provide SSDs and systems. Some of the principal factors used by customers to differentiate among data storage solutions manufacturers are storage capacity, product performance, product quality and reliability, price per unit and price per TB, storage/retrieval access times, data transfer rates, form factor, product warranty and support capabilities, supply continuity and flexibility, power consumption, total cost of ownership and brand. While different markets and customers place varying levels of emphasis on these factors, we believe that our products are competitive with respect to many of these factors in the markets that we currently compete in.
Principal Competitors. We compete with manufacturers of storage solutions and the other principal manufacturers in the data storage solution industry including:
Micron Technology, Inc.;
Samsung Electronics;
SK hynix, Inc.;
Kioxia Holdings Corporation;
Toshiba Corporation; and
Western Digital Corporation, operating the Western Digital, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies and SanDisk brands.
Price Erosion. Historically, our industry has been characterized by price declines for data storage products with comparable capacity, performance and feature sets (“like-for-like products”). Price declines for like-for-like products (“price erosion”) tend to be more pronounced during periods of:
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economic contraction in which competitors may use discounted pricing to attempt to maintain or gain market share;
few new product introductions when competitors have comparable or alternative product offerings; and
industry supply exceeding demand.
Data storage manufacturers typically attempt to offset price erosion with an improved mix of data storage products characterized by higher capacity, better performance and additional feature sets and product cost reductions.
We believe the HDD industry experienced modest price erosion in fiscal years 2022 and 2021.
Product Life Cycles and Changing Technology. Success in our industry has been dependent to a large extent on the ability to balance the introduction and transition of new products with time-to-volume, performance, capacity and quality metrics at a competitive price, level of service and support that our customers expect. Generally, the drive manufacturer that introduces a new product first benefits from improved product mix, favorable profit margins and less pricing pressure until comparable products are introduced. Changing technology also necessitates on-going investments in research and development, which may be difficult to recover due to rapid product life cycles or economic declines. Further, there is a continuing need to successfully execute product transitions and new product introductions, as factors such as quality, reliability and manufacturing yields continue to be of significant competitive importance.
Cyclicality and Seasonality
Our mass capacity markets are subject to variability of sales, which can be attributed to the timing of IT spending or a reflection of cyclical demand from CSPs based on the timing of their procurement and deployment requirements and their ability to procure other components needed to build out data center infrastructure. Our legacy markets, such as consumer storage applications, traditionally experienced seasonal variability in demand with higher levels of demand in the first half of the fiscal year, primarily driven by consumer spending related to back-to-school season and traditional holiday shopping season.
Research and Development
We are committed to developing new component technologies, products, alternative storage technologies inclusive of systems, software and other innovative technology solutions to support emerging applications in data use and storage. Our research and development activities are designed to bring new products to market in high volume, with quality attributes that our customers expect, before our competitors. Part of our product development strategy is to leverage a design platform and/or subsystem within product families to serve different market needs. This platform strategy allows for more efficient resource utilization, leverages best design practices, reduces exposure to changes in demand, and allows for achievement of lower costs through purchasing economies. Our advanced technology integration effort focuses disk drive and component research on recording subsystems, including read/write heads and recording media; market-specific product technology; and technology we believe may lead to new business opportunities. The primary purpose of our advanced technology integration effort is to ensure timely availability of mature component technologies for our product development teams as well as to allow us to leverage and coordinate those technologies in the design centers across our products in order to take advantage of opportunities in the marketplace.
Patents and Licenses
As of July 1, 2022, we had approximately 4,800 U.S. patents and 720 patents issued in various foreign jurisdictions as well as approximately 550 U.S. and 140 foreign patent applications pending. The number of patents and patent applications will vary at any given time as part of our ongoing patent portfolio management activity. Due to the rapid technological change that characterizes the data storage industry, we believe that, in addition to patent protection, the improvement of existing products, reliance upon trade secrets, protection of unpatented proprietary know-how and development of new products are also important to our business in establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage. Accordingly, we intend to continue our efforts to broadly protect our intellectual property, including obtaining patents, where available, in connection with our research and development program.
The data storage industry is characterized by significant litigation arising from time to time relating to patent and other intellectual property rights. From time to time, we receive claims that our products infringe patents of third parties. Although we have been able to resolve some of those claims or potential claims without a material adverse effect on us, other claims have resulted in adverse decisions or settlements. In addition, other claims are pending, which if resolved unfavorably to us could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. For more information on these claims, see “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 14. Legal, Environmental and Other Contingencies.” The costs of
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engaging in intellectual property litigation in the past have been, and in the future may be, substantial, irrespective of the merits of the claim or the outcome.
Environmental Matters
Our operations are subject to laws and regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing discharges of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes and the cleanup of contaminated sites. Some of our operations require environmental permits and controls to prevent and reduce air and water pollution, and these permits are subject to modification, renewal and revocation by issuing authorities.
We have established environmental management systems and continually update environmental policies and standard operating procedures for our operations worldwide. We believe that our operations are in material compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permits. We budget for operating and capital costs on an ongoing basis to comply with environmental laws. If additional or more stringent requirements are imposed on us in the future, we could incur additional operating costs and capital expenditures.
Some environmental laws, such as the U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (as amended, the “Superfund” law) and its state equivalents, can impose liability for the cost of cleanup of contaminated sites upon any of the current or former site owners or operators or upon parties who sent waste to these sites, regardless of whether the owner or operator owned the site at the time of the release of hazardous substances or the lawfulness of the original disposal activity. We have been identified as a responsible or potentially responsible party at several sites. Based on current estimates of cleanup costs and our expected allocation of these costs, we do not expect costs in connection with these sites to be material.
We may be subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations governing environmental matters, including those restricting the presence of certain substances in electronic products. For example, the European Union (“EU”) enacted the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (2011/65/EU), which prohibits the use of certain substances, including lead, in certain products, including disk drives and server storage products, put on the market after July 1, 2006. Similar legislation has been or may be enacted in other jurisdictions, including in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Taiwan, China and Japan. The EU REACH Directive (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals, EC 1907/2006) also restricts substances of very high concern in products. If we or our suppliers fail to comply with the substance restrictions, recycle requirements or other environmental requirements as they are enacted worldwide, it could have a materially adverse effect on our business.
Social and Employee Matters
As of July 1, 2022, we employed approximately 40,000 employees and temporary employees worldwide, of which approximately 36,000 were located in our Asia operations. We believe that our employees are crucial to our current success and that our future success will depend, in part, on our ability to attract, retain and further motivate qualified employees at all levels. We believe that our employee relations are good.
Diversity, Equity & Inclusion. One of our core values is inclusion. We rely on our diverse workforce to develop, deliver and sustain our business strategy and achieve our goals. One way we embrace our diverse employees and promote a culture of inclusion is through the support of employee resource groups (“ERG”). These voluntary, employee-led communities are built on a shared diversity of identity, experience or thought and provide a number of benefits to employees, including professional and leadership development. Seagate’s ERG community encompasses a wide array of diversity, such as LGBTQ+, women, people of color and interfaith, and includes over 26 chapters across six countries. We also support inclusion through active employee communications, unconscious bias education and ongoing efforts to ensure our employees feel safe, respected and welcomed. During fiscal year 2022, we published our third annual Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (“DEI”) Report, which provides an overview of our DEI efforts and outcomes including demographics on our workforce. The fiscal year 2021 DEI Report is available on our website.
Health & Safety. All our manufacturing sites have health and safety management systems certified to ISO 45001. In addition, we are audited to health and safety standards set forth by the Responsible Business Alliance. Our global health and safety standards, as well as our accompanying management systems, frequently go beyond country or industry-level guidelines to ensure that we keep our employees healthy and safe. We also host regulatory visits that focus on issues such as safety, radiation, fire codes, food and transportation. Through our Environment, Health and Safety (“EHS”) Management Systems, we ensure that the focus remains on the continuous improvement and provide comprehensive health and safety training to our employees. We emphasize e-learning courses as our main vehicle for delivering such training because employees can learn at their own pace. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and to protect the health and well-being of our employees, customers, suppliers and the communities in which we operate we implemented significant safety protocols over the past two and a half
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years. We continue to ensure that our COVID-19 pandemic protocols remain in place as needed to ensure the health and safety of our employees. We continue to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and adjust these measures over time as appropriate to protect the health and well-being of our employees, customers, suppliers and communities.
Development, Retention, Compensation, Benefits & Engagement. Our performance management system is a continuous process that helps team members focus on the right priorities. Meaningful conversations between managers and employees are the foundation of performance management at Seagate. We focus on dialogue centered around manager and employee conversations, and ongoing feedback, to align goals. This approach focuses on achieving high-quality productive dialogue between managers and employees. We also encourage our employees to participate in the many learning opportunities that are available at Seagate. The portfolio of learning and training formats include but are not limited to mentoring and coaching, e-learning opportunities, LinkedIn Learning classroom training, on-the-job training and other strategic internal programs that cover topics ranging from leadership and technical skills to health, safety and the environment. In addition, we are investing in upskilling and re-deploying employees as needed to support our future growth and respond to the changing demands of the business. For example, our internal mobility and career development tool provides Seagate employees the opportunity to establish networking and mentor connections, identify and participate in internal part-time projects, and explore internal full-time positions.
Our Total Rewards program is designed to attract, motivate and retain talented people in order to successfully meet our business goals. The program includes base pay, annual bonuses, commissions, equity awards, an employee share purchasing plan, retirement savings opportunities and other employee health and wellness benefits. Our compensation programs and guidelines are structured to align pay with performance and aim to provide internally and externally competitive total compensation.
Employee engagement is the psychological commitment and passion that drives discretionary effort. It predicts individual performance and is the measure of the relationship between employees and the Company. Our engagement survey includes facets of the employee experience throughout the employee life cycle. Employee experience is what employees encounter and observe over the course of their career at Seagate. A positive employee experience can have an impact on everything from recruiting to Seagate's bottom line.
In our fiscal year 2022 survey, 92% of our global employees shared their feedback on their experience at Seagate. Following the conclusion of the survey, leaders were provided access to a dashboard with results that shared the key drivers of engagement specific to their own department. Leaders were asked to follow our “Review, Share and Take Action!” process to analyze their results, share and discuss with their teams, and create customized action plans designed to have the greatest impact on engagement for a particular department.
Giving Back. Our community engagement program is designed to provide support to our local communities, with an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (“STEM”) and also address health and human services, and environmental opportunities. The program is reflective of Seagate’s vertically integrated model, with multiple large facilities across EMEA, Asia and the United States. Accordingly, the program is highly localized, involving a cross-functional process to identify and execute on opportunities that are meaningful locally.
In general, we maintain an emphasis on STEM, targeting K-12 students, supporting STEM efforts in a way that is age-appropriate and allows for fun as well as learning. In fiscal year 2022, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Seagate pivoted to virtual engagements and funding of STEM partners as they worked to deliver their programs online or in a socially distanced manner. Seagate also increased support of health & human services partnerships due to the pandemic, such as support of food banks, clinics, and non-profit organizations providing COVID-19 pandemic health care and relief, while sustaining many of our ongoing community partnerships.
Global Citizenship Report
Additional information regarding our environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) commitment and progress can be found on the Global Citizenship section of our website and in our Global Citizenship Annual Report (“GCAR”). Information contained on our website or in our annual GCAR is not incorporated by reference into this or any other report we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Financial Information
Financial information for our reportable business segment and about geographic areas is set forth in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 16. Business Segment and Geographic Information.”
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Corporate Information
Seagate Technology Holdings public limited company is a public limited company organized under the laws of Ireland.
Available Information
Availability of Reports. We are a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Exchange Act”), and we file reports, proxy statements and other information with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Because we make filings to the SEC electronically, the public may access this information at the SEC's website: www.sec.gov. This site contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
Website Access. Our website is www.seagate.com. We make available, free of charge at the “Investor Relations” section of our website (investors.seagate.com), our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the 1934 Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Reports of beneficial ownership filed pursuant to Section 16(a) of the 1934 Exchange Act are also available on our website.
Investors. Investors and others should note that we routinely use the Investor Relations section of our website to announce material information to investors and the marketplace. While not all of the information that the Company posts on its corporate website is of a material nature, some information could be deemed to be material. Accordingly, the Company encourages investors, the media and others interested in the Company to review the information that it shares on www.seagate.com. Information in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated into this Form 10-K.
Information About Our Executive Officers
The following sets forth the name, age and position of each of the persons who were serving as executive officers as of August 5, 2022. There are no family relationships among any of our executive officers.
NameAgePositions
Dr. William D. Mosley55Director and Chief Executive Officer
Gianluca Romano53Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Ravinandan Naik51Executive Vice President, Storage Services and Chief Information Officer
Jeffrey D. Nygaard58Executive Vice President, Operations and Technology
Katherine E. Schuelke59Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary
Ban Seng Teh56Executive Vice President, Global Sales and Marketing

Dr. William D. Mosley, 55, has served as our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) since October 2017 and as a member of the Board since July 25, 2017. He was previously our President and Chief Operating Officer (“COO”) from June 2016 to September 2017. He also served as our President of Operations and Technology from October 2013 to June 2016 and as our Executive Vice President of Operations from March 2011 until October 2013. Prior to these positions, Dr. Mosley served as Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing from February 2009 through March 2011; Senior Vice President of Global Disk Storage Operations from 2007 to 2009; and Vice President of Research and Development, Engineering from 2002 to 2007. He joined Seagate in 1996 as a Senior Engineer with a PhD in solid state physics. From 1996 to 2002, he served at Seagate in varying roles of increasing responsibility until his promotion to Vice President.
Gianluca Romano, 53, has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since January 2019. From October 2011 to December 2018, Mr. Romano served as Corporate Vice President, Business Finance and Accounting at Micron Technology, Inc (“Micron”), a producer of computer memory and computer data storage. Prior to his role at Micron, Mr. Romano served as Vice President Finance, Corporate Controller at Numonyx, Inc., a flash memory company which was acquired by Micron in February 2010, from 2008 to 2010. From 1994 until 2008, Mr. Romano held various finance positions at STMicroelectronics, an electronics and semiconductor manufacturer, most recently as Group Vice-President, Central & North Europe Finance Director, Shared Accounting Services Director.
