Bunge Limited
10-K on 02/19/2021   Download
SEC Document
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
____________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Or
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                   to                                  
Commission File Number 001-16625
BUNGE LIMITED
bg-20201231_g1.jpg
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Bermuda 98-0231912
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
1391 Timberlake Manor Parkway
St. Louis
Missouri63017
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(314292-2000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, $0.01 par value per share BG New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Act. Yes o    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filerýAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes     No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No ý
The aggregate market value of registrant's common shares held by non-affiliates, based upon the closing price of our common shares on the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 30, 2020, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $5,448 million. Common shares held by executive officers and directors and persons who own 10% or more of the issued and outstanding common shares have been excluded since such persons may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a determination for any other purpose.
As of February 12, 2021, 140,162,994 Common Shares, par value $.01 per share, were issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the proxy statement for the 2021 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 5, 2021 are incorporated by reference into Part III.



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Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements

The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a "safe harbor" for forward looking statements to encourage companies to provide prospective information to investors. This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward looking statements that reflect our current expectations and projections about our future results, performance, prospects and opportunities. Forward looking statements include all statements that are not historical in nature. We have tried to identify these forward looking statements by using words including "may," "will," "should," "could," "expect," "anticipate," "believe," "plan," "intend," "estimate," "continue" and similar expressions. These forward looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause our actual results, performance, prospects or opportunities to differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these forward looking statements. These factors include the risks, uncertainties, trends and other factors discussed under the headings "Item 1A. Risk Factors," as well as "Item 1. Business," "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including:
the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and other pandemic outbreaks;
the effect of weather conditions and the impact of crop and animal disease on our business;
the impact of global and regional economic, agricultural, financial and commodities market, political, social and health conditions;
changes in governmental policies and laws affecting our business, including agricultural and trade policies, financial markets regulation and environmental, tax and biofuels regulation;
the impact of seasonality;
the impact of government policies and regulations;
the outcome of pending regulatory and legal proceedings;
our ability to complete, integrate and benefit from acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and strategic alliances;
the impact of industry conditions, including fluctuations in supply, demand and prices for agricultural commodities and other raw materials and products that we sell and use in our business, fluctuations in energy and freight costs and competitive developments in our industries;
the effectiveness of our capital allocation plans, funding needs and financing sources;
the effectiveness of our risk management strategies;
operational risks, including industrial accidents, natural disasters and cybersecurity incidents; and
changes in foreign exchange policy or rates;
other factors affecting our business generally.
In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, you should not place undue reliance on any forward looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks that we may currently deem immaterial or that are not presently known to us could also cause the forward looking events discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K not to occur. Except as otherwise required by federal securities law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, changed circumstances or any other reason after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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PART I

Item 1.    Business
       References in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "Bunge Limited," "Bunge," "the Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Bunge Limited and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise indicates.

Business Overview
We are a leading global agribusiness and food company with integrated operations that stretch from farmer to consumer. We believe we are a leading:
global oilseed processor and producer of vegetable oils and protein meals, based on processing capacity;
global grain processor, based on volume;
seller of packaged vegetable oils worldwide, based on sales;
producer and seller of wheat flours, bakery mixes and dry milled corn products in North and South America, based on volume.

We also produce sugar and ethanol in Brazil, through our 50% interest in BP Bunge Bioenergia, a joint venture formed with BP p.l.c ("BP") in December 2019 by the combination of our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations with the Brazilian biofuels business of BP.
As of January 1, 2020, we conduct our operations in five reportable segments: Agribusiness, Edible Oil Products, Milling Products, Sugar and Bioenergy, and Fertilizer. We further organize these reportable segments into Core operations and Non-core operations. Core operations comprise our Agribusiness, Edible Oil Products, Milling Products, and Fertilizer segments, and Non-core operations comprise our Sugar and Bioenergy segment, which itself primarily comprises our interest in the recently-formed BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture.
Our Agribusiness segment is an integrated, global business principally involved in the purchase, storage, transportation, processing and sale of agricultural commodities and commodity products. Our Agribusiness operations and assets are located in North and South America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, and we have merchandising and distribution offices throughout the world.
The Edible Oil Products segment includes businesses that sell vegetable oils and fats, including cooking oils, shortenings, margarines, mayonnaise and specialty ingredients. The operations and assets of our Edible Oil Products segment are primarily located in North and South America, Europe and Asia-Pacific.
The Milling Products segment includes businesses that sell wheat flours, bakery mixes and corn-based products. The operations and assets of our Milling Products segment are located in North and South America.
Our Fertilizer segment is involved in producing, blending and distributing fertilizer products for the agricultural industry in South America, with operations and retail distribution activities in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, and port facilities in Argentina and Brazil.
Our Sugar & Bioenergy segment primarily comprises our 50% interest in BP Bunge Bioenergia.

History and Corporate Information
Bunge Limited is an exempted company by shares incorporated under the laws of Bermuda. We are registered with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda under registration number EC20791. We trace our history back to 1818 when we were founded as a trading company in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We are a holding company and substantially all of our operations are conducted through our subsidiaries. Our principal executive offices and corporate headquarters are located at 1391 Timberlake Manor Parkway, St. Louis, Missouri, 63017, United States of America, and our telephone number is (314) 292-2000. Our registered office is located at 2 Church Street, Hamilton, HM 11, Bermuda.

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Core Segments
Agribusiness Segment
Overview—Our Agribusiness segment is an integrated, global business involved in purchasing, storing, transporting, processing and selling agricultural commodities and commodity products while managing risk across various product lines. The principal agricultural commodities that we handle in this segment are oilseeds, primarily soybeans, rapeseed, canola, and sunflower seed, and grains, primarily wheat and corn. We process oilseeds into vegetable oils and protein meals, principally for the food, animal feed and biodiesel industries, through a global network of facilities. Our footprint is well balanced, with approximately 34% of our processing capacity located in South America, 27% in North America, 26% in Europe and 13% in Asia-Pacific.