Ravinandan Naik, 51 has served as our Executive Vice President of Storage Services and Chief Information Officer (“CIO”) since February 2021. Prior to that Mr. Naik served as Senior Vice President Corporate Strategy and CIO from January 2019 to February 2021, and Senior Vice President and CIO from June 2017 to January 2019. Prior to joining Seagate in 2017, Mr. Naik was the Senior Vice President of Technology at Katerra, a technology startup in the construction industry. Mr. Naik worked for SanDisk, a supplier of flash storage products, as Senior Vice President and CIO from 2013 to May 2016, and Head
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of Global Real Estate, Workplace and Corporate Physical Security from January 2012 to April 2016, Vice President and CIO from 2009 to 2013, and Director of the Enterprise Resource Planning Program from 2007 to 2009. Before that, he held leadership positions at Mercury Interactive, a software company, Hewlett Packard, an information technology company, and 3Com Corporation, a digital electronics manufacturer.
Jeffrey D. Nygaard, 58, has served as our Executive Vice President, Operations and Technology Development since November 2018; his areas of responsibility expanded to include Quality in October 2019 and Customer Technical Engagement in April 2020. Mr. Nygaard also served as our Executive Vice President, Global Operations from October 2017 to November 2018; Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Supply Chain from March 2017 to October 2017; Senior Vice President, Recording Head Operations from May 2013 to February 2017; Vice President Slider, HGA, HSA Operations from 2011 to April 2013; Vice President and Country Manager, Thailand and Penang Operations from 2009 to 2011; Vice President and Country Manager, Thailand Operations and Asia Drive Engineering from 2006 to 2009; and Vice President, Product and Process Development from 2004 to 2006. From 1994 to 2006, Mr. Nygaard served in varying roles of increasing responsibilities in engineering at Seagate until his promotion to Vice President. Mr. Nygaard began his career with Raytheon and IBM where he held positions as a design engineer and senior engineer.
Katherine E. Schuelke, 59, has served as our Senior Vice President, Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary since June 2017. From 2011 to January 2016, Ms. Schuelke was the Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary at Altera Corporation (“Altera”), a manufacturer of programmable logic devices. Prior to that, Ms. Schuelke was Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary at Altera from 2001 to 2011. At Altera, she held other positions of increasing responsibility from 1996 through 2001. Ms. Schuelke began her career at an international law firm. Ms. Schuelke serves on the board of directors of SiTime Corporation, a provider of silicon timing solutions, and on its Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees.
Ban Seng Teh, 56, has served as our Executive Vice President of Global Sales and Marketing since July 2022. Prior to that, Mr. Teh served as Executive Vice President of Global Sales and Sales Operations from February 2021 to July 2022 and Senior Vice President of Global Sales and Sales Operations from November 2014 to February 2021. Mr. Teh also served as our Senior Vice President of Asia-Pacific and Japan Sales and marketing from July 2010 to November 2014. Mr. Teh joined Seagate in 1989 as a field customer engineer and has served in varying roles of increasing responsibilities, including as Vice President, Asia Pacific Sales and Marketing (Singapore) from January 2008 to July 2010; Vice President, Sales Operations from 2006 to 2008; Vice President, Asia Pacific Sales from 2003 to 2006; Director, Marketing and APAC Distribution Sales from 1999 to 2003; and Country Manager, South Asia Sales from 1996 to 1999.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the principal risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, brand and/or the price of our outstanding ordinary shares, and make an investment in our ordinary shares speculative or risky. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk factor contained below. Additional risks beyond those summarized below or discussed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may apply to our business and operations as currently conducted or as we may conduct them in the future or to the markets in which we currently, or may in the future, operate.
Risks Related to our Business, Operations and Industry
Our ability to increase our revenue and maintain our market share depends on our ability to successfully introduce and achieve market acceptance of new products on a timely basis. If our products do not keep pace with customer requirements, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
We operate in highly competitive markets and our failure to anticipate and respond to technological changes and other market developments, including price, could harm our ability to compete.
We may be adversely affected by the loss of, or reduced, delayed or canceled purchases by, one or more of our key customers.
We are dependent on sales to distributors and retailers, which may increase price erosion and the volatility of our sales.
We must plan our investments in our products and incur costs before we have customer orders or know about the market conditions at the time the products are produced. If we fail to predict demand accurately for our products or if the markets for our products change, we may be unable to meet demand or we may have insufficient demand, which may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in demand for computer systems, data storage subsystems and consumer electronic devices may in the future cause a decline in demand for our products, or an increase in demand for our products that we are unable to meet.
We have a long and unpredictable sales cycle for nearline storage solutions, which impairs our ability to accurately predict our financial and operating results in any period and may adversely affect our ability to forecast the need for investments and expenditures.
We experience seasonal declines in the sales of our consumer products during the second half of our fiscal year which may adversely affect our results of operations.
We may not be successful in our efforts to grow our systems, SSD and Lyve revenues.
Our worldwide sales operations subject us to risks that may adversely affect our business related to disruptions in international markets, currency exchange fluctuations, increased costs, and global health outbreaks.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as the operations and financial performance of many of the customers and suppliers in industries that we serve. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related effects will adversely impact our business operations, financial performance, results of operations, financial position and the achievement of our strategic objectives.
If we do not control our costs, we will not be able to compete effectively.
Risks Associated with Supply and Manufacturing
Shortages or delays in the receipt of, or cost increases in, critical components, equipment or raw materials necessary to manufacture our products, may cause us to suffer lower operating margins, production delays and other material adverse effects.
Shortages or delays in critical components, as well as reliance on single-source suppliers, can affect our production and development of products and may harm our operating results.
If revenues fall or customer demand decreases significantly, we may not meet all of our purchase commitments to certain suppliers.
Due to the complexity of our products, some defects may only become detectable after deployment.
Risks Related to Human Capital
The loss of or inability to attract, retain and motivate key executive officers and employees could negatively impact our business prospects.
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We are subject to risks related to corporate and social responsibility and reputation.
Risks Related to Financial Performance or General Economic Conditions
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows from operations and our investments to meet our liquidity requirements, including servicing our indebtedness.
We are subject to counterparty default risks.
Our quarterly results of operations fluctuate, sometimes significantly, from period to period, and may cause our share price to decline.
Any cost reduction initiatives that we undertake may not deliver the results we expect, and these actions may adversely affect our business.
Changes in the macroeconomic environment may in the future negatively impact our results of operations.
The effect of geopolitical uncertainties, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues and other circumstances, on national and/ or international commerce and on the global economy, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
Our business is subject to various laws, regulations, governmental policies, litigation, governmental investigations or governmental proceedings that may cause us to incur significant expense or adversely impact our results or operations and financial condition.
Some of our products and services are subject to export control laws and other laws affecting the countries in which our products and services may be sold, distributed, or delivered, and any changes to or violation of these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Changes in U.S. trade policy, including the imposition of sanctions or tariffs and the resulting consequences, may have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are at times subject to intellectual property proceedings and claims which could cause us to incur significant additional costs or prevent us from selling our products, and which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our business and certain products and services depend in part on IP and technology licensed from third parties, as well as data centers and infrastructure operated by third parties.
Risks Related to Information Technology, Data and Information Security
We could suffer a loss of revenue and increased costs, exposure to significant liability including legal and regulatory consequences, reputational harm and other serious negative consequences in the event of cyber-attacks, ransomware or other cyber security breaches or incidents that disrupt our operations or result in unauthorized access to, or the loss, corruption, unavailability or dissemination of proprietary or confidential information of our customers or about us or our customers or other third parties.
We must successfully maintain and upgrade our IT systems, and our failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Owning our Ordinary Shares
The price of our ordinary shares may be volatile and could decline significantly.
Any decision to reduce or discontinue the payment of cash dividends to our shareholders or the repurchase of our ordinary shares pursuant to our previously announced share repurchase program could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline significantly.
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RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS, OPERATIONS AND INDUSTRY
Our ability to increase our revenue and maintain our market share depends on our ability to successfully introduce and achieve market acceptance of new products on a timely basis. If our products do not keep pace with customer requirements, our results of operations will be adversely affected.
The markets for our products are characterized by rapid technological change, frequent new product introductions and technology enhancements, uncertain product life cycles and changes in customer demand. The success of our products and services also often depends on whether our offerings are compatible with our customers’ or third-parties’ products or services and their changing technologies. Our customers demand new generations of storage products as advances in computer hardware and software have created the need for improved storage, with features such as increased storage capacity, enhanced security, energy efficiency, improved performance and reliability and lower cost. We, and our competitors, have developed improved products, and we will need to continue to do so in the future.
Historically, our results of operations have substantially depended upon our ability to be among the first-to-market with new data storage product offerings. We may face technological, operational and financial challenges in developing new products. In addition, our investments in new product development may not yield the anticipated benefits. Our market share, revenue and results of operations in the future may be adversely affected if we fail to:
develop new products, identify business strategies and timely introduce competitive product offerings to meet technological shifts, or we are unable to execute successfully;
consistently maintain our time-to-market performance with our new products;
produce these products in adequate volume;
meet specifications or satisfy compatibility requirements;
qualify these products with key customers on a timely basis by meeting our customers’ performance and quality specifications; or
achieve acceptable manufacturing yields, quality and costs with these products.
Accordingly, we cannot accurately determine the ultimate effect that our new products will have on our results of operations. Our failure to accurately anticipate customers’ needs and accurately identify the shift in technological changes could materially adversely affect our long-term financial results.
In addition, the concentration of customers in our largest end markets magnifies the potential effect of missing a product qualification opportunity. If the delivery of our products is delayed, our customers may use our competitors’ products to meet their requirements.
When we develop new products with higher capacity and more advanced technology, our results of operations may decline because the increased difficulty and complexity associated with producing these products increases the likelihood of reliability, quality or operability problems. If our products experience increases in failure rates, are of low quality or are not reliable, customers may reduce their purchases of our products, our factory utilization may decrease and our manufacturing rework and scrap costs and our service and warranty costs may increase. In addition, a decline in the reliability of our products may make it more difficult for us to effectively compete with our competitors.
Additionally, we may be unable to produce new products that have higher capacities and more advanced technologies in the volumes and timeframes that are required to meet customer demand. We are transitioning to key areal density recording technologies that use HAMR technology to increase HDD capacities. If our transitions to more advanced technologies, including the transition to HDDs utilizing HAMR technology, require development and production cycles that are longer than anticipated or if we otherwise fail to implement new HDD technologies successfully, we may lose sales and market share, which could significantly harm our financial results.
We cannot assure you that we will be among the leaders in time-to-market with new products or that we will be able to successfully qualify new products with our customers in the future. If our new products are not successful, our future results of operations may be adversely affected.
We operate in highly competitive markets and our failure to anticipate and respond to technological changes and other market developments, including price, could harm our ability to compete.
We face intense competition in the data storage industry. Our principal sources of competition include HDD and SSD manufacturers, and companies that provide storage subsystems, including electronic manufacturing services and contract electronic manufacturing.
The markets for our data storage products are characterized by technological change, which is driven in part by the adoption of new industry standards. These standards provide mechanisms to ensure technology component interoperability but they also hinder our ability to innovate or differentiate our products. When this occurs, our products may be deemed commodities, which could result in downward pressure on prices.
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We also experience competition from other companies that produce alternative storage technologies such as flash memory, where increasing capacity, decreasing cost, energy efficiency and improvements in performance have resulted in increased competition with our lower capacity, smaller form factor disk drives and a declining trend in demand for HDDs in our legacy markets. Some customers for both mass capacity storage and legacy markets have adopted SSDs as an alternative to hard drives in certain applications. Further adoption of SSDs or other alternative storage technologies may limit our total addressable HDD market, impact the competitiveness of our product portfolio and reduce our market share. Any resulting increase in competition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by the loss of, or reduced, delayed or canceled purchases by, one or more of our key customers.
Some of our key customers such as OEM customers including large hyperscale data center companies and CSPs account for a large portion of our revenue in our mass capacity markets. While we have long-standing relationships with many of our customers, if any key customers were to significantly reduce, defer or cancel their purchases from us or delay product acceptances, or we were prohibited from selling to those key customers, our results of operations would be adversely affected. Although sales to key customers may vary from period to period, a key customer that permanently discontinues or significantly reduces its relationship with us, or that we are prohibited from selling to, could be difficult to replace. In line with industry practice, new key customers usually require that we pass a lengthy and rigorous qualification process. Accordingly, it may be difficult or costly for us to attract new key customers. Conversely, if one of our key customers unexpectedly increases its orders, we may be unable to produce the additional product volumes in a timely manner or take advantage of any overall increased market demand. This could damage our customer relationships and reputation, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Additionally, some of our key customers are subject to cyclical demand which may result in variability of their orders and timing of their purchase with us and if one of our key customers unexpectedly reduces, delays or cancels orders, our revenues and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Furthermore, if there is consolidation among our customer base, our customers may be able to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. Furthermore, if such customer pressures require us to reduce our pricing such that our gross margins are diminished, it might not be feasible to sell to a particular customer, which could result in a decrease in our revenue. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our products, replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of our competitors and cancellations of orders, each of which could adversely affect our results of operations. If a significant transaction or regulatory impact involving any of our key customers results in the loss of or reduction in purchases by these key customers, it could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are dependent on sales to distributors and retailers, which may increase price erosion and the volatility of our sales.
A substantial portion of our sales has been to distributors and retailers of disk drive products. Certain of our distributors and retailers may also market competing products. We face significant competition in this distribution channel as a result of limited product qualification programs and a focus on price, terms and product availability. Sales volumes through this channel are also less predictable and subject to greater volatility. In addition, deterioration in business and economic conditions could exacerbate price erosion and volatility as distributors or retailers lower prices to compensate for lower demand and higher inventory levels. Our distributors’ and retailers’ ability to access credit to fund their operations may also affect their purchases of our products. If prices decline significantly in this distribution channel or our distributors or retailers reduce purchases of our products or if distributors or retailers experience financial difficulties or terminate their relationships with us, our revenues and results of operations would be adversely affected.
We must plan our investments in our products and incur costs before we have customer orders or know about the market conditions at the time the products are produced. If we fail to predict demand accurately for our products or if the markets for our products change, we may be unable to meet demand or we may have insufficient demand, which may materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Our manufacturing process requires us to make significant product-specific investments in inventory for production at least three to six months in advance. As a result, we incur inventory and manufacturing costs in advance of anticipated sales that may never materialize or that may be substantially lower than expected. If actual demand for our products is lower than the forecast, we may also experience higher inventory carrying costs, manufacturing rework costs and product obsolescence. Conversely, if we underestimate demand, we may have insufficient inventory to satisfy demand and may have to forego sales.
Other factors that have affected and may continue to affect our ability to anticipate or meet the demand for our products and adversely affect our results of operations include:
competitive product announcements or technological advances that result in excess supply when customers cancel purchases in anticipation of newer products;
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variable demand resulting from unanticipated upward or downward pricing pressures;
our ability to successfully qualify, manufacture and sell our data storage products;
changes in our product mix, which may adversely affect our gross margins;
key customers deferring or canceling purchases or delaying product acceptances, or unexpected increases in their orders;
manufacturing delays or interruptions, particularly at our manufacturing facilities in China, Malaysia, Northern Ireland, Singapore, Thailand or the United States;
limited access to components that we obtain from a single or a limited number of suppliers; and
the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates on the cost of producing our products and the effective price of our products to non-U.S. customers.
Changes in demand for computer systems, data storage subsystems and consumer electronic devices may in the future cause a decline in demand for our products, or an increase in demand for our products that we are unable to meet.
Our products are components in computers, data storage systems and consumer electronic devices. Historically, the demand for these products has been volatile. Unexpected slowdowns in demand for computers, data storage subsystems or consumer electronic devices generally result in sharp declines in demand for our products. Declines in customer spending on the systems and devices that incorporate our products could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and on our financial condition and results of operations. Uncertain global economic and business conditions can exacerbate these risks.
We are dependent on our long-term investments to manufacture adequate products. Our investment decisions in adding new assembly and test capacity require significant planning and lead-time, and a failure to accurately forecast demand for our products could cause us to over-invest or under-invest, which would lead to excess capacity, under-utilization charges, impairments or loss of sales and revenue opportunities.
Sales to the legacy markets remain an important part of our business. These markets, however, have been, and we expect them to continue to be, adversely affected by:
announcements or introductions of major new operating systems or semiconductor improvements or shifts in customer preferences, performance requirements and behavior, such as the shift to tablet computers, smart phones, NAND flash memory or similar devices that meet customers’ cost and capacity metrics;
longer product life cycles; and
changes in macroeconomic conditions that cause customers to spend less, such as the imposition of new tariffs, increased laws and regulations, and increased unemployment levels.
We believe that the deterioration of demand for disk drives in certain of the legacy markets has accelerated, and this deterioration may continue or further accelerate, which could cause our operating results to suffer.
In addition, we believe announcements regarding competitive product introductions from time to time have caused customers to defer or cancel their purchases, making certain inventory obsolete. Whenever an oversupply of products in the market causes our industry to have higher than anticipated inventory levels, we experience even more intense price competition from other manufacturers than usual, which may materially adversely affect our financial results.
We have a long and unpredictable sales cycle for nearline storage solutions, which impairs our ability to accurately predict our financial and operating results in any period and may adversely affect our ability to forecast the need for investments and expenditures.
Our nearline storage solutions are technically complex and we typically supply them in high quantities to a small number of customers. Many of our products are also tailored to meet the specific requirements of individual customers, and are often integrated by our customers into the systems and products that they sell. Factors that affect the length of our sales cycle include:
the time required for developing, testing and evaluating our products before they are deployed;
the size of the deployment; and
the complexity of system configuration necessary to deploy our products.
As a result, our sales cycle for nearline storage solutions could exceed one year and frequently unpredictable. Additionally, our nearline storage solutions is subject to variability of sales primarily due to the timing of IT spending or a reflection of cyclical demand from CSPs based on the timing of their procurement and deployment requirements and their ability to procure other components needed to build out data center infrastructure. Given the length of development and qualification programs and unpredictability of the sales cycle, we may be unable to accurately forecast product demand, which may result in lost sales or excess inventory and associated inventory reserves or write-downs, each of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We experience seasonal declines in the sales of our consumer products during the second half of our fiscal year which may adversely affect our results of operations.
In certain end markets, sales of computers, storage subsystems and consumer electronic devices tend to be seasonal, and therefore, we expect to continue to experience seasonality in our business as we respond to variations in our customers’ demand for our products. In particular, we anticipate that sales of our consumer products will continue to be lower during the second half of our fiscal year. Retail sales of certain of our legacy markets solutions traditionally experience higher demand in the first half of our fiscal year driven by consumer spending in the back-to-school season from late summer to fall and the traditional holiday shopping season from fall to winter. We experience seasonal reductions in the second half of our fiscal year in the business activities of our customers during international holidays like Lunar New Year, as well as in the summer months (particularly in Europe), which typically result in lower sales during those periods. Since our working capital needs peak during periods in which we are increasing production in anticipation of orders that have not yet been received, our results of operations will fluctuate even if the forecasted demand for our products proves accurate. Failure to anticipate consumer demand for our branded solutions as well as an inability to maintain effective working relationships with retail and online distributors may also adversely impact our future results of operations. Furthermore, it is difficult for us to evaluate the degree to which this seasonality may affect our business in future periods because of the rate and unpredictability of product transitions and new product introductions, as well as macroeconomic conditions.
We may not be successful in our efforts to grow our systems, SSD and Lyve revenues.
We have made and continue to make investments to grow our systems, SSD and Lyve platform revenues. Our ability to grow systems, SSD and Lyve revenues is subject to the following risks:
we may be unable to accurately estimate and predict data center capacity and requirements;
we may not be able to offer compelling solutions or services to enterprises, subscribers, or consumers;
we may be unable to obtain cost effective supply of NAND flash memory in order to offer competitive SSD solutions; and
our cloud systems revenues generally have a longer sales cycle, and growth is likely to depend on relatively large customer orders, which may increase the variability of our results of operations and the difficulty of matching revenues with expenses.
Our results of operations and share price may be adversely affected if we are not successful in our efforts to grow our revenues as anticipated. In addition, our growth in these markets may bring us into closer competition with some of our customers or potential customers, which may decrease their willingness to do business with us.
Our worldwide sales operations subject us to risks that may adversely affect our business related to disruptions in international markets, currency exchange fluctuations, increased costs, and global health outbreaks.
We are a global company and have significant sales operations outside of the United States, including sales personnel and customer support operations. We also generate a significant portion of our revenue from sales outside the U.S. Disruptions in the economic, environmental, political, legal or regulatory landscape in the countries where we operate may have a material adverse impact on our manufacturing and sales operations. Disruptions in financial markets, the deterioration of global economic conditions, and geopolitical uncertainty and instability or war, such as the military action against Ukraine launched by Russia, have had and may continue to have an impact on our sales to customers and end-users located in the EMEA region.
Prices for our products are denominated predominantly in dollars, even when sold to customers that are located outside the U.S. An increase in the value of the dollar could increase the real cost to our customers of our products in those markets outside of the U.S. where we sell in dollars. This could adversely impact our sales and market share in such areas or increase pressure on us to lower our price, and adversely impact our profit margins. In addition, we have revenue and expenses denominated in currencies other than the dollar, primarily the Thai Baht, Singaporean dollar, Chinese Renminbi and British Pound Sterling, which further exposes us to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. A weakened dollar could increase the effective cost of our expenses such as payroll, utilities, tax and marketing expenses, as well as overseas capital expenditures. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. We have attempted to manage the impact of foreign currency exchange rate changes by, among other things, entering into foreign currency forward exchange contracts from time to time, which could be designated as cash flow hedges or not designated as hedging instruments. Our hedging strategy may be ineffective, and specific hedges may expire and not be renewed or may not offset any or more than a portion of the adverse financial impact resulting from currency variations. The hedging activities may not cover our full exposure, subject us to certain counterparty credit risks and may impact our results of operations. See “Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk— Foreign Currency Exchange Risk” of this report for additional information about our foreign currency exchange risk.
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The shipping and transportation costs associated with our international operations are typically higher than those associated with our U.S. operations, resulting in decreased operating margins in some countries. Volatility in fuel costs, political instability or constraints in or increases in the costs of air transportation may lead us to develop alternative shipment methods, which could disrupt our ability to receive raw materials, or ship finished product, and as a result our business and results of operations may be harmed.
The occurrence of a pandemic disease, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, has impacted and may adversely impact our operations (including, without limitation, logistical and other operational costs) and the operations of some of our customers.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as the operations and financial performance of many of the customers and suppliers in industries that we serve. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related effects will adversely impact our business operations, financial performance, results of operations, financial position and the achievement of our strategic objectives.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a widespread health crisis and numerous disease control measures being taken to limit its spread. The impact of the pandemic on our business has included or could in the future include:
disruptions to or restrictions on our ability to ensure the continuous manufacture and supply of our products and services, including insufficiency of our existing inventory levels and temporary or permanent closures or reductions in operational capacity of our facilities or the facilities of our direct or indirect suppliers or customers, and any supply chain disruptions;
temporary shortages of skilled employees available to staff manufacturing facilities due to stay at home orders and travel restrictions within as well as into and out of countries;
increases in operational expenses and other costs related to requirements implemented to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
delays or limitations on the ability of our customers to perform or make timely payments;
reductions in short- and long-term demand for our products, or other disruptions in technology buying patterns;
adverse effects on economies and financial markets globally or in various markets throughout the world, potentially leading to a prolonged economic downturn or reductions in business and consumer spending, which may result in decreased net revenue, gross margins, or earnings and/or in increased expenses and difficulty in managing inventory levels;
delays to and/or lengthening of our sales or development cycles or qualification activity;
challenges for us, our direct and indirect suppliers and our customers in obtaining financing due to turmoil in financial markets;
workforce disruptions due to illness, quarantines, governmental actions, other restrictions, and/or the social distancing measures we have taken to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in an effort to protect the health and well-being of our employees, customers, suppliers and of the communities in which we operate;
increased vulnerability to cyberattacks due to the significant number of employees working remotely; and
our management team continuing to commit significant time, attention and resources to monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to mitigate its effects on our business and workforce.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased economic and demand uncertainty. It continues to affect our business in both positive and negative ways, and there is uncertainty around its duration and impact. The ultimate extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments, including the impact of any virus mutations or new strains of COVID-19 virus and the distribution and efficacy of the vaccine, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. These impacts, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Such effect may be exacerbated in the event the pandemic and the measures taken in response to it, and their effects, persist for an extended period of time, or if there is a resurgence of the outbreak or variants thereof. Under any of these circumstances, the resumption of normal business operations may be delayed or hampered by lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, direct and indirect suppliers, partners, and customers. The COVID-19 pandemic may also heighten other risks described in this Risk Factors section.
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If we do not control our costs, we will not be able to compete effectively.
We continually seek to make our cost structure and business processes more efficient. We are focused on increasing workforce flexibility and scalability, and improving overall competitiveness by leveraging our global capabilities, as well as external talent and skills, worldwide. Our strategy involves, to a substantial degree, increasing revenue and exabytes volume while at the same time controlling expenses. Because our vertical design and manufacturing strategy, our operations have higher costs that are fixed or difficult to reduce in the short-term, including our costs related to utilization of existing facilities and equipment. If we fail to forecast demand accurately or if there is a partial or complete reduction in long-term demand for our products, we could be required to write off inventory, record excess capacity charges which could negatively impact our gross margin and our financial results. If we do not control our manufacturing and operating expenses, our ability to compete in the marketplace may be impaired. In the past, activities to reduce costs have included closures and transfers of facilities, significant personnel reductions, restructuring efforts and efforts to increase automation. Our restructuring efforts may not yield the intended benefits and may be unsuccessful or disruptive to our business operations which may materially adversely affect our financial results.
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SUPPLY AND MANUFACTURING
Shortages or delays in the receipt of, or cost increases in, critical components, equipment or raw materials necessary to manufacture our products, may cause us to suffer lower operating margins, production delays and other material adverse effects.
The cost, quality, availability and supply of components, subassemblies, certain equipment and raw materials used to manufacture our products and key components like recording media and heads are critical to our success. Particularly important for our products are components such as read/write heads, substrates for recording media, ASICs, spindle motors, printed circuit boards, suspension assemblies and NAND flash memory. In addition, the equipment we use to manufacture our products and components is frequently custom made and comes from a few suppliers and the lead times required to obtain manufacturing equipment can be significant. Our efforts to control our costs, including capital expenditures, may also affect our ability to obtain or maintain such inputs and equipment, which could affect our ability to meet future demand for our products.
We rely on sole or a limited number of direct and indirect suppliers for some or all of these components that we do not manufacture, including substrates for recording media, read/write heads, ASICs, spindle motors, printed circuit boards, suspension assemblies and NAND flash memory. In light of this small, consolidated supplier base, if our suppliers increased their prices as a result of inflationary pressures from the current macroeconomic conditions or other changes in economic conditions, our results of operations would be negatively affected. Also, many of such direct and indirect component suppliers are geographically concentrated, making our supply chain more vulnerable to regional disruptions such as severe weather, the occurrence of local or global health issues or pandemics, acts of terrorism, war and an unpredictable geopolitical climate, which may have a material impact on the production, availability and transportation of many components. We have experienced and continue to experience disruptions in our supply chain due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has also impacted and may adversely impact our operations (including, without limitation, logistical and other operational costs) and the operations of some of our key direct and indirect suppliers. If our direct and indirect vendors for these components are unable to meet our cost, quality, supply and transportation requirements, continue to remain financially viable or fulfill their contractual commitments and obligations, we could experience disruption in our supply chain, including shortages in supply or increases in production costs, which would materially adversely affect our results of operations. The current worldwide shortage of semiconductors exacerbates these risks.