Customers—We sell agricultural commodities and processed commodity products to customers throughout the world. The principal purchasers of our oilseeds, grains and oilseed meal are animal feed manufacturers, livestock producers, wheat and corn millers, and other oilseed processors. As a result, our agribusiness operations generally benefit from global demand for protein, primarily poultry and pork products. The principal purchasers of the unrefined vegetable oils produced in this segment are our own edible oils businesses and third-party edible oil processing companies, which use these oils as raw materials in the production of edible oil products for the food service, food processor and retail markets. In addition, we sell oil products for various non-food uses, including industrial applications and the production of biodiesel.
Distribution and Logistics—We have developed an extensive global logistics network to transport our products, including trucks, railcars, river barges and ocean freight vessels. Typically, we either lease the transportation assets or contract with third parties for these services. To better serve our customer base and develop our global distribution and logistics capabilities, we own or operate either directly or through joint venture arrangements, various port terminal facilities, including in Brazil, Argentina, the United States, Canada, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Vietnam and Australia.
Financial Services and Activities—We also offer various financial services, principally trade structured finance and financial risk management services, to customers and other third parties. Our trade structured finance operations leverage our international trade flows to generate trade finance derived liquidity in emerging markets for third parties. Our financial risk management services include structuring and marketing risk management products to enable agricultural producers and end users of commodities to manage commodity price risk exposures. We also engage in foreign exchange and other financial instrument trading via our financial services business. Additionally, we provide financing services to farmers, primarily in Brazil, from whom we purchase soybeans and other agricultural commodities. Our farmer financing activities are an integral part of our grain and oilseed origination activities as they help assure the annual supply of raw materials for our Brazilian agribusiness operations.
Biodiesel—We own and operate conventional biodiesel facilities in Europe and Brazil and have equity method investments in conventional biodiesel producers in Europe and Argentina. This business is complementary to our core Agribusiness operations as in each case we supply some of the raw materials (refined or partially refined vegetable oil) used in their production processes.
Raw Materials—We purchase oilseeds and grains either directly from farmers or indirectly through intermediaries. Although the availability and price of agricultural commodities may, in any given year, be affected by unpredictable factors such as weather, government programs and policies, and farmer planting and selling decisions, our operations in major crop growing regions have enabled us to source adequate raw materials for our operational needs.
Competition—Due to their commodity nature, markets for our products are highly competitive and subject to product substitution. Competition is principally based on price, quality, product and service offerings, and geographic location. Major competitors include but are not limited to: The Archer Daniels Midland Co. ("ADM"), Cargill Incorporated ("Cargill"), Louis Dreyfus Group ("Louis Dreyfus"), Glencore International PLC ("Glencore"), Wilmar International Limited ("Wilmar") and COFCO International ("COFCO").

Edible Oil Products Segment
Overview—We primarily sell our edible oil products to three customer types or market channels: food processors, food service companies and retail outlets. The principal raw materials used in our Edible Oil Products segment are various crude and further processed vegetable oils and fats. These raw materials are mostly agricultural commodities that we either produce or purchase from third parties. We believe that our global integrated business model enables us to realize synergies among our Agribusiness, Edible Oil Products and Milling Products segments through raw material procurement, logistics, risk management and the co-location of industrial facilities, enabling us to supply customers with reliable, high quality products on
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a global basis. As many of the products we sell in our Edible Oil Products segment are staple foods or ingredients, these businesses generally benefit from macro population and income growth rates.
Products—Our edible oil products include packaged and bulk oils and fats, including cooking oils, shortenings, margarines, mayonnaise and other products derived from the vegetable oil refining process. We primarily use soybean, sunflower, rapeseed and canola oil that we produce in our Agribusiness segment oilseed processing operations as raw materials in this business. We also refine and fractionate palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oil, and shea butter, and blend and refine olive oil. Additionally, we produce specialty ingredients derived from vegetable oils, such as lecithin, which is used as an emulsifier in a broad range of food products. We are a leading seller of packaged vegetable oils worldwide, based on sales. We have edible oil refining and packaging facilities in North America, South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Africa. Our edible oil products business is largely business to business ("B2B") focused in North America, while in South America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, it comprises a mix of B2B and business to consumer ("B2C") offerings.
In Brazil, our retail edible oil brands include Soya, the leading consumer packaged vegetable oil brand, as well as Primor and Salada. We are also a leading supplier of shortenings to the food processor market and also produce staple food products. In July 2020, we entered into an agreement to sell our Brazilian processed tomato assets to Stella D'oro Alimentos Ltda, and the sale was completed in October 2020. In December 2019, we entered into an agreement to sell our Brazilian margarine and mayonnaise assets to Seara Alimentos S.A., and the sale was completed in November 2020.
In the United States and Canada, we offer food manufacturers, bakeries, confectionary, and food service operators high-quality solutions to fit their goals, such as delivering desired tastes and textures, or reducing trans-fats or saturated fats in their products. Our products include trans-fat free high-oleic canola oil, which is low in saturated fats, and high-oleic soybean oil, which is highly stable and trans-fat free. We have also developed proprietary fiber addition processes that allow bakery and food processor customers to achieve significant saturated fat reductions in shortenings. We also offer expeller-pressed and physically-refined oils to food service customers under the Whole Harvest brand, and produce margarines and buttery spreads, including our leading Country Premium brand, for food service, food processor and retail private label customers.
In Europe, we are a leader in consumer packaged vegetable oils, which are sold in various geographies under brand names including Venusz, Floriol, Kujawski, Unisol, Kaliakra, Ideal, Oleina, Oliwier, Komili and Kirlangic. We are also a leader in margarines, under brand names including Smakowita, Slynne, Maslo Rosline, Masmix, Optima, Finuu, Deli Reform, Keiju, Venusz, Evesol, Carlshamn and Voimix. Additionally, we produce a variety of products for the confectionary and bakery industries. We are also a B2B oils supplier in the Western European food service channel.
In Asia, we offer a range of consumer and B2B products, including bakery, culinary, confectionary and infant nutrition products. In India, our consumer brands include Dalda, Ginni and Chambal edible oils; Dalda and Gagan vanaspatis; and Masterline professional bakery fats. In China, we offer consumer edible oils products under the Dou Wei Jia brand.
Customers—Our customers include baked goods companies, snack food producers, confectioners, restaurant chains, food service operators, infant nutrition companies, and other food manufacturers who use vegetable oils and shortenings as ingredients in their operations. Other customers include grocery chains, wholesalers, distributors, and other retailers who sell to consumers either under our own brand names or private labels. These customers include global and national food processors and manufacturers, many of which are leading brand owners in their product categories.