Certain rare earth elements are critical in the manufacture of our products. We purchase components that contain rare earth elements from a number of countries, including China. We cannot predict whether any nation will impose regulations or trade barriers including tariffs, duties, quotas or embargoes upon the rare earth elements incorporated into our products that would restrict the worldwide supply of such metals or increase their cost. We have experienced and continuing to experience increased costs and production delays when we were unable to obtain the necessary equipment or sufficient quantities of some components, and/or have been forced to pay higher prices or make volume purchase commitments or advance deposits for some components, equipment or raw materials that were in short supply in the industry in general. Further, if our customers experience shortages of components or materials used in their products it could result in a decrease in demand for our products and have an adverse effect on our results of operations. If any major supplier were to restrict the supply available to us or increase the cost of the rare earth elements used in our products, we could experience a shortage in supply or an increase in production costs, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
Shortages or delays in critical components, as well as reliance on single-source suppliers, can affect our production and development of products and may harm our operating results.
We are dependent on a limited number of qualified suppliers who provide critical materials or components. If there is a shortage of, or delay in supplying us with, critical components, equipment or raw materials, then:
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it is likely that our suppliers would raise their prices and, if we could not pass these price increases to our customers, our operating margin would decline;
we may have to reengineer some products, which would likely cause production and shipment delays, make the reengineered products more costly and provide us with a lower rate of return on these products;
we would likely have to allocate the components we receive to certain of our products and ship less of others, which could reduce our revenues and could cause us to lose sales to customers who could purchase more of their required products from manufacturers that either did not experience these shortages or delays or that made different allocations; and
we may be late in shipping products, causing potential customers to make purchases from our competitors, thus causing our revenue and operating margin to decline.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain critical components in a timely and economic manner. The industry is currently experiencing a global shortage of semiconductors and other electronic components. In addition, many of our suppliers’ manufacturing facilities are fully utilized. If they fail to invest in additional capacity or deliver components in the required timeframe, such failure would have an impact on our ability to ramp new products, and may result in a loss of revenue or market share if our competitors did not utilize the same components and were not affected.
We often aim to lead the market in new technology deployments and leverage unique and customized technology from single source suppliers who are early adopters in the emerging market. Our options in supplier selection in these cases are limited and the supplier based technology has been and may continue to be single sourced until wider adoption of the technology occurs and any necessary licenses become available. In such cases, any technical issues in the supplier’s technology may cause us to delay shipments of our new technology deployments and harm our financial position.
If revenues fall or customer demand decreases significantly, we may not meet all of our purchase commitments to certain suppliers.
From time to time, we enter into long-term, non-cancelable purchase commitments or make large up-front investments with certain suppliers in order to secure certain components or technologies for the production of our products or to supplement our internal manufacturing capacity for certain components. If our actual revenues in the future are lower than our projections or if customer demand decreases significantly below our projections, we may not meet all of our purchase commitments with these suppliers. As a result, it is possible that our revenues will not be sufficient to recoup our up-front investments, in which case we will have to shift output from our internal manufacturing facilities to these suppliers or make penalty-type payments under the terms of these contracts. Additionally, because our markets are volatile, competitive and subject to rapid technology and price changes, we face inventory and other asset risks in the event we do not fully utilize purchase commitments. If we are unable to fully utilize our purchase commitments or if we shift output from our internal manufacturing facilities in order to meet the commitments, our gross margin and operating margin could be materially adversely impacted.
Due to the complexity of our products, some defects may only become detectable after deployment.
Our products are highly complex and are designed to operate in and form part of larger complex networks and storage systems. Our products may contain a defect or be perceived as containing a defect by our customers as a result of improper use or maintenance. Lead times required to manufacture certain components are significant, and a quality excursion may take significant time and resources to remediate. Defects in our products, third-party components or in the networks and systems of which they form a part, directly or indirectly, have resulted in and may in the future result in:
increased costs and product delays until complex solution level interoperability issues are resolved;
costs associated with the remediation of any problems attributable to our products;
loss of or delays in revenues;
loss of customers;
failure to achieve market acceptance and loss of market share;
increased service and warranty costs; and
increased insurance costs.
Defects in our products could also result in legal actions by our customers for breach of warranty, property damage, injury or death. Such legal actions, including but not limited to product liability claims could exceed the level of insurance coverage that we have obtained. Any significant uninsured claims could significantly harm our financial condition.
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RISKS RELATED TO HUMAN CAPITAL
The loss of or inability to attract, retain and motivate key executive officers and employees could negatively impact our business prospects.
Our future performance depends to a significant degree upon the continued service of key members of management as well as marketing, sales and product development personnel. We believe our future success will also depend in large part upon our ability to attract, retain and further motivate highly skilled management, marketing, sales and product development personnel. We have experienced intense competition for qualified and capable personnel, including in the U.S., Thailand, China, Singapore and Northern Ireland, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to retain our key employees or that we will be successful in attracting, assimilating and retaining personnel in the future. Additionally, because a portion of our key personnel’s compensation is contingent upon the performance of our business, including through cash bonuses and equity compensation, when the market price of our ordinary shares fluctuates or our results of operations or financial condition are negatively impacted, we may be at a competitive disadvantage for retaining and hiring employees. The reductions in workforce that result from our historical restructurings have also made and may continue to make it difficult for us to recruit and retain personnel. Increased difficulty in accessing, recruiting or retaining personnel may lead to increased manufacturing and employment compensation costs, which could adversely affect our results of operations. The loss of one or more of our key personnel or the inability to hire and retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to risks related to corporate and social responsibility and reputation.
Many factors influence our reputation including the perception held by our customers, suppliers, partners, shareholders, other key stakeholders, and the communities in which we operate. We face increasing scrutiny related to environmental, social and governance activities. We risk damage to our reputation if we fail to act responsibly in a number of areas, such as diversity and inclusion, environmental stewardship, sustainability, supply chain management, climate change, workplace conduct, and human rights. Any harm to our reputation could impact employee engagement and retention, our corporate culture, and the willingness of customers, suppliers, and partners to do business with us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows. Further, despite our policies to the contrary, we may not be able to control the conduct of every individual actor, and our employees and personnel may violate environmental, social or governance standards or engage in other unethical conduct. These acts, or any accusation of such conduct, even if proven to be false, could adversely impact the reputation of our business.
RISKS RELATED TO FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OR GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows from operations and our investments to meet our liquidity requirements, including servicing our indebtedness.
Our business may not generate sufficient cash flows to enable us to meet our liquidity requirements, including working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts, investments, servicing our indebtedness and other general corporate requirements. If we cannot fund our liquidity requirements, we may have to reduce or delay capital expenditures, product development efforts, investments and other general corporate expenditures. We cannot assure you that any of these remedies would, if necessary, be effected on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or that they would permit us to meet our obligations, which would affect our results of operations.
We are leveraged and require significant amounts of cash to service our debt. Our debt and debt service requirements could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and may limit our ability to take advantage of potential business opportunities and reduce our options for capital allocation. Our high level of debt presents the following risks:
we are required to use a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to pay principal and interest on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances and other general corporate requirements;
our substantial leverage increases our vulnerability to economic downturns, decreased availability of capital, and adverse competitive and industry conditions and could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to those of our competitors that are less leveraged;
our debt service obligations could limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry, and could limit our ability to pursue other business opportunities, borrow more money for operations or capital in the future and implement our business strategies;
our level of debt may restrict us from raising, or make it more costly to raise, additional financing on satisfactory terms to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances and other general corporate requirements; and
covenants in our debt instruments limit our ability to pay future dividends or make other restricted payments and investments.
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In addition, in the event that we need to refinance all or a portion of our outstanding debt as it matures or incur additional debt to fund our operations, we may not be able to obtain terms as favorable as the terms of our existing debt or refinance our existing debt or incur additional debt to fund our operations at all. If prevailing interest rates or other factors result in higher interest rates upon refinancing, then the interest expense relating to the refinanced debt would increase. Furthermore, if any rating agency changes our credit rating or outlook, our debt and equity securities could be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our ability to refinance existing debt or raise additional capital.
We are subject to counterparty default risks.
We have numerous arrangements with financial institutions that subject us to counterparty default risks, including cash and investment deposits, and foreign currency forward exchange contracts and other derivative instruments. As a result, we are subject to the risk that the counterparty to one or more of these arrangements will, voluntarily or involuntarily, default on its performance obligations. In times of market distress in particular, a counterparty may not comply with its contractual commitments that could then lead to it defaulting on its obligations with little or no notice to us, thereby limiting our ability to take action to lessen or cover our exposure. Additionally, our ability to mitigate our counterparty exposures could be limited by the terms of the relevant agreements or because market conditions prevent us from taking effective action. If one of our counterparties becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, our ability to recover any losses suffered as a result of that counterparty's default may be limited by the liquidity of the counterparty or the applicable laws governing the bankruptcy proceedings. In the event of any such counterparty default, we could incur significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Further, our customers could have reduced access to working capital due to global economic conditions, higher interest rates, reduced bank lending resulting from contractions in the money supply or the deterioration in the customer’s, or their bank’s financial condition or the inability to access other financing, which would increase our credit and non-payment risk, and could result in an increase in our operating costs or a reduction in our revenue. Also, our customers outside of the United States are sometimes allowed longer time periods for payment than our U.S. customers. This increases the risk of nonpayment due to the possibility that the financial condition of particular customers may worsen during the course of the payment period. In addition, some of our OEM customers have adopted a subcontractor model that requires us to contract directly with companies, such as original design manufacturers, that provide manufacturing and fulfillment services to our OEM customers. Because these subcontractors are generally not as well capitalized as our direct OEM customers, this subcontractor model exposes us to increased credit risks. Our agreements with our OEM customers may not permit us to increase our product prices to alleviate this increased credit risk.
Our quarterly results of operations fluctuate, sometimes significantly, from period to period, and may cause our share price to decline.
Our quarterly revenue and results of operations fluctuate, sometimes significantly, from period to period. These fluctuations, which we expect to continue, have been and may continue to be precipitated by a variety of factors, including:
uncertainty in global economic and political conditions, and instability or war (such as the military action against Ukraine launched by Russia) or adverse changes in the level of economic activity in the major regions in which we do business;
pandemics, such as COVID-19, or other global health issues that impact our operations as well as those of our customers and suppliers;
competitive pressures resulting in lower prices by our competitors which may shift demand away from our products;
announcements of new products, services or technological innovations by us or our competitors, and delays or problems in our introduction of new, more cost-effective products, the inability to achieve high production yields or delays in customer qualification or initial product quality issues;
changes in customer demand or the purchasing patterns or behavior of our customers;
application of new or revised industry standards;
disruptions in our supply chain, including increased costs or adverse changes in availability of supplies of raw materials or components;
increased costs of electricity and/or other energy sources, freight and logistics costs or other materials or services necessary for the operation of our business;
the impact of corporate restructuring activities that we have and may continue to engage in;
changes in the demand for the computer systems and data storage products that contain our products;
unfavorable supply and demand imbalances;
our high proportion of fixed costs, including manufacturing and research and development expenses;
any impairments in goodwill or other long-lived assets;
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changes in tax laws, such as global tax developments applicable to multinational businesses; the impact of trade barriers, such as import/export duties and restrictions, sanctions, tariffs and quotas, imposed by the U.S. or other countries in which the Company conducts business;
the evolving legal and regulatory, economic, environmental and administrative climate in the international markets where the Company operates; and
adverse changes in the performance of our products.
As a result, we believe that quarter-to-quarter and year-over-year comparisons of our revenue and results of operations may not be meaningful, and that these comparisons may not be an accurate indicator of our future performance. Our results of operations in one or more future quarters may fail to meet the expectations of investment research analysts or investors, which could cause an immediate and significant decline in our market value.
Any cost reduction initiatives that we undertake may not deliver the results we expect, and these actions may adversely affect our business.
From time to time, we engage in restructuring plans that have resulted and may continue to result in workforce reduction and consolidation of our real estate facilities and our manufacturing footprint. In addition, management will continue to evaluate our global footprint and cost structure, and additional restructuring plans are expected to be formalized. As a result of our restructurings, we have experienced and may in the future experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, disruptions to our operations and inefficiency during transitional periods. Additionally, global footprint consolidation and reduction in excess capacity may result in us being unable to respond to increases in forecasted volume of customer demand and loss of revenue opportunity if our competitors have underutilized factories. Any cost-cutting measures could impact employee retention. In addition, we cannot be sure that any future cost reductions or global footprint consolidations will deliver the results we expect, be successful in reducing our overall expenses as we expect or that additional costs will not offset any such reductions or global footprint consolidation. If our operating costs are higher than we expect or if we do not maintain adequate control of our costs and expenses, our results of operations may be adversely affected.
Changes in the macroeconomic environment may in the future negatively impact our results of operations.
Changes in macroeconomic conditions may affect consumer and enterprise spending, and as a result, our customers may postpone or cancel spending in response to volatility in credit and equity markets, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values, all of which may have a material adverse effect on the demand for our products and/or result in significant decreases in our product prices. Other factors that could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and on our financial condition and results of operations include inflation, slower growth or recession, conditions in the labor market, healthcare costs, access to credit, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors affecting consumer and business spending behavior.
Macroeconomic developments such as the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) from the European Union (“EU”), slowing global economies, increased tariffs between the U.S and China, Mexico and other countries, or adverse economic conditions worldwide resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts of governments and private industry to slow the pandemic or efforts of governments to stimulate or stabilize the economy may adversely impact our business. For example, significant inflation and related increases in interest rates, or a recession, could negatively affect our business, operating results or financial condition or the markets in which we operate, which, in turn, could adversely affect the price of our ordinary shares. A general weakening of, and related declining corporate confidence in, the global economy or the curtailment in government or corporate spending could cause current or potential customers to reduce their information technology (“IT”) budgets or be unable to fund data storage systems, which could cause customers to delay, decrease or cancel purchases of our products or cause customers not to pay us or to delay paying us for previously purchased products and services.
The effect of geopolitical uncertainties, war, terrorism, natural disasters, public health issues and other circumstances, on national and/or international commerce and on the global economy, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Geopolitical uncertainty, terrorism, instability or war, such as the military action against Ukraine launched by Russia, natural disasters, public health issues and other business interruptions have caused and could cause damage or disruption to international commerce and the global economy, and thus could have a strong negative effect on our business, our direct and indirect suppliers, logistics providers, manufacturing vendors and customers. Our business operations are subject to interruption by natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes, fires, power or water shortages, terrorist attacks, other hostile acts, labor disputes, public health issues (such as the COVID-19 pandemic) and related mitigation actions, and other events beyond our control. Such events may decrease demand for our products, make it difficult or impossible for us to make and deliver products to our customers or to receive components from our direct and indirect suppliers, and create delays and inefficiencies in our supply chain.
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A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, or significant power outage could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. The impact of climate change may increase these risks due to changes in weather patterns, such as increases in storm intensity, sea-level rise, melting of permafrost and temperature extremes in areas where we or our suppliers and customers conduct business. We have a number of our employees and executive officers located in the San Francisco Bay Area, a region known for seismic activity, wildfires and drought conditions, and in Asia, near major earthquake faults known for seismic activity. To mitigate wildfire risk, electric utilities are deploying public safety power shutoffs, which affects electricity reliability to our facilities and our communities. Many of our suppliers and customers are also located in areas with risks of natural disasters. For example, many of our component suppliers are geographically concentrated in Thailand, which suffered severe flooding in October 2011 resulting in a material impact on the production and availability of many components, which caused significant increases in the cost of components. In the event of a natural disaster, losses and significant recovery time could be required to resume operations and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. Further, governmental regulations related to the environment such as Singapore’s recent adoption of a law restricting data center development may also adversely affect our customers or our introduction of new products or services resulting in adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations.
Should major public health issues, including pandemics, arise, we could be negatively affected by stringent employee travel restrictions, additional limitations or cost increases in freight and other logistical services, governmental actions limiting the movement of products or employees between regions, increases in or changes to data collection and reporting obligations, delays in production ramps of new products, and disruptions in our operations and those of some of our key direct and indirect suppliers and customers. For example, the recent COVID-19 pandemic resulted in government-imposed travel restrictions, border closures, stay-at-home orders, facility closures or operating constraints in a number of our global locations, disruptions in our operations and those of our suppliers, partners, and customers, increases in air freight rates, limited numbers of employees available to staff manufacturing operations, and shortages of supplies of personal protective equipment required for our manufacturing operations. If any of these circumstances continue for an extended period of time, our manufacturing ability and capacity, or those of our key direct and indirect suppliers or customers, could be impacted, and our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
LEGAL, REGULATORY AND COMPLIANCE RISKS
Our business is subject to various laws, regulations, governmental policies, litigation, governmental investigations or governmental proceedings that may cause us to incur significant expense or adversely impact our results or operations and financial condition.
Our business is subject to regulation under a wide variety of U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. laws, regulations and policies. There can be no assurance that laws, regulations and policies will not be changed in ways that will require us to modify our business model and objectives or affect our returns on investments by restricting existing activities and products, subjecting them to escalating costs or prohibiting them outright. In particular, governmental focus on antitrust and competition law, improper payments, the environment, data privacy, protection, security and sovereignty, currency exchange controls, conflict minerals, import and export controls, complex economic sanctions, and potential further changes to global tax laws and tax laws in any jurisdiction in which we operate have had and may continue to have an effect on our business, corporate structure, operations, sales, liquidity, capital requirements, effective tax rate, results of operations, and financial performance. China, Malaysia, Northern Ireland, Singapore and Thailand, in which we have significant operating assets, and the European Union each have exercised and continue to exercise significant influence over many aspects of their domestic economies including, but not limited to, fair competition, tax practices, anti-corruption, anti-trust, data privacy, protection, security and sovereignty, price controls and international trade.
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Our business is subject to state, federal, and international laws and regulations, relating to data privacy, data protection and data security involving matters including data use, data localization, data transfer, data storage, data retention and deletion, data access, and the protection of data and systems. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be onerous and have increased and may continue to increase our cost of doing business globally or otherwise adversely impact financial results. Our introduction of new products or services, changes to our existing products or services, or the manner in which our customers utilize our products or services may result in new or enhanced costly compliance requirements or governmental or regulatory scrutiny that could adversely affect our business and financial results. Data privacy and data protection regulations also continue to change and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and may adversely affect our business by requiring changes to our business practices, limiting our ability to offer a product or service, or making our products or services less attractive to customers. Laws and regulations related to data transfers, including, data localization, data access, and data storage, also continue to develop and have been subject to regulatory and judicial scrutiny. In many cases, these laws apply to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, and among us, our subsidiaries and our customers or other parties with which we have commercial relations. If we are restricted in our sharing of data among countries and regions in which we operate, among our subsidiaries, or with third parties with which we have a commercial relationship, it may increase our compliance costs and adversely impact our operations, the ability to provide our products or services, or the manner in which we provide our product or services. Our business is subject to state, federal, and international laws and regulations that subject us to requirements to notify vendors, customers, or employees of a data security breach. Any actual or perceived data security breach or incident or actual or perceived non-compliance with laws relating to privacy, data protection or data security could result in damage to our brand and reputation including decreased customer demand for our products or services, significant financial penalties and liability, governmental investigations and proceedings, ongoing audit requirements, private or class actions, and unanticipated changes to our data handling or processing practices. We cannot be certain that our insurance coverage is adequate for data-handling or data-security liabilities incurred, or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more claims against us that exceed our insurance coverage, or changes in our insurance policies, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results and reputation. For example, the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) took effect in May 2018, and applies to our operations, and our products and services used by individuals in Europe. The U.K. has implemented legislation that substantially implements the GDPR, with penalties for noncompliance. Various states, such as California, Colorado, Utah and Connecticut, have implemented similar privacy laws and regulations that impose restrictive requirements regulating the use and disclosure of personal information. The California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which took effect in January 2020, imposed compliance requirements and new rights for California consumers. The U.S. federal government also is contemplating privacy legislation.
Further, the sale and manufacturing of products in certain states and countries has and may continue to subject us and our suppliers to state, federal and international laws and regulations governing protection of the environment, including those governing climate change, discharges of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of contaminated sites, restrictions on the presence of certain substances in electronic products and the responsibility for environmentally safe disposal or recycling. We endeavor to ensure that we and our suppliers comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations, however, compliance has increased and may continue to increase our operating costs and may otherwise impact future financial results. If additional or more stringent requirements are imposed on us in the future, we could incur additional operating costs and capital expenditures. If we fail to comply with applicable environmental laws, regulations, initiatives, or standards of conduct, our customers may refuse to purchase our products and we could be subject to fines, penalties and possible prohibition of sales of our products into one or more states or countries, liability to our customers and damage to our reputation, which could result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
SEC rules require certain disclosures regarding the use of specified minerals, often referred to as conflict minerals, that are necessary to the functionality or production of products manufactured or contracted to be manufactured. These rules could affect our ability to source, directly or indirectly, certain materials used in our products at competitive prices and could impact the availability of certain minerals used in the manufacture of our products, including gold, tantalum, tin and tungsten. As there may be only a limited number of suppliers of “conflict free” minerals, we cannot be sure that we will be able to obtain necessary conflict free minerals in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. Our customers, including our OEM customers, may require that our products be free of conflict minerals, and our revenues and margins may be harmed if we are unable to procure conflict free minerals at a reasonable price, or at all, or are unable to pass through any increased costs associated with meeting these demands. We may also face challenges with government regulators and our customers and suppliers if we are unable to sufficiently verify that the metals used in our products are conflict free. Furthermore, our customers and manufacturing stakeholders may place increased demands on our compliance framework which may in turn negatively impact our relationships with our suppliers. If we are unable to comply with requirements regarding the use of conflict and other minerals, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
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From time to time, we have been and may continue to be involved in various legal, regulatory or administrative investigations, inquiries, negotiations or proceedings arising in the normal course of business. In the event of litigation, government investigations or governmental proceedings, we are subject to the inherent risks and uncertainties that may result if outcomes differ from our expectations. In the event of adverse outcomes in any litigation, investigation or government proceeding, we could be required to pay substantial damages, fines or penalties and cease certain practices or activities, which could materially harm our business. The costs associated with litigation and government investigations can also be unpredictable depending on the complexity and length of time devoted to such litigation or investigation. Litigation, investigations or government proceedings may also divert the efforts and attention of our key personnel, which could also harm our business.
In addition, regulation or government scrutiny may impact the requirements for marketing our products and slow our ability to introduce new products, resulting in an adverse impact on our business. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate these or other applicable laws, rules and regulations to which we are and may be subject. Violations of these laws and regulations could lead to significant penalties, restraints on our export or import privileges, monetary fines, government investigations, disruption of our operating activities, damage to our reputation and corporate brand, criminal proceedings and regulatory or other actions that could materially adversely affect our results of operations. The political and media scrutiny surrounding a governmental investigation for the violation of such laws, even if an investigation does not result in a finding of violation, could cause us significant expense and collateral consequences, including reputational harm, that could have an adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Some of our products and services are subject to export control laws and other laws affecting the countries in which our products and services may be sold, distributed, or delivered, and any changes to or violation of these laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Due to the global nature of our business, we are subject to import and export restrictions and regulations, including the Export Administration Regulations administered by the U.S. Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) and the trade and economic sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). We incorporate encryption technology into certain of our products and solutions. These encryption products and the underlying technology may be exported outside of the United States only with export authorizations, including by license, a license exception or other appropriate government authorizations, including the filing of an encryption registration. The U.S., through the BIS and OFAC, places restrictions on the sale or export of certain products and services to certain countries, persons and entities, as well as for certain end-uses, such as military, military-intelligence and weapons of mass destruction end-uses. The U.S. government also imposes sanctions through executive orders restricting U.S. companies from conducting business activities with specified individuals and companies. Although we have controls and procedures to ensure compliance with all applicable regulations and orders, we cannot predict whether changes in laws or regulations by the U.S., China or another country will affect our ability to sell our products and services to existing or new customers. Additionally, we cannot ensure that our interpretation of relevant restrictions and regulations will be accepted in all cases by relevant regulatory and enforcement authorities.
Violators of any U.S. export control and sanctions laws may be subject to significant penalties, which may include monetary fines, criminal proceedings against them and their officers and employees, a denial of export privileges, and suspension or debarment from selling products to the U.S. government. Moreover, the sanctions imposed by the U.S. government could be expanded in the future. Our products could be shipped to those targets or for restricted end-uses by third parties, including potentially our channel partners, despite our precautions. In addition, if our partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected, through reputational harm as well as other negative consequences including government investigations and penalties. A significant portion of our sales are to customers which are located in geographies that have been the focus of recent changes in U.S. policies. Any further limitation that impedes our ability to export or sell our products and services could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Other countries also regulate the import and export of certain encryption and other technology, including import and export licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to sell or distribute our products and services or could limit our partners’ or customers’ ability to sell or use our products and services in those countries, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Violations of these regulations may result in significant penalties and fines. Changes in our products and services or future changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products and services in those countries, prevent our customers from deploying our products and services globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import or sale of our products and services to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. From time to time, various governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology, including the escrow and government recovery of private encryption keys. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, increased export and import controls, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, in the countries where we operate could result in decreased use of our products and services by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products and services to, new or existing customers, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we were ever found to have violated applicable export control laws, we may be subject to various penalties available under the laws, any of which could have a material and adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if we were not found to have violated such laws, the political and media scrutiny surrounding any governmental investigation of us could cause us significant expense and reputational harm. Such collateral consequences could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Changes in U.S. trade policy, including the imposition of sanctions or tariffs and the resulting consequences, may have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We face uncertainty with regard to U.S. government trade policy. Current U.S. government trade policy includes tariffs on certain non-U.S. goods, including information and communication technology products. These measures may materially increase costs for goods imported into the United States. This in turn could require us to materially increase prices to our customers which may reduce demand, or, if we are unable to increase prices to adequately address any tariffs, quotas or duties, could lower our margin on products sold and negatively impact our financial performance. Changes in U.S. trade policy have resulted in, and could result in more, U.S. trading partners adopting responsive trade policies, including imposition of increased tariffs, quotas or duties. Such policies could make it more difficult or costly for us to export our products to those countries, therefore negatively impacting our financial performance.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, confidentiality agreements, security measures and licensing arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. In the past, we have been involved in significant and expensive disputes regarding our intellectual property rights and those of others, including claims that we may be infringing patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights of third parties. We expect that we will be involved in similar disputes in the future.
There can be no assurance that:
any of our existing patents will continue to be held valid, if challenged;
patents will be issued for any of our pending applications;
any claims allowed from existing or pending patents will have sufficient scope or strength to protect us;
our patents will be issued in the primary countries where our products are sold in order to protect our rights and potential commercial advantage;
we will be able to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information through confidentiality agreements with our customers, suppliers and employees and through other security measures; and
others will not gain access to our trade secrets.
In addition, our competitors may be able to design their products around our patents and other proprietary rights. Enforcement of our rights often requires litigation. If we bring a patent infringement action and are not successful, our competitors would be able to use similar technology to compete with us. Moreover, the defendant in such an action may successfully countersue us for infringement of their patents or assert a counterclaim that our patents are invalid or unenforceable.
Furthermore, we have significant operations and sales in countries where intellectual property laws and enforcement policies are often less developed, less stringent or more difficult to enforce than in the United States. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we will be able to protect our intellectual property rights in jurisdictions outside the United States.