Competition—Competition is based on a number of factors, including price, raw material procurement, distribution capability, cost structure, brand recognition, product quality, product innovation, technical support, composition and nutritional value, and advertising and promotion. Our products may compete with widely advertised, well-known, branded products, as well as private label and customized products. Our principal competitors in the Edible Oil Products segment include, but are not limited to: ADM, AAK AB, Cargill, Fuji Oil Co. Ltd. and Wilmar, as well as local competitors in each region.

Milling Products Segment
Overview—We primarily sell our milling products to three customer types or market channels: food processors, food service companies and retail outlets. The principal raw materials used in our milling products businesses are wheat, corn, and other agricultural commodities sourced from our Agribusiness segment or directly from third parties. Similar to our edible oils business, we realize synergies among our other segments in areas such as raw material procurement, logistics, risk management and the co-location of industrial facilities, enabling us to supply customers with reliable, high quality products on a global basis. As many of the products we sell in our Milling Products segment are staple foods or ingredients, these businesses generally benefit from macro population and income growth rates. Additionally, our Milling Products segment is focused on capitalizing on growing global consumer food trends, including a desire for less processed, healthier foods, interest in new flavors, and
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increases in snacking and eating outside the home. During the fourth quarter of 2020, Bunge sold its rice milling facility in Woodland, California to Farmers' Rice Cooperative.
Products—Our Milling Products segment activities include the production and sale of a variety of wheat flours and bakery mixes in Brazil and Mexico, as well as corn-based products derived from both the dry and wet corn milling processes in the United States and Mexico.
Our brands in Brazil include Suprema, Soberana, Primor and Predileta wheat flours, and Gradina and Pre-Mescla bakery premixes. Our wheat flour and bakery mix brands in Mexico include Espiga, Esponja, Francesera, Chulita, Galletera and Pastelera. Our corn milling products primarily consist of dry-milled corn meals and flours, wet-milled masa and flours, flaking and brewers' grits, as well as soy-fortified corn meal, corn-soy blends, and other similar products. As part of our corn portfolio, we also sell whole grain and fiber ingredients. In the United States, we offer ancient grains, such as quinoa and millet, in our portfolio. We also produce a range of extruded products including die-cut pellets for the snack food industry. Additionally, we offer non-GMO products in the United States, including corn varieties.
Customers—The primary customers for our wheat milling products are food processing, bakery and food service companies. The primary customers for our corn milling products are companies in the food-processing sector, such as cereal, snack, bakery and brewing companies, as well as the U.S. Government under its humanitarian assistance programs.
Competition—Competition is based on a variety of factors, including price, raw material procurement, brand recognition, product quality, nutritional profile, dietary trends and distribution capabilities. In Brazil, our major competitors are M. Dias Branco, J. Macedo and Moinho Anaconda, as well as many small regional producers. Our major competitors in Mexico include Elizondo Agroalimentos, S.A. de C.V., Harinera Anáhuac, S.A. de C.V., Molinera de México S.A. de C.V., and Grupo Trimex S.A. Our major competitors in North American corn milling include Cargill, Didion Inc., SEMO Milling, LLC, Life Line Foods, LLC and Gruma S.A.B. de C.V.

Fertilizer Segment
Overview—Through our operations in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, we produce, blend and distribute a range of liquid and dry NPK fertilizers, including nitrogen-based liquid and solid phosphate fertilizers. NPK refers to nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potassium (K), the main components of chemical fertilizers, used for the production of crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat. Our operations in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay are closely linked to our grain origination activities, as we supply fertilizer to producers that supply us with grain. In Brazil, we operate a terminal in the Port of Santos that discharges and handles imported fertilizers and provides logistics and support services. Our Brazilian grain operations also supply farmers, through barter agreements, with third-party produced fertilizer.
Products and Services—We offer a complete fertilizer portfolio, including SSP, ammonia, and ammonium thiosulfate that we produce, as well as monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride that we purchase from third parties and resell. We primarily market our products under the Bunge brand, with liquid fertilizers marketed under the Solmix brand.
Raw Materials—Our main raw materials in this segment are concentrated phosphate rock, sulfuric acid, natural gas and sulfur. The prices of fertilizer raw materials are typically based on international prices that reflect global supply and demand factors, as well as global transportation and other logistics costs. Each of these fertilizer raw materials is readily available in the international market from multiple sources.
Competition—Competition is based on a number of factors, including delivered price, product offering and quality, location, access to raw materials, production efficiency and customer service, sometimes including customer financing terms. Our main competitors in our fertilizer operations in Argentina are Nutrien Ltd. ("Agrium/ASP"), YPF S.A., Profertil S.A., COFCO ("Nidera B.V."), Yara International ASA and Louis Dreyfus.

Corporate and Other
Corporate and Other includes salaries and overhead for corporate functions that are not allocated to our individual reporting segments because the operating performance of such segments is evaluated by our chief operating decision maker exclusive of these items, as well as certain other activities including Bunge Ventures, the Company's captive insurance, and securitization activities.
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Non-core Segment
Sugar and Bioenergy Segment
Our Sugar and Bioenergy segment primarily comprises our 50% interest in BP Bunge Bioenergia, our joint venture with BP formed in December 2019 by the combination of our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations with the Brazilian biofuels business of BP. BP Bunge Bioenergia operates on a stand-alone basis with a total of 11 mills located across the Southeast, North and Midwest regions of Brazil. BP Bunge Bioenergia is now the second largest operator by effective crushing capacity in the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol biofuel industry. Our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations had previously formed the majority of our Sugar and Bioenergy segment through which we produced and sold sugar and ethanol derived from sugarcane, as well as energy derived from the sugar and ethanol production process. As a result of forming this joint venture, we ceased to consolidate our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations in our consolidated financial statements and now account for our interest in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting. Accordingly, our reported Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2020 include our share of the net earnings in BP Bunge Bioenergia, whereas our Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2019 reflect our former 100% ownership interest in the Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations contributed to the Joint Venture. Although we are committed to supporting the growth and development of BP Bunge Bioenergia, our long-term goal is to seek strategic opportunities for our investment in the joint venture, hence the designation of such operations as Non-core.