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We are at times subject to intellectual property proceedings and claims which could cause us to incur significant additional costs or prevent us from selling our products, and which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject from time-to-time to legal proceedings and claims, including claims of alleged infringement of the patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights of third parties by us, or our customers, in connection with the use of our products. Intellectual property litigation can be expensive and time-consuming, regardless of the merits of any claim, and could divert our management’s attention from operating our business. In addition, intellectual property lawsuits are subject to inherent uncertainties due to the complexity of the technical issues involved, which may cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations. Some of the actions that we face from time-to-time seek injunctions against the sale of our products and/or substantial monetary damages, which, if granted or awarded, could materially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
We cannot be certain that our products do not and will not infringe issued patents or other intellectual property rights of others. We may not be aware of currently filed patent applications that relate to our products or technology. If patents are later issued on these applications, we may be liable for infringement. If our products were found to infringe the intellectual property rights of others, we could be required to pay substantial damages, cease the manufacture, use and sale of infringing products in one or more geographic locations, expend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology, discontinue the use of specific processes or obtain licenses to the technology infringed. We might not be able to obtain the necessary licenses on acceptable terms, or at all, or be able to reengineer our products successfully to avoid infringement. Any of the foregoing could cause us to incur significant costs and prevent us from selling our products, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary DataNote 14. Legal, Environmental and Other Contingencies” contained in this report for a description of pending intellectual property proceedings.
Our business and certain products and services depend in part on IP and technology licensed from third parties, as well as data centers and infrastructure operated by third parties.
Some of our business and some of our products rely on or include software licensed from third parties, including open source licenses. We may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses from these third parties at all or on reasonable terms, or such third parties may demand cross-licenses to our intellectual property. Third-party components and technology may become obsolete, defective or incompatible with future versions of our products or services, or our relationship with the third party may deteriorate, or our agreements may expire or be terminated. We may face legal or business disputes with licensors that may threaten or lead to the disruption of inbound licensing relationships. In order to remain in compliance with the terms of our licenses, we monitor and manage our use of third-party software, including both proprietary and open source license terms to avoid subjecting our products and services to conditions we do not intend, such as the licensing or public disclosure of our intellectual property without compensation or on undesirable terms. The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products or services. Additionally, some of these licenses may not be available to us in the future on terms that are acceptable or that allow our product offerings to remain competitive. Our inability to obtain licenses or rights on favorable terms could have a material effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow, including if we are required to take remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts.
In addition, we also rely upon third-party hosted infrastructure partners globally to serve customers and operate certain aspects of our business or services. Any disruption of or interference at our hosted infrastructure partners would impact our operations and our business could be adversely impacted.
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RISKS RELATED TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, DATA AND INFORMATION SECURITY
We could suffer a loss of revenue and increased costs, exposure to significant liability including legal and regulatory consequences, reputational harm and other serious negative consequences in the event of cyber-attacks, ransomware or other cyber security breaches or incidents that disrupt our operations or result in unauthorized access to, or the loss, corruption, unavailability or dissemination of proprietary or confidential information of our customers or about us or other third parties.
Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect our digital infrastructure and data. We manage and store various proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data relating to our operations, as well as to our customers, suppliers, employees and other third parties, and we will store subscribers’ data on our edge-to-cloud mass storage platform. As our operations become more automated and increasingly interdependent and our edge-to-cloud mass storage platform service grows, our exposure to the risks posed by storage, transfer, and maintenance of data, such as corruption, loss or unavailability of, or damage to, and other security risks to, data, will continue to increase. We use third-party vendors to store and otherwise process data for us and they face similar risks. The measures we and our vendors have implemented to secure our computer equipment and data belonging to us, our customers, suppliers, employees or other third parties have been and may continue to be vulnerable to phishing, employee error, hacking, ransomware and other cyberattacks, malfeasance, system error or other irregularities or incidents, including from breaches and incidents or attacks at third party vendors we utilize, and may not be sufficient for all eventualities. We cannot ensure that any limitation-of-liability provisions in our customer and user agreements, contracts with third-party vendors and service providers or other contracts are enforceable or adequate or would protect us from any liabilities or damages with respect to claims relating to a security breach or other security-related matter. Threat actors may be able to penetrate our network security, misappropriate or compromise confidential information and other data, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. Threat actors also may be able to develop and deploy viruses, worms and other malicious software programs that attack our products and services or otherwise exploit any security vulnerabilities of our products and services. Such attempts are increasing in technical sophistication, number and the ability to evade detection or to obscure such activities. We anticipate that these threats will continue to grow in scope and complexity over time. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Although we take steps to protect against and detect such attempts, our efforts may not be sufficient for all eventualities, including sustained maintenance of remote working requirements. In addition, sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that we produce or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of the system or our services. We have been, and will likely continue to be, subject to computer viruses or other malicious code, cyber-attacks or other computer-related attempts to breach the IT systems we use for these purposes. We have been and may also continue to be subject to IT system failures and network disruptions due to these factors. To date, these attacks have not had a material impact on our operations, but we cannot provide assurance that they will not have a material impact in the future. The insurance coverage we maintain that is intended to address certain data security risks may be insufficient to cover all types of claims or losses that may arise, and such insurance has been increasing in price over time. We cannot be certain that insurance coverage will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all.
The costs to us to eliminate or address the foregoing security problems and security vulnerabilities before or after a security breach or incident could be significant. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, certain legacy IT systems may not be easily remediated, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Our remediation efforts may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays or cessation of service, and loss of existing or potential customers that may impede our sales, manufacturing, distribution or other critical functions. We could lose existing or potential customers for cloud and outsourcing services or other IT solutions in connection with any actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our products and services. Some of our products and services contain encryption and other measures implemented in an effort to protect third-party content stored on our products. Such measures may be compromised, breached or circumvented or otherwise fail and losses or unauthorized access to or releases of our, our customers’ or third parties’ confidential information may occur. Security breaches or incidents and unauthorized access to, or loss, corruption, unavailability, or the unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about us or our customers or other third parties, has exposed us and could expose us, our vendors and customers or other third parties affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, and result in litigation or governmental investigations, fines, penalties, indemnity obligations and other potential liability and costs for us, materially damage our brand or otherwise materially harm our business. In addition, we rely in certain capacities on third-party data management providers whose possible security problems and security vulnerabilities may have similar effects on us. Our business, brand and reputation could also be materially adversely affected by media or other reports of perceived security vulnerabilities in our products, services, network or processes, even if unsubstantiated.
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We must successfully maintain and upgrade our IT systems, and our failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, we expand and improve our IT systems to support our business going forward. Consequently, we are in the process of implementing, and will continue to invest in and implement, modifications and upgrades to our IT systems and procedures, including making changes to legacy systems or acquiring new systems with new functionality, and building new policies, procedures, training programs and monitoring tools.
We are engaged in a multi-year implementation of a new global enterprise resource planning system (“ERP”) which requires significant investment of human and financial resources. The ERP is designed to efficiently maintain our financial records and provide information important to the operation of our business to our management team. In implementing the ERP, we may experience significant increases to inherent costs and risks associated with changing and acquiring these systems, policies, procedures and monitoring tools, including capital expenditures, additional operating expenses, demands on management time and other risks and costs of delays or difficulties in transitioning to or integrating new systems policies, procedures or monitoring tools into our current systems. Any significant disruption or deficiency in the design and implementation of the ERP may adversely affect our ability to process orders, ship product, send invoices and track payments, fulfill contractual obligations, maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting or otherwise operate our business. These implementations, modifications and upgrades may not result in productivity improvements at a level that outweighs the costs of implementation, or at all. In addition, difficulties with implementing new technology systems, such as ERP, delays in our timeline for planned improvements, significant system failures or our inability to successfully modify our IT systems, policies, procedures or monitoring tools to respond to changes in our business needs in the past have caused and in the future may cause disruptions in our business operations, increase data security risks, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO OWNING OUR ORDINARY SHARES
The price of our ordinary shares may be volatile and could decline significantly.
The market price of our ordinary shares has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate or decline significantly in response to various factors some of which are beyond our control, including:
general stock market conditions, or general uncertainty in stock market conditions due to global economic conditions and negative financial news unrelated to our business or industry, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
the timing and amount of or the discontinuance of our share repurchases;
actual or anticipated variations in our results of operations;
announcements of innovations, new products, significant contracts, acquisitions, or significant price reductions by us or our competitors, including those competitors who offer alternative storage technology solutions;
our failure to meet our guidance or the performance estimates of investment research analysts, or changes in financial estimates by investment research analysts;
significant announcements by or changes in financial condition of a large customer;
the ability of our customers to procure necessary components which may impact their demand or timing of their demand for our products, especially during a period of persistent supply chain shortages;
actual or perceived security breaches or security vulnerabilities;
the occurrence of major catastrophic events, including natural disasters, acts of war or climate change;
actual or anticipated changes in the credit ratings of our indebtedness by rating agencies; and
the sale of our ordinary shares held by certain equity investors or members of management.
In addition, in the past, following periods of decline in the market price of a company’s securities, class action lawsuits have often been pursued against that company. If similar litigation were pursued against us, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.






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Any decision to reduce or discontinue the payment of cash dividends to our shareholders or the repurchase of our ordinary shares pursuant to our previously announced share repurchase program could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline significantly.
Although historically we have announced regular cash dividend payments and a share repurchase program, we are under no obligation to pay cash dividends to our shareholders in the future at historical levels or at all or to repurchase our ordinary shares at any particular price or at all. The declaration and payment of any future dividends is at the discretion of our Board of Directors. Our previously announced share repurchase program may be suspended or discontinued at any time. Our payment of quarterly cash dividends and the repurchase of our ordinary shares pursuant to our share repurchase program are subject to, among other things, our financial position and results of operations, distributable reserves, available cash and cash flow, capital and regulatory requirements, market and economic conditions, our ordinary share price and other factors. Any reduction or discontinuance by us of the payment of quarterly cash dividends or the repurchase of our ordinary shares pursuant to our share repurchase program could cause the market price of our ordinary shares to decline significantly. Moreover, in the event our payment of quarterly cash dividends or repurchases of our ordinary shares are reduced or discontinued, our failure to resume such activities at historical levels could result in a persistent lower market valuation of our ordinary shares.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our principal executive offices are located in Ireland. Our principal manufacturing facilities are located in China, Malaysia, Northern Ireland, Singapore, Thailand and the United States. Our principal product development facilities are located in California, Colorado, Minnesota and Singapore. Our leased facilities are occupied under leases that expire on various dates through 2068.
Our main material manufacturing, product development and marketing and administrative facilities at July 1, 2022 are as follows:
LocationBuilding(s) Owned or LeasedApproximate Square FootagePrimary Use
Europe
Northern Ireland
SpringtownOwned479,000 Manufacture of recording heads
United States   
CaliforniaOwned412,000 Product development, marketing and administrative and operational offices
ColoradoOwned528,000 Product development, administrative and operational offices
MinnesotaOwned/Leased1,098,000 Manufacture of recording heads and product development
Asia   
China   
WuxiLeased707,000 Manufacture of drives and drive subassemblies
Malaysia   
Johor
Owned (1)
631,000 Manufacture of substrates
Singapore   
Woodlands
Owned/Leased (1)
1,511,000 Manufacture of media, administrative and operational offices
Ayer Rajah
Owned (1)
410,000 Product development, administrative and operational offices
Thailand   
KoratOwned/Leased2,710,000 Manufacture of drives and drive subassemblies
TeparukOwned/Leased453,000 Manufacture of drive subassemblies
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(1) Land leases for these facilities expire on various dates through 2068.
As of July 1, 2022, we owned or leased a total of approximately 9.7 million square feet of space worldwide. The 9.7 million square feet of owned or leased space includes a total of 68,000 square feet that is currently subleased. We believe that our existing properties are in good operating condition and are suitable for the operations for which they are used.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 14. Legal, Environmental and Other Contingencies.”
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information
Our ordinary shares trade on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “STX.”
As of August 1, 2022, there were approximately 489 holders of record of our ordinary shares. We did not sell any of our equity securities during fiscal year 2022 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
Performance Graph
The performance graph below shows the cumulative total shareholder return on our ordinary shares for the period from June 30, 2017 to July 1, 2022. This is compared with the cumulative total return of the Dow Jones U.S. Computer Hardware Index and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500”) over the same period. The graph assumes that on June 30, 2017, $100 was invested in our ordinary shares and $100 was invested in each of the other two indices, with dividends reinvested on the date of payment without payment of any commissions. Dollar amounts in the graph are rounded to the nearest whole dollar. The performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future performance.
stx-20220701_g1.jpg
6/30/20176/29/20186/28/20197/3/20207/2/20217/1/2022
Seagate Technology Holdings plc$100.00 $152.23 $134.61 $141.83 $251.12 $211.97 
S&P 500100.00 114.26 125.78 136.03 188.84 169.66 
Dow Jones U.S. Computer Hardware100.00 130.03 140.14 251.12 384.68 384.42 
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(1) $100 invested on 6/30/2017 in shares and in indices, including reinvestment of dividends.
Dividends
Our ability to pay dividends in the future will be subject to, among other things, general business conditions within the data storage industry, our financial results, the impact of paying dividends on our credit ratings and legal and contractual restrictions
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on the payment of dividends by our subsidiaries to us or by us to our ordinary shareholders, including restrictions imposed by covenants on our debt instruments.
Repurchases of Our Equity Securities
On October 21, 2020 and February 22, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of an additional $3.0 billion and $2.0 billion of our outstanding ordinary shares, respectively, and as a result, we had an aggregate authority to repurchase approximately $8.0 billion of our ordinary shares. As of July 1, 2022, $2.4 billion remained available for repurchase of ordinary shares under the existing repurchase authorization limits. All repurchases are effected as redemptions in accordance with our Constitution. There is no expiration date on our repurchase authorizations.