In connection with the formation of the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture, we combined our eight mills, the plantations we owned and managed, and related assets, together with BP’s sugar and bioenergy business in Brazil, which included three mills and related assets. The combined mills of the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture are supplied with sugarcane grown on approximately 450,000 hectares of land. In 2020, approximately 75% of the joint venture's total milled sugarcane came from plantations owned or managed by BP Bunge Bioenergia and 25% was purchased from third-party suppliers. These mills allow the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture to produce sugar, ethanol and electricity, as further described below.
Sugar-The BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture produces two types of sugar: very high polarity ("VHP") raw sugar and crystal sugar. VHP sugar is similar to the raw sugar traded on major commodities exchanges, including the standard NY11 contract, and is sold almost exclusively for export. Crystal sugar is a non-refined white sugar and is principally sold domestically in Brazil.
Ethanol-BP Bunge Bioenergia produces and sells two types of ethanol: hydrous and anhydrous. Hydrous ethanol is consumed directly as a transport fuel, while anhydrous ethanol is blended with gasoline in transport fuels.
Electricity-BP Bunge Bioenergia generates electricity from burning sugarcane bagasse in its mills.
The sugar produced at BP Bunge Bioenergia’s mills is sold in both the Brazilian domestic market, primarily in the confectionary and food processing industries, and export markets. The ethanol is sold primarily to customers for use in the Brazilian domestic market to meet the demand for fuel, with sugar and ethanol also exported in the international market. BP Bunge Bioenergia competes with other sugar and ethanol producers both in Brazil and internationally, and with beet sugar processors, along with producers of other sweeteners and biofuels in the global market. Major competitors in Brazil include Cosan Limited/Raizen, São Martinho S.A. and Biosev ("Louis Dreyfus"). Major international competitors include British Sugar PLC, Südzucker AG, Cargill, Tereos S.A., Sucden S.A., ED&F Man Limited and COFCO.

Risk Management
Risk management is a fundamental aspect of our business. Engaging in the hedging of risk exposures and anticipating market developments are critical to protecting and enhancing our return on assets. As such, we are active in physical and derivative markets for agricultural commodities, energy, ocean freight, foreign currency, and interest rates. We seek to leverage the market insights that we gain through our global operations across our businesses by actively managing our physical and financial positions on a daily basis. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk."
Insurance
In each country in which we conduct business, our operations and assets are subject to varying degrees of risk and uncertainty. We insure our businesses and assets in each country in a manner that we deem appropriate for a company of our size and activities, based on an analysis of the relative risks and costs. We believe that our geographic dispersion of assets helps mitigate the risk to our business from an adverse event affecting a specific facility. However, if we were to incur a significant loss or liability for which we were not insured in full or in part, it could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Operating Segments and Geographic Areas
We have included financial information about our reportable segments and our operations by geographic area in Note 28- Segment Information to our consolidated financial statements included as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Research and Development, Innovation, Patents and Licenses
Our research and development activities are focused on developing products and improving processes that will drive growth or otherwise add value to our core business operations. In our Edible Oils and Milling businesses, we have 15 research and development centers globally to support product development and enhancement. Additionally, Bunge Ventures, our corporate venture capital unit, invests in start-ups and other early stage companies that are developing new technologies relevant to our industries.
We own trademarks, patents and licenses covering certain of our products and manufacturing processes. However, neither our business as a whole nor any segment is dependent on any specific trademark, patent or license.
Seasonality
In our Agribusiness segment, while there is a degree of seasonality in the growing season and procurement of our principal raw materials, such as oilseeds and grains, we typically do not experience material fluctuations in volume between the first and second half of the year, since we are geographically diversified between the northern and southern hemispheres, and we sell and distribute products throughout the year. However, the first quarter of the year has generally been our weakest in terms of financial results due to the timing of the North and South American oilseed harvests, as the North American harvest peaks in the third and fourth quarters, and the South American harvest peaks in the second quarter. Our North and South American grain merchandising and oilseed processing activities are, therefore, generally at lower levels during the first quarter.
In our Edible Oil Products and Milling Products segments, demand for certain of our food items may be influenced by holidays and other annual events.
In our Fertilizer segment, we are subject to seasonal trends based on the South American agricultural growing cycle as farmers typically purchase the bulk of their fertilizer needs in the second half of the year.
Government Regulation
In each of the countries in which we operate, we are subject to a variety of laws and regulations governing various aspects of our business, including general business regulations as well as those governing the manufacturing, handling, storage, transport, marketing and sale of our products. These include laws and regulations relating to facility licensing and permitting, food and feed safety, the handling and production of regulated substances, nutritional and labeling requirements, global trade compliance and other matters. Our operations and those of our suppliers are also subject to restrictions on land use in certain protected areas, forestry reserve requirements, and limitations on water use. Additionally, from time-to-time, agricultural production shortfalls in certain regions, and growing demand for agricultural commodities for feed, food and fuel use have caused prices for relevant agricultural commodities to rise. High commodity prices and regional crop shortfalls have led, and in the future may lead, governments to impose price controls, tariffs, export restrictions and other measures designed to ensure adequate domestic supplies and/or mitigate price increases in their domestic markets, as well as increase the scrutiny of competitive conditions in their markets.
Many countries use and produce biofuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels. Biofuels convert crops, such as sugarcane, corn, soybeans, palm, rapeseed or canola, and other oilseeds, into ethanol or biodiesel to extend, enhance or substitute for fossil fuels. Production of biofuels has increased significantly in the last decade in response to both periods of high fossil fuel prices and to government incentives to produce biofuels offered in many countries, including the United States, Brazil, Argentina and several South East Asian and European countries. Furthermore, in several countries, governmental authorities are mandating biofuel use in transport fuels at specified levels. As such, the markets for agricultural commodities used in the production of biofuels have become increasingly affected by the growth of the biofuels industry and related legislation.
Environmental Matters and Sustainability
We incorporate sustainability into many areas of our business, from how we plan and develop our strategic goals and operate our facilities to how we engage with our customers, suppliers, employees, communities and other stakeholders. We make decisions across our value chains built on a foundation of ethical leadership, accountability and environmental stewardship. We want to be a leader in our industry, urging sustainability and responsibility at every step along the supply chain from the farm to the table.
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To meet today's challenges and contribute to the solutions ahead, we have defined sustainability goals that incorporate activities and commitments supporting robust action on climate change, promoting responsible supply chains, and providing accountability for all that we do.
Action on Climate—We implement innovative solutions designed to minimize our environmental footprint and support projects and activities that strengthen our approach to fighting climate change.
Responsible Supply Chains—We promote sustainable agriculture and implement robust projects that are designed to protect and improve the environment, while supporting the social and economic well-being of growers and local communities.
Accountability—We aim to be an accountable leader within our industry, helping to raise the bar on our sector’s performance by regularly tracking and disclosing progress on our commitments and sustainability performance.
We are subject to various environmental protection and occupational health and safety laws and regulations in the countries in which we operate, and we incur costs to comply with these requirements. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations relating to environmental matters has not had a material financial or competitive effect on our business. However, due to our extensive operations across multiple industries and jurisdictions globally, we are exposed to the risk of claims and liabilities under these laws and regulations. Violation can result in substantial fines, administrative sanctions, criminal penalties, revocations of operating permits and/or shutdowns of our facilities.
Additionally, our business could be affected in the future by the regulation or taxation of greenhouse gas emissions or policies related to national emission reduction plans. We regularly assess the potential impacts to our business resulting from regulation or policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Potential consequences could include increased energy, transportation and raw material costs, and we may be required to make additional investments to modify our facilities, equipment and processes. As a result, the effects of additional climate change regulatory initiatives could have adverse impacts on our business and results of operations. Physical effects of climate change, including shifts in agricultural production areas and climatic volatility, could in the long-term result in incidents of stranded physical assets. We believe the breadth and diversification of our global asset network, as well as our participation in the global trade of agricultural commodities, help to mitigate these risks.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2020 we had more than 23,000 employees. Many of our employees are represented by labor unions, and their employment is governed by collective bargaining agreements. In general, we consider our employee relations to be good.
Our culture of collaboration and innovation starts with inclusion and recognition of the importance of having different perspectives in our global workforce. Our global workforce and international representation makes Bunge unique. We care about our people, we empower and reward them, and we help them develop personally and professionally. We continuously strive to cultivate and support a highly engaged and productive workforce. From hiring the best talent, to inclusion and diversity initiatives, and through career development, compensation, and wellness, Bunge is committed to creating programs and resources that enhance our workplace environment and the employee experience, which support us in retaining and engaging our most valuable resource, our people.
Available Information
Our website address is www.bunge.com. Through the "Investors: Financial Information: SEC Filings" section of our website, it is possible to access our periodic report filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), including our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports. Also, filings made pursuant to Section 16 of the Exchange Act with the SEC by our executive officers, directors and other reporting persons with respect to our common shares are made available through our website. Our periodic reports and amendments, and the Section 16 filings, are available through our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after such report, amendment or filing is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Through the "Investors: Corporate Governance" section of our website, it is also possible to access copies of the charters for our Audit Committee, Human Resources and Compensation Committee, Corporate Governance and Nominations Committee, Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility Committee, and Enterprise Risk Management Committee. Our Corporate Governance Guidelines and our Code of Conduct are also available on our website. Each of these documents is also made available free of charge through our website.
The foregoing information regarding our website and its content is for your convenience only. The information contained in or connected to our website is not deemed to be incorporated by reference in this report or filed with the SEC.
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In addition, the SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, where you may obtain a copy of all of the materials we file publicly with the SEC. The SEC website address is www.sec.gov.
Information About Our Executive Officers and Key Employees
Set forth below is certain information concerning the executive officers and key employees of the company.
Name Position
Gregory A. Heckman Chief Executive Officer
Deborah Borg Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources and Communications Officer
Aaron Buettner President, Bunge Loders Croklaan
Christos DimopoulousPresident, Global Supply Chains
Pierre Mauger Chief Transformation Officer
John W. Neppl Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Raul Padilla President, Global Operations
Joseph A. PodwikaExecutive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer
Robert WagnerChief Risk Officer
Brian ZachmanPresident, Global Risk Management

Gregory A. Heckman, 58-Mr. Heckman has served as Chief Executive Officer since January 2019 and as a member of our Board of Directors since October 2018. Mr. Heckman is the founding partner of Flatwater Partners, a private investment firm, and has over 30 years of experience in the agriculture, energy and food processing industries. He served as Chief Executive Officer of The Gavilon Group from 2008 to 2015. Prior to Gavilon, he served as Chief Operating Officer of ConAgra Foods Commercial Products and President and Chief Operating Officer of ConAgra Trade Group. Mr. Heckman serves as a non-executive director on the board of OCI N.V. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Agricultural Economics and Marketing from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Deborah Borg, 44-Ms. Borg has served as Chief Human Resources and Communications Officer since January 2016. Prior to joining Bunge in November 2015, she was President Dow USA at Dow Chemical, a role in which she was responsible for regional business strategy and external relationships with customers, government organizations and joint venture partners. She started her career at Dow in 2000 as Human Resources Manager for Australia / New Zealand and went on to hold regional and business HR roles in Asia, Europe and North America. She also served as Global HR Director, Marketing and Sales, and led the Human Capital Planning and Development function for Dow, focusing on talent acquisition, retention, diversity and development. Previously, Ms. Borg served in HR and talent development roles with General Motors Australia. Ms. Borg serves on the Board of Directors of Schweitzer-Mauduit International, Inc., a leading global performance materials company. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Business Management in Human Resources and a master’s degree in Training and Change Management from Victoria University, Australia.
Aaron Buettner, 47-Mr. Buettner has served as President, Bunge Loders Croklaan (Loders) since May 2019. Mr. Buettner joined Bunge in September 2015 serving as Vice President, Global Oils business. Prior to joining Bunge, Mr. Buettner worked at Cargill for 19 years in a variety of commercial, finance and general management leadership roles in the United States, Russia and Asia Pacific refined oils businesses. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Accounting and Computer Science from the University of Northern Iowa and an M.B.A. from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Christos Dimopoulos, 47-Mr. Dimopoulos has served as President, Global Supply Chains since May 2019. Mr. Dimopoulos joined Bunge in 2004 and served most recently as President, Agribusiness. He joined the company in 2004 as a grain trader and subsequently held a variety of roles of increasing responsibility in the Agribusiness segment. Prior to Bunge, Mr. Dimopoulos held roles in Europe and the United States with Tradigrain and Intrade Risk Management. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Business Management and Marketing from HEC Lausanne in Switzerland.
Pierre Mauger, 48-Mr. Mauger has served as Chief Transformation Officer since May 2019. He joined Bunge in 2013 as Chief Development Officer. Prior to Bunge, Mr. Mauger was a partner at McKinsey & Company, where he led the firm's agriculture service line in Europe, the Middle East and Africa from 2009 to 2013, overseeing client relationships with leading global companies in the commodity processing and trading, agrochemicals and fertilizer sectors, as well as with governments. Prior to that, he served as a partner in the firm's consumer goods practice. He joined McKinsey as an associate in 2000. Mr. Mauger previously worked as an auditor at Nestlé and KPMG. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Economics and Business Finance from Brunel University in the United Kingdom and an M.B.A. from INSEAD.
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John Neppl, 55- Mr. Neppl has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since May 2019. Mr. Neppl joined Bunge from Green Plains Inc., where he served as Chief Financial Officer. Prior to Green Plains, Mr. Neppl served as chief financial officer of The Gavilon Group, LLC, an agriculture and energy commodities management firm with an extensive global footprint. Mr. Neppl held senior financial management positions at ConAgra Foods, Inc., including senior financial officer of ConAgra Trade Group and Commercial Products division as well as assistant corporate controller. Prior to ConAgra, Mr. Neppl was corporate controller at Guarantee Life Companies. He began his career as an auditor with Deloitte & Touche. He is a member of the Creighton University Heider College of Business Dean’s Advisory Board, as well as its Accounting Department Advisory Board. Mr. Neppl holds a bachelor’s degree in Business Administration with a major in Accounting from Creighton University. He is also a certified public accountant (inactive status).
Raul Padilla, 65-Mr. Padilla has served as President, Global Operations since May 2019. Previously, Mr. Padilla was Chief Executive Officer of Bunge South America, having served as Managing Director, Bunge Global Agribusiness and Chief Executive Officer, Bunge Product Lines since 2010. Prior to that, he was Chief Executive Officer of Bunge Argentina since 1999, having joined the company in 1997 as Commercial Director. Mr. Padilla has over 30 years of experience in the oilseed processing and grain handling industries in Argentina, beginning his career with La Plata Cereal in 1977. He has served as President of the Argentine National Oilseed Crushers Association, Vice President of the International Association of Seed Crushers and Director of the Buenos Aires Cereal Exchange and the Rosario Futures Exchange. Mr. Padilla is a graduate of the University of Buenos Aires.
Joseph Podwika, 58-Mr. Podwika has served as Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer since November 2019. Mr. Podwika joined Bunge from Nutrien Ltd. where he was Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer. He was previously Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary with PotashCorp, where he was responsible for delivery of legal services and the corporate compliance program, in addition to corporate governance processes in his role as corporate secretary. Before joining PotashCorp, Mr. Podwika worked in the legal department of International Paper Company in Memphis, Tennessee and was in private practice with Jaeckle, Fleischmann & Mugel in Buffalo, New York. He earned an English degree with highest honors at State University of New York at Buffalo and a Juris Doctorate from Northwestern University School of Law.
Robert Wagner, 43-Mr. Wagner has served as Chief Risk Officer since June 2019. Prior to joining Bunge, Mr. Wagner was Chief Risk Officer at Tricon International, Ltd. with global responsibility and leadership of the company’s risk management team. Prior to Tricon, he was Group Chief Risk Officer at COFCO Agri Ltd in Geneva, Switzerland, where he was responsible for leading a team to build and provide world-class risk oversight across the company’s global operations. Prior to COFCO, he held the Chief Risk Officer position for The Gavilon Group, LLC, where he was member of the firm’s Executive Committee and had responsibility for both the market risk management and credit departments. Mr. Wagner earned a Bachelor of Science degree in International Business from Minnesota State University at Moorhead and a Master of Science degree in Agricultural Economics from North Dakota State University. He also holds an M.B.A. from Creighton University. He is a member of the Board of Trustees and prior Treasurer and Chair of the Finance Committee at The Brownell Talbot School in Omaha, Nebraska
Brian Zachman, 49-Mr. Zachman has served as President of Global Risk Management since joining Bunge in January 2019. Prior to that, Mr. Zachman held portfolio management positions focused on agricultural commodity derivatives, most recently with Millennium Limited Partners since 2014 and prior to that with SAC Capital from 2012 to 2014. Mr. Zachman previously worked at Bunge from 1999 to 2012, serving in a number of commercial and trading roles within Agribusiness. Prior to that, he held various commercial and merchant roles with Cargill and ConAgra. Mr. Zachman holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from the University of Minnesota-Duluth.
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Risk Factors
        Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of the risks and uncertainties described below. Additional risks not presently known to us, or that we currently deem immaterial, may also impair our financial condition and business operations. See "Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements."
Risks Relating to Our Business and Industries
Our operations may be adversely impacted as a result of pandemic outbreaks, including COVID-19.
In December 2019, a strain of novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, was first reported and, on March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization designated the outbreak as a global pandemic. To date, millions of cases have been confirmed globally, and the number of reported cases continues to increase, including in all major geographies in which we operate. The ongoing pandemic could adversely affect our operations, major facilities, or employees’ and consumers’ health, which could interfere
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with general commercial activity related to our supply chain and customer base, and in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Throughout 2020 and the early 2021, government officials in numerous countries around the world imposed quarantines and significant restrictions, including shelter-in-place and stay-at-home orders, that prohibited many employees from travelling and entering their place of work. Many of these restrictions remain in place today. Additionally, an increase in the number of observed COVID-19 cases may lead to governments re-imposing previous travel and work restrictions or imposing additional restrictions. In locations where such restrictions are in place, Bunge has been deemed an essential or life-sustaining operation. To date, we have not seen a significant disruption in our supply chain, have been able to mitigate logistics and distribution issues that have arisen, and substantially all of our facilities around the world have continued to operate at or near normal levels. We have, however, experienced minor temporary workforce disruptions in our supply chain as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. We have implemented employee safety measures, based on guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and local requirements and guidelines, across all our supply chain facilities, including proper hygiene, social distancing, mask use, and temperature screenings. These measures may not be sufficient to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among our employees. Further, in the future, it may be challenging to obtain and process raw materials to support our business needs, and individuals could become ill, quarantined or otherwise unable to work and/or travel due to health reasons or governmental restrictions, which may place constraints on the timeliness of our production capabilities or may increase our costs. Also, governments may impose other laws, regulations or taxes that could adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations. The challenges faced in implementing nationwide COVID-19 vaccinations can also extend the impacts on our business. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has moderated and the business and social distancing restrictions have eased, we may continue to experience similar effects to our businesses, consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows resulting from a recessionary economic environment that may persist.