The following table sets forth information with respect to all repurchases of our shares made during the fiscal year ended July 1, 2022, including shares withheld for statutory tax withholdings related to vesting of employee equity awards:
Period

(In millions, except average price paid per share)
Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)
Average Price Paid per Share (1)
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
1st Quarter through 3rd Quarter of Fiscal Year 202215 $92.10 15 $2,844 
April 2, 2022 through April 29, 202283.32 2,746 
April 30, 2022 through May 27, 202281.66 2,568 
May 28, 2022 through July 1, 202278.40 2,366 
Through 4th Quarter of Fiscal Year 202221 21 $2,366 
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(1) Repurchase of shares including tax withholdings.
ITEM 6. [Reserved]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following is a discussion of the Company’s financial condition, changes in financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal years ended July 1, 2022 and July 2, 2021. Discussions of year-to-year comparisons between fiscal years 2021 and 2020 are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and can be found in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended July 2, 2021, which was filed with the SEC on August 6, 2021.
You should read this discussion in conjunction with “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as noted, references to any fiscal year mean the twelve-month period ending on the Friday closest to June 30 of that year. Accordingly, fiscal year 2022 and 2021 both comprised of 52 weeks and ended on July 1, 2022 and July 2, 2021, respectively. Fiscal year 2026 will be comprised of 53 weeks and will end on July 3, 2026.
Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) is provided in addition to the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes to assist readers in understanding our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Our MD&A is organized as follows:
Fiscal Year 2022 Summary. Overview of financial and other highlights affecting us in fiscal year 2022.
Results of Operations. Analysis of our financial results comparing fiscal years 2022 and 2021.
Liquidity and Capital Resources. Analysis of changes in our balance sheets and cash flows, discussion of our financial condition including potential sources of liquidity, and material cash requirements and their general purpose.
Critical Accounting Estimates. Accounting estimates that we believe are important to understanding the assumptions and judgments incorporated in our reported financial results.
For an overview of our business, see “Part I - Item 1. Business—Overview.”
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Fiscal Year 2022 Summary
During fiscal year 2022, we shipped 631 exabytes of HDD storage capacity. We generated revenue of approximately $11.7 billion with a gross margin of 30%, net income of $1.6 billion, diluted EPS of $7.36 and our operating cash flow was $1.7 billion. We increased our unsecured revolving credit facility (“Revolving Credit Facility”) to $1.75 billion, borrowed $1.2 billion under our new term loan facility and repaid $701 million of our long-term debt. We repurchased approximately 20 million of our ordinary shares for $1.8 billion and paid $610 million in dividends.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic
The pandemic continues to impact our business and results of operations. During fiscal year 2022, we experienced the ongoing impacts of supply chain disruptions, higher logistics, materials and operational costs globally, as well as other inflationary and macroeconomic pressures. Additionally, constraints from certain component shortages impacted our ability to fulfill demand primarily for our non-HDD business. Our customers also continued to experience certain supply chain and demand disruptions, resulting in demand variations across certain of our end markets, including impacts from periodic governmental lockdown measures. We expect these factors will continue to impact our business and results of operations over the near term.
We continue to actively monitor the effects and potential impacts of the pandemic, inflation and other macroeconomic factors on all aspects of our business, supply chain, liquidity and capital resources including governmental policies that could periodically shut down an entire city where we, our suppliers or our customers operate. We are also actively working on opportunities to lower our cost structure, drive further operational efficiencies and maintain supply chain discipline including adjusting our manufacturing production plans in response to these business conditions. We are complying with governmental rules and guidelines across all of our sites. Although we are unable to predict the future impact of the pandemic on our business, results of operations, liquidity or capital resources at this time, we expect we will continue to be negatively affected if the pandemic and related public and private health measures result in substantial manufacturing or supply chain challenges, substantial reductions or delays in demand due to disruptions in the operations of our customers or partners, disruptions in local and global economies, volatility in the global financial markets, sustained reductions or volatility in overall demand trends, restrictions on the export or shipment of our products or our customer’s products, or other unexpected ramifications from the pandemic. For a further discussion of the uncertainties and business risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, see the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report.
Results of Operations
We list in the tables below summarized information from our Consolidated Statements of Operations by dollar amounts and as a percentage of revenue:
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Revenue$11,661 $10,681 
Cost of revenue8,192 7,764 
Gross profit3,469 2,917 
Product development941 903 
Marketing and administrative559 502 
Amortization of intangibles11 12 
Restructuring and other, net
Income from operations1,955 1,492 
Other expense, net(276)(144)
Income before income taxes1,679 1,348 
Provision for income taxes30 34 
Net income $1,649 $1,314 
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 Fiscal Years Ended
July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Revenue100 %100 %
Cost of revenue70 73 
Gross margin30 27 
Product development
Marketing and administrative
Amortization of intangibles— — 
Restructuring and other, net— — 
Operating margin17 14 
Other expense, net(3)(2)
Income before income taxes14 12 
Provision for income taxes— — 
Net income14 %12 %
The following table summarizes information regarding consolidated revenues by channel, geography, and market and HDD exabytes shipped by market and price per terabyte:
 Fiscal Years Ended
July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Revenues by Channel (%)   
OEMs75 %69 %
Distributors14 %18 %
Retailers11 %13 %
Revenues by Geography (%) (1)
  
Asia Pacific46 %49 %
Americas40 %34 %
EMEA14 %17 %
Revenues by Market (%)
Mass capacity68 %60 %
Legacy23 %32 %
Other%%
HDD Exabytes Shipped by Market
Mass capacity541 417 
Legacy90 118 
Total631 535 
HDD Price per Terabyte$17 $18 
____________________________________________________________
(1) Revenue is attributed to geography based on the bill from location.
Revenue
Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change%
Change
Revenue$11,661 $10,681 $980 %
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Revenue in fiscal year 2022 increased approximately 9%, or $980 million, from fiscal year 2021, primarily due to an increase in mass capacity exabytes shipped, partially offset by a decrease in legacy exabytes shipped. The mass capacity storage markets continued to increase as a percentage of our total revenue and exabytes shipped in fiscal year 2022. We expect this transition from legacy to mass capacity storage markets will continue, resulting in mass capacity continuing to increase as a percentage of our total revenue and total exabytes shipped in fiscal year 2023 and beyond. The long-term outlook for legacy markets is for a decrease in exabyte demand.
Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change%
Change
Cost of revenue$8,192 $7,764 $428 %
Gross profit3,469 2,917 552 19 %
Gross margin30 %27 %  
For fiscal year 2022, gross margin increased compared to the prior fiscal year primarily due to an increase in mass capacity exabytes shipped and improved product mix shift towards higher capacity HDDs, partially offset by higher component and logistics costs resulting from the pandemic and global inflationary pressures.
Operating Expenses
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change%
Change
Product development$941 $903 $38 %
Marketing and administrative559 502 57 11 %
Amortization of intangibles11 12 (1)(8)%
Restructuring and other, net(5)(63)%
Operating expenses$1,514 $1,425 $89 
Product Development Expense. Product development expenses for fiscal year 2022 increased by $38 million from fiscal year 2021 primarily due to a $25 million increase in materials expense, a $17 million increase in depreciation expenses, an $8 million increase in compensation and other employee benefits as a result of increase in share-based compensation and a $3 million increase in equipment expense, partially offset by a $12 million decrease in outside services expense and a $9 million decrease in variable compensation expense.
Marketing and Administrative Expense. Marketing and administrative expenses for fiscal year 2022 increased by $57 million from fiscal year 2021 primarily due to a $17 million increase in compensation and other employee benefits as a result of an increase in share-based compensation, a $16 million increase in outside services expense, a $6 million increase in travel expenses as a result of the easing of pandemic-related travel restrictions, a $5 million increase in advertising costs and a $3 million increase in information technology costs.
Amortization of Intangibles. Amortization of intangibles for fiscal year 2022 decreased by $1 million, as compared to fiscal year 2021, due to certain intangible assets that reached the end of their useful lives.
Restructuring and Other, net. Restructuring and other, net for fiscal year 2022 was not material.
Restructuring and other, net for fiscal year 2021 was $8 million, primarily comprised of workforce reduction costs and supplier transition costs, partially offset by a gain from the sale of a certain property and a gain upon termination of an operating lease.
Other Expense, net
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change%
Change
Other expense, net$(276)$(144)$(132)92 %
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Other expense, net for fiscal year 2022 increased by $132 million compared to fiscal year 2021 primarily due to a net $97 million higher non-recurring gain from our strategic investments in the prior-year period, a $29 million increase in interest expense from the issuance of long-term debt and a $21 million increase in losses on de-designated cash flow hedges. These changes were partially offset by a $16 million decrease in foreign exchange remeasurement expense.
Income Taxes
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change%
Change
Provision for income taxes$30 $34 $(4)(12)%
We recorded an income tax provision of $30 million for fiscal year 2022 compared to an income tax provision of $34 million for fiscal year 2021. Our fiscal year 2022 income tax provision included net tax benefits of approximately $15 million related to share-based compensation, $6 million resulting from recognition of deferred tax assets and $5 million associated with change in the applicable tax rate within our non-U.S. operations. Our fiscal year 2021 income tax provision included net tax benefits of approximately $8 million primarily associated with share-based compensation and $13 million related to the United Kingdom tax rate changes enacted in June 2021.
Our Irish tax resident parent holding company owns various U.S. and non-Irish subsidiaries that operate in multiple non-Irish income tax jurisdictions. Our worldwide operating income is either subject to varying rates of income tax or is exempt from income tax due to tax incentive programs we operate under in Singapore and Thailand. These tax incentives are scheduled to expire in whole or in part at various dates through 2033. Certain tax incentives may be extended if specific conditions are met.
Our income tax provision recorded for fiscal years 2022 and 2021 differed from the provision for income taxes that would be derived by applying the Irish statutory rate of 25% to income before income taxes, primarily due to the net effect of (i) non-Irish earnings generated in jurisdictions that are subject to tax incentive programs and are considered indefinitely reinvested outside of Ireland; and (ii) current year generation of research credits.
We anticipate that our effective tax rate in future periods will generally be less than the Irish statutory rate based on our ownership structure, our intention to indefinitely reinvest earnings from our subsidiaries outside of Ireland and the potential future increases in our valuation allowance for deferred tax assets.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following sections discuss our principal liquidity requirements, as well as our sources and uses of cash and our liquidity and capital resources. Our cash and cash equivalents are maintained in investments with remaining maturities of 90 days or less at the time of purchase. The principal objectives of our investment policy are the preservation of principal and maintenance of liquidity. We believe our cash equivalents are liquid and accessible. We operate in some countries that have restrictive regulations over the movement of cash and/or foreign exchange across their borders. However, we believe our sources of cash will continue to be sufficient to fund our operations and meet our cash requirements for the next 12 months. Although there can be no assurance, we believe that our financial resources, along with controlling our costs, will allow us to manage the ongoing impacts of the pandemic on our business operations for the foreseeable future. However, some challenges posed by the pandemic to our industry and to our business continue to remain uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. Consequently, we will continue to evaluate our financial position in light of future developments, particularly those relating to the pandemic.
We are not aware of any downgrades, losses or other significant deterioration in the fair value of our cash equivalents from the values reported as of July 1, 2022.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
 As of
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Change
Cash and cash equivalents$615 $1,209 $(594)
Our cash and cash equivalents decreased by $594 million from July 2, 2021 primarily as a result of repurchases of our ordinary shares of $1.8 billion, repayment of long-term debt of $701 million, payment of dividends to our shareholders of $610 million and payments for capital expenditures of $381 million, partially offset by net cash of $1.7 billion provided by operating activities and net proceeds of $1.2 billion from issuance of long-term debt. The following table summarizes results from the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the periods indicated:
 Fiscal Years Ended
(Dollars in millions)July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
Net cash flow provided by (used in):  
Operating activities$1,657 $1,626 
Investing activities(352)(466)
Financing activities(1,899)(1,673)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(594)$(513)
Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities for fiscal year 2022 was approximately $1.7 billion and includes the effects of net income adjusted for non-cash items including depreciation, amortization, share-based compensation and:
an increase of $228 million in accounts payable, primarily due to timing of payments and an increase in materials purchased; partially offset by
an increase of $374 million in accounts receivable, primarily due to linearity of sales; and
an increase of $361 million in inventories, primarily due to timing of shipments, and an increase in materials purchased for production of higher capacity drives and to mitigate supply chain disruptions.
Cash provided by operating activities for fiscal year 2021 was approximately $1.6 billion and includes the effects of net income adjusted for non-cash items including depreciation, amortization, share-based compensation and:
an increase of $58 million in accrued employee compensation, primarily due to an increase in our variable compensation expense; partially offset by
an increase of $64 million in inventories, primarily due to an increase in materials purchased for increased production of higher capacity drives and to mitigate supply chain disruptions; and
an increase of $42 million in accounts receivable, primarily due to an increase in revenue.
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Cash Used in Investing Activities
In fiscal year 2022, we used $352 million for net cash investing activities, which was primarily due to payments for the purchase of property, equipment and leasehold improvements of $381 million and payments for the purchase of investments of $18 million, partially offset by proceeds from the sale of investments of $47 million.
In fiscal year 2021, we used $466 million for net cash investing activities, which was primarily due to payments for the purchase of property, equipment and leasehold improvements of approximately $498 million, partially offset by proceeds from the sale of investments of $29 million
Cash Used in Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities of $1.9 billion for fiscal year 2022 was primarily attributable to the following activities:
$1.8 billion in payments for repurchases of our ordinary shares;
$701 million net repurchases of long-term debt; and
$610 million in dividend payments; partially offset by
$1.2 billion from the issuance of long-term debt; and
$68 million in proceeds from the issuance of ordinary shares under employee stock plans.
Net cash used in financing activities of $1.7 billion for fiscal year 2021 was primarily attributable to the following activities:
$2.0 billion in payments for repurchases of our ordinary shares; and
$649 million in dividend payments; partially offset by
$986 million from the issuance of Senior Notes; and
$108 million in proceeds from the issuance of ordinary shares under employee stock plans.
Liquidity Sources
Our primary sources of liquidity as of July 1, 2022, consist of: (1) approximately $615 million in cash and cash equivalents, (2) cash we expect to generate from operations and (3) $1.75 billion available for borrowing under our senior unsecured revolving credit facility (“Revolving Credit Facility”), which is part of our credit agreement (the “Credit Agreement”).