In addition, we cannot predict the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our customers, suppliers, vendors, joint venture and other business partners, and each of their financial conditions. Any material adverse effect on these parties could adversely impact us. In this regard, the potential duration and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and on our business, financial condition and results of operations are difficult to predict and cannot be estimated with any degree of certainty, but the pandemic has resulted in significant disruption of global financial markets and increased levels of unemployment and economic uncertainty, which may adversely impact our business. These developments may lead to significant negative impacts on customer spending, demand for our products, the ability of our customers to pay, our financial condition and the financial condition of our suppliers, and may also negatively impact our access to external sources of financing to fund our operations or make capital expenditures.
The potential effects of COVID-19 also could impact many of our risk factors, including, but not limited to, our profitability, laws and regulations affecting our business, fluctuations in foreign currency markets, the availability of future borrowings, the costs of current and future borrowings, valuation of our pension assets and obligations, credit risks of our customers and counterparties, our business transformation initiatives and an impairment of the carrying value of goodwill or other indefinite-lived intangible assets. However, given the evolving health, economic, social, and governmental environments, the potential impact that COVID-19 could have on our risk factors further described below, and others that cannot yet be identified, remains uncertain.
Adverse weather conditions, including as a result of climate change, may adversely affect the availability, quality and price of agricultural commodities and agricultural commodity products, as well as our operations and operating results.
Adverse weather conditions have historically caused volatility in the agricultural commodity industry and consequently in our operating results by causing crop failures or significantly reduced harvests, which may affect the supply and pricing of the agricultural commodities that we sell and use in our business, reduce demand for our fertilizer products and negatively affect the creditworthiness of agricultural producers who do business with us.
Severe adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes or severe storms, may also result in extensive property damage, extended business interruption, personal injuries and other loss and damage to us. Our operations also rely on dependable and efficient transportation services. A disruption in transportation services, as a result of weather conditions or otherwise, may also significantly adversely impact our operations.
Additionally, the potential physical impacts of climate change are uncertain and may vary by region. These potential effects could include changes in rainfall patterns, water shortages, changing sea levels, changing storm patterns and intensities, and changing temperature levels that could adversely impact our costs and business operations, the location, costs and competitiveness of global agricultural commodity production and related storage and processing facilities and the supply and demand for agricultural commodities. These effects could be material to our results of operations, liquidity or capital resources.
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We are subject to fluctuations in agricultural commodity and other raw material prices, energy prices and other factors outside of our control that could adversely affect our operating results.
Prices for agricultural commodities and their by-products, including, among others, soybeans, corn, wheat, sugar and ethanol, like those of other commodities, are often volatile and sensitive to local and international changes in supply and demand caused by factors outside of our control, including farmer planting and selling decisions, currency fluctuations, government agriculture programs and policies, pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), governmental restrictions or mandates, global inventory levels, demand for biofuels, weather and crop conditions, and demand for and supply of competing commodities and substitutes. These factors may cause volatility in our operating results.
Our fertilizer business may also be adversely affected by fluctuations in the prices of agricultural commodities and fertilizer raw materials that are caused by market factors beyond our control. Increases in fertilizer prices due to higher raw material costs have in the past and could in the future adversely affect demand for our fertilizer products. Additionally, as a result of competitive conditions in our Edible Oils Products, Milling Products, and Fertilizer segments, we may not be able to recoup increases in raw material costs through increases in sales prices for our products, which may adversely affect our profitability.
Additionally, our operating costs and the selling prices of certain of our products are sensitive to changes in energy prices. Our industrial operations utilize significant amounts of electricity, natural gas and coal, and our transportation operations are dependent upon diesel fuel and other petroleum-based products. Significant increases in the cost of these items and currency fluctuations could adversely affect our operating costs and results. We also sell certain biofuel products, such as ethanol and biodiesel, which are closely related to, or may be substituted for, petroleum products. As a result, the selling prices of ethanol and biodiesel can be impacted by the selling prices of oil, gasoline and diesel fuel. In turn, the selling prices of the agricultural commodities and commodity products that we sell, such as corn and vegetable oils that are used as feedstocks for biofuels, are also sensitive to changes in the market price for biofuels, and consequently world petroleum prices. Prices for petroleum products and biofuels are affected by market factors and government fuel policies, over which we have no control. Lower prices for oil, gasoline or diesel fuel could result in decreased selling prices for ethanol, biodiesel and their raw materials, which could adversely affect our revenues and operating results.
Our business is seasonal, and our results may fluctuate depending on the harvest cycle of the crops upon which we rely and seasonal fluctuations related to the sale of our consumer products.
As with any agricultural business enterprise, our business operations are seasonal in nature. For example, in our Agribusiness segment, while there is a degree of seasonality in the growing season and procurement of our principal raw materials, such as oilseeds and grains, we typically do not experience material fluctuations in volume between the first and second half of the year since we are geographically diversified between the northern and southern hemispheres. The first quarter of the year, however, has generally been our weakest in terms of financial results due to the timing of the North and South American oilseed harvests, as the North American oilseed harvest peaks in the third and fourth quarters, while the South American harvest peaks in the second quarter. This creates price fluctuations, which result in fluctuations in our inventories and a degree of seasonality in our gross profit. In our Fertilizer segment, we are subject to seasonal trends based on the South American agricultural growing cycle as farmers typically purchase the bulk of their fertilizer needs in the second half of the year. In addition, certain of our consumer food products are influenced by holidays and other annual events. Seasonality could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial performance. In addition, our quarterly results may vary as a result of the effects of fluctuations in commodities prices, production yields and costs.
We face intense competition in each of our businesses.
We face significant competition in each of our businesses and we have numerous competitors, some of which are larger, more diversified and have greater financial resources than we have. Additionally, in recent years we have experienced regional Agribusiness competitors entering new geographies where previously they did not compete with us, and certain customers seeking to procure certain commodities directly rather than through historical suppliers such as us. As many of the products we sell are global commodities, the markets for our products are highly price competitive, and in many cases also sensitive to product substitution. Additionally, the geographic location of assets can competitively advantage or disadvantage us with respect to our competitors in certain regions. We also face competition from changing technologies and shifting industry practices, such as increased on-farm crop storage in several regions, which allows producers to retain commodities for extended periods and increase price pressure on purchasers such as us. To compete effectively, we must continuously focus on improving efficiency in our production and distribution operations, developing and offering products that meet customer needs, optimizing our geographic presence in key markets, and developing and maintaining appropriate market share and customer relationships. We also compete for talent in our industries, particularly commercial personnel. Competition could cause us to lose market share and talented employees, exit certain lines of business, increase marketing or other expenditures, increase our raw material costs or reduce pricing, each of which could have an adverse effect on our
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business and profitability.
We are vulnerable to the effects of supply and demand imbalances in our industries.
Historically, the market for some agricultural commodities and fertilizer products has been cyclical, with periods of high demand and capacity utilization stimulating new plant investment and the addition of incremental processing or production capacity by industry participants to meet the demand. The timing and extent of this expansion may then produce excess supply conditions in the market, which, until the supply/demand balance is again restored, negatively impacts product prices and operating results. During times of reduced market demand, we may suspend or reduce production at some of our facilities. The extent to which we efficiently manage available capacity at our facilities will affect our profitability. We also expect the results from our equity investment in the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture to be impacted by any potential shortage of, or increasing costs for, sugarcane.
We are subject to global and regional economic downturns and related risks.
The level of demand for our products is affected by global and regional demographic and macroeconomic conditions, including population growth rates and changes in standards of living. A significant downturn in global economic growth, or recessionary conditions in major geographic regions, may lead to reduced demand for agricultural commodities and food products, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Further, deteriorating economic and political conditions in our major markets affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, such as increased unemployment, decreases in disposable income, declines in consumer confidence, or economic slowdowns or recessions, could cause a decrease in demand for our products.
Additionally, weak global economic conditions and adverse conditions in global financial and capital markets, including constraints on the availability of credit, have in the past adversely affected, and may in the future adversely affect, the financial condition and creditworthiness of some of our customers, suppliers and other counterparties, which in turn may negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations. See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" for more information.
For example, Brazil has experienced significant political uncertainty in recent years due to high profile political corruption scandals, the impeachment of a former president, and general uncertainty regarding the election of a new president who took office during 2019. Additionally, Brazil’s economy has been slow to recover from a severe downturn in 2015 and 2016. The depressed and uncertain economic and political environment in Brazil has adversely affected consumer confidence levels and spending, which has led to reduced demand for products in our Edible Oils Products and Milling Products segments in the country. The pace of economic improvement is uncertain, and there can be no assurance that economic and political conditions will not continue to affect market and consumer confidence or deteriorate further in the near term. Additionally, a slowdown in China's economy over a prolonged period, including due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could lead to reduced global demand for agricultural commodities. To the extent that such economic and political conditions negatively impact consumer and business confidence and consumption patterns or volumes, our business and results of operations could be significantly and adversely affected.
We are subject to economic, political and other risks of doing business globally and in emerging markets.
We are a global business with a substantial majority of our assets and operations located outside the United States. In addition, our business strategies may involve expanding or developing our business in emerging market regions, including Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and Africa. Due to the international nature of our business, we are exposed to various risks of international operations, including:
adverse trade policies or trade barriers on agricultural commodities and commodity products;
government regulations and mandates in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
inflation and hyperinflation and adverse economic effects resulting from governmental attempts to control inflation, such as the imposition of wage and price controls and higher interest rates;
changes in laws and regulations or their interpretation or enforcement in the countries where we operate, such as tax laws, including the risk of future adverse tax regulations relating to our status as a Bermuda company;
difficulties in enforcing agreements or judgments and collecting receivables in foreign jurisdictions;
exchange controls or other currency restrictions and limitations on the movement of funds, such as on the remittance of dividends by subsidiaries;
inadequate infrastructure and logistics challenges;
sovereign risk and the risk of government intervention, including through expropriation, or regulation of the economy or natural resources, including restrictions on foreign ownership of land or other assets;
the requirement to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations that apply to international operations,
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including, without limitation, economic sanctions regulations, labor laws, import and export regulations, anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws, as well as other laws or regulations discussed in this "Item 1A. Risk Factors" section;
challenges in maintaining an effective internal control environment with operations in multiple international locations, including language differences, varying levels of U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ("U.S. GAAP") expertise in international locations and multiple financial information systems; and
changes in a country’s or region’s economic or political condition (e.g., Brexit);
labor disruptions, civil unrest, significant political instability, coup attempts, wars or other armed conflict or acts of terrorism.
These risks could adversely affect our operations, business strategies and operating results.
As a result of our international operations, we are also exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations. Changes in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other foreign currencies, particularly the Brazilian real, Canadian dollar, the euro, and Chinese yuan/renminbi affect our revenues and expenses that are denominated in local currencies, affect farm economics in those regions and may also have a negative impact on the value of our assets located outside of the United States.
Additionally, there continues to be a great deal of uncertainty regarding U.S. and global trade policies for companies with multinational operations like ours. In recent years, there has been an increase in populism and nationalism in various countries around the world and consequently historical free trade principles are being challenged. Further, the transition from the Trump administration to the Biden administration increases uncertainty regarding U.S. trade policies. As we continue to operate our business globally, our success will depend, in part, on the nature and extent of any such changes and how well we are able to anticipate, respond to and effectively manage any such changes.
Government policies and regulations affecting the agricultural sector and related industries could adversely affect our operations and profitability.
Agricultural commodity production and trade flows are significantly affected by government policies and regulations. Governmental policies affecting the agricultural industry, such as taxes, tariffs, duties, subsidies, import and export restrictions, price controls on agricultural commodities and energy policies (including biofuels mandates), can influence industry profitability, the planting of certain crops versus other uses of agricultural resources, the location and size of crop