As of July 1, 2022, no borrowings (including swing line loans) were outstanding and no commitments were utilized for letters of credit issued under the Revolving Credit Facility. The Revolving Credit Facility is available for borrowings, subject to compliance with financial covenants and other customary conditions to borrowing.
The Credit Agreement includes three financial covenants: (1) interest coverage ratio, (2) total leverage ratio and (3) a minimum liquidity amount. The term of the Revolving Credit Facility is through October 14, 2026. As of July 1, 2022, we were in compliance with all of the covenants under our debt agreements. Based on our current outlook and the information we currently have available to us, we expect to be in compliance with the covenants in our debt agreements over the next 12 months.
As of July 1, 2022, cash and cash equivalents held by non-Irish subsidiaries was $614 million. This amount is potentially subject to taxation in Ireland upon repatriation by means of a dividend into our Irish parent. However, it is our intent to indefinitely reinvest earnings of non-Irish subsidiaries outside of Ireland and our current plans do not demonstrate a need to repatriate such earnings by means of a taxable Irish dividend. Should funds be needed in the Irish parent company and should we be unable to fund parent company activities through means other than a taxable Irish dividend, we would be required to accrue and pay Irish taxes on such dividend.
We believe that our sources of cash will be sufficient to fund our operations and meet our cash requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our ability to fund liquidity requirements beyond 12 months will depend on our future cash flows, which are determined by future operating performance, and therefore, subject to prevailing global macroeconomic conditions and financial, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. For additional information on factors that could impact our ability to fund our operations and meet our cash requirements, including the COVID-19 pandemic, see the section entitled “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report.
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Cash Requirements and Commitments
Our liquidity requirements are primarily to meet our working capital, product development and capital expenditure needs, to fund scheduled payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness, and to fund our quarterly dividend and any future strategic investments.
Purchase obligations
Purchase obligations are defined as contractual obligations for the purchase of goods or services, which are enforceable and legally binding on us, and that specify all significant terms. From time to time, we enter into long-term, non-cancelable purchase commitments or make large up-front investments with certain suppliers in order to secure certain components or technologies for the production of our products or to supplement our internal manufacturing capacity for certain components. As of July 1, 2022, we had unconditional purchase obligations of approximately $4.5 billion, primarily related to purchases of inventory components with our suppliers. We expect $1.5 billion of these commitments to be paid within one year.
Capital expenditures
We incur material capital expenditures to design and manufacture our products that depend on advanced technologies and manufacturing techniques. As of July 1, 2022, we had unconditional commitment of $307 million primarily related to purchases of equipment, of which approximately $167 million is expected to be paid within one year. For fiscal year 2023, we expect capital expenditures to be aligned to our long-term targeted range of 4% to 6% of revenue.
Operating leases
We are a lessee in several operating leases related to real estate facilities for warehouse and office space. As of July 1, 2022, the amount of future minimum rent expense for both occupied and vacated facilities net of sublease income under non-cancelable operating lease contracts was $58 million, of which $14 million is expected to be paid within one year. Refer to “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 6. Leases” for details.
Long-term debt and interest payments on debt
As of July 1, 2022, the future principal payment obligation on our long-term debt was $5.7 billion, of which $585 million will mature within one year. As of July 1, 2022, future interest payments on these outstanding debt is estimated to be approximately $1.3 billion, of which $223 million is expected to be paid within one year. From time to time, we may repurchase any of our outstanding senior notes in open market or privately negotiated purchases or otherwise, or we may repurchase outstanding senior notes pursuant to the terms of the applicable indenture. Refer to “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 4. Debt” for more details.
Income Tax
As of July 1, 2022, we had a liability for unrecognized tax benefits and an accrual for the payment of related interest totaling $3 million, none of which is expected to be settled within one year. Outside of one year, we are unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate of when cash settlement with a taxing authority will occur.
Dividends
On July 21, 2022, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.70 per share, which will be payable on October 5, 2022 to shareholders of record as of the close of business on September 21, 2022. Our ability to pay dividends in the future will be subject to, among other things, general business conditions within the data storage industry, our financial results, the impact of paying dividends on our credit ratings and legal and contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends by our subsidiaries to us or by us to our ordinary shareholders, including restrictions imposed by covenants on our debt instruments.
Share repurchases
From time to time, at the Company’s discretion, we may repurchase any of our outstanding ordinary shares through private, open market, or broker assisted purchases, tender offers, or other means, including through the use of derivative transactions. Our Board of Directors increased the authorization for the repurchase of our outstanding ordinary shares by $3.0 billion on October 21, 2020, and $2.0 billion on February 22, 2021. During fiscal year 2022, we repurchased approximately 21 million of our ordinary shares including shares withheld for statutory tax withholdings related to vesting of employee equity awards. See “Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities-Repurchases of Our Equity Securities.” As of July 1, 2022, $2.4 billion remained available for repurchase under our existing repurchase authorization limit. We may limit or terminate the repurchase program at any time. All repurchases are effected as redemptions in accordance with our Constitution.
We require substantial amounts of cash to fund any increased working capital requirements, future capital expenditures, scheduled payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness and payments of dividends. We will continue to evaluate and manage the retirement and replacement of existing debt and associated obligations, including evaluating the issuance of new debt securities, exchanging existing debt securities for other debt securities and retiring debt pursuant to privately negotiated
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transactions, open market purchases, tender offers or other means or otherwise. In addition, we may selectively pursue strategic alliances, acquisitions, joint ventures and investments, which may require additional capital.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The Company’s accounting policies are more fully described in “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 1. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies ”. The methods, estimates and judgments we use in applying our most critical accounting policies have a significant impact on the results we report in our consolidated financial statements. Critical accounting estimates are those estimates that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and have had or are reasonably likely to have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. Based on this definition, our most critical accounting policies include: Revenue - Sales Program Accruals, Warranty and Income Taxes. Below, we discuss these policies further, as well as the estimates and judgments involved. We also have other accounting policies and accounting estimates relating to uncollectible customer accounts, valuation of inventories, assessing goodwill and other long-lived assets for impairment, valuation of share-based payments and restructuring. We believe that these other accounting policies and accounting estimates either do not generally require us to make estimates and judgments that are as difficult or as subjective, or it is less likely that they would have a material impact on our reported results of operations for a given period.
Revenue - Sales Program Accruals. We record estimated variable consideration at the time of revenue recognition as a reduction to revenue. Variable consideration generally consists of sales incentive programs, such as price protection and volume incentives aimed at increasing customer demand. For OEM sales, rebates are typically established by estimating the most likely amount of consideration expected to be received based on an OEM customer's volume of purchases from us or other agreed upon rebate programs. For the distribution and retail channel, these sales incentive programs typically involve estimating the most likely amount of rebates related to a customer's level of sales, order size, advertising or point of sale activity as well as the expected value of price protection adjustments based on historical analysis and forecasted pricing environment. Total sales programs were 14% and 14% of gross revenue in fiscal years 2022 and 2021, respectively. Adjustments to revenues due to under or over accruals for sales programs related to revenues reported in prior quarterly periods were less than 1% of gross revenue in fiscal years 2022 and 2021.
Warranty. We estimate probable product warranty costs at the time revenue is recognized. Our warranty provision considers estimated product failure rates, trends (including the timing of product returns during the warranty periods), and estimated repair or replacement costs related to product quality issues, if any. Unforeseen component failures or exceptional component performance can result in changes to warranty costs. We also exercise judgment in estimating our ability to sell refurbished products based on historical experience. Our judgment is subject to a greater degree of subjectivity with respect to newly introduced products because of limited experience with those products upon which to base our warranty estimates. If actual warranty costs differ substantially from our estimates, revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Income Taxes. We make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits, recognition of income and deductions and calculation of specific tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for income tax and financial statement purposes, as well as tax liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions.
The deferred tax assets we record each period depend primarily on our ability to generate future taxable income in the United States and certain non-U.S. jurisdictions. Each period, we evaluate the need for a valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets and, if necessary, adjust the valuation allowance so that net deferred tax assets are recorded only to the extent we conclude it is more likely than not that these deferred tax assets will be realized.
In evaluating our ability to recover our deferred tax assets, in full or in part, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our past operating results, and our forecast of future earnings, future taxable income and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. The assumptions utilized in determining future taxable income require significant judgment and are consistent with the plans and estimates we are using to manage the underlying businesses. Actual operating results in future years could differ from our current assumptions, judgments, and estimates. If our outlook for future taxable income changes significantly, our assessment of the need for, and the amount of, a valuation allowance may also change resulting in an additional tax provision or benefit.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 1. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” for information regarding the effect of new accounting pronouncements on our financial statements.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We have exposure to market risks due to the volatility of interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, credit rating changes and equity and bond markets. A portion of these risks may be hedged, but fluctuations could impact our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Interest Rate Risk. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our cash investment portfolio. As of July 1, 2022, we had no available-for-sale debt securities that had been in a continuous unrealized loss position for a period greater than 12 months. During fiscal year 2022, we recorded a $13 million impairment loss relating to available-for-sale debt securities.
We have fixed rate and variable rate debt obligations. We enter into debt obligations for general corporate purposes including capital expenditures and working capital needs. Our Term Loans bear interest at a variable rate equal to LIBOR plus a variable margin. At this time, we have not identified any material exposure associated with the phase out of LIBOR by the end of 2022.
We have entered into certain interest rate swap agreements to convert the variable interest rate on the Term Loans to fixed interest rates. The objective of the interest rate swap agreements is to eliminate the variability of interest payment cash flows associated with the variable interest rate under the Term Loans. We designated the interest rate swaps as cash flow hedges. As of July 1, 2022, the aggregate notional amount of the Company’s interest-rate swap contracts was $1.2 billion, of which $600 million will mature in September 2025 and $600 million will mature in July 2027.
The table below presents principal amounts and related fixed or weighted-average interest rates by year of maturity for our investment portfolio and debt obligations as of July 1, 2022.
(Dollars in millions, except percentages)
Fiscal Years Ended
Fair Value at July 1, 2022
20232024202520262027ThereafterTotal
Assets       
Money market funds, time deposits and certificates of deposit      
Floating rate$61 $— $— $— $— $— $61 $61 
Average interest rate0.99 %     0.99 %
Other debt securities
Fixed rate$— $— $— $15 $— $$23 $23 
Debt      
Fixed rate$540 $500 $479 $— $505 $2,490 $4,514 $4,045 
Average interest rate4.75 %4.88 %4.75 %— %4.88 %4.09 %4.41 % 
Variable rate$45 $60 $83 $563 $60 $390 $1,201 $1,174 
Average interest rate2.92 %2.92 %2.92 %2.94 %2.90 %2.90 %2.92 %
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk. From time to time, we may enter into foreign currency forward exchange contracts to manage exposure related to certain foreign currency commitments and anticipated foreign currency denominated expenditures. Our policy prohibits us from entering into derivative financial instruments for speculative or trading purposes.
We hedge portions of our foreign currency denominated balance sheet positions with foreign currency forward exchange contracts to reduce the risk that our earnings will be adversely affected by changes in currency exchange rates. The change in fair value of these contracts is recognized in earnings in the same period as the gains and losses from the remeasurement of the assets and liabilities. All foreign currency forward exchange contracts mature within 12 months.
We recognized a net loss of $11 million and $10 million in Cost of revenue and Interest expense related to the loss of hedge designations on discontinued cash flow hedges during fiscal year 2022, respectively. We recognized a net gain of $14 million and a net loss of $7 million in Cost of revenue and Interest expense related to the loss of hedge designations on discontinued cash flow hedges during the fiscal year 2021.
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The table below provides information as of July 1, 2022 about our foreign currency forward exchange contracts. The table is provided in dollar equivalent amounts and presents the notional amounts (at the contract exchange rates) and the weighted-average contractual foreign currency exchange rates.
(Dollars in millions, except average contract rate)Notional
Amount
Average
Contract Rate
Estimated Fair Value(1)
Foreign currency forward exchange contracts:   
Singapore Dollar$230 $1.36 $(4)
Thai Baht168 $33.58 (8)
Chinese Renminbi116 $6.54 (3)
British Pound Sterling79 $0.77 (5)
Total$593 $(20)
___________________________________________________________________________________
(1) Equivalent to the unrealized net gain (loss) on existing contracts.
Other Market Risks. We have exposure to counterparty credit downgrades in the form of credit risk related to our foreign currency forward exchange contracts and our fixed income portfolio. We monitor and limit our credit exposure for our foreign currency forward exchange contracts by performing ongoing credit evaluations. We also manage the notional amount of contracts entered into with any one counterparty, and we maintain limits on maximum tenor of contracts based on the credit rating of the financial institution. Additionally, the investment portfolio is diversified and structured to minimize credit risk.
Changes in our corporate issuer credit ratings have minimal impact on our near-term financial results, but downgrades may negatively impact our future ability to raise capital, our ability to execute transactions with various counterparties and may increase the cost of such capital.
We are subject to equity market risks due to changes in the fair value of the notional investments selected by our employees as part of our non-qualified deferred compensation plan—the Seagate Deferred Compensation Plan (the “SDCP”). In fiscal year 2014, we entered into a Total Return Swap (“TRS”) in order to manage the equity market risks associated with the SDCP liabilities. We pay a floating rate, based on the LIBOR plus an interest rate spread, on the notional amount of the TRS. The TRS is designed to substantially offset changes in the SDCP liabilities due to changes in the value of the investment options made by employees. See “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Note 8. Derivative Financial Instruments” of this Report on Form 10-K.

    
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
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SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS PLC
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except share and per share data)
Fiscal Years Ended
July 1,
2022
July 2,
2021
ASSETS
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$615 $1,209 
Accounts receivable, net1,532 1,158 
Inventories1,565 1,204 
Other current assets321 208 
Total current assets4,033 3,779 
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements, net2,239 2,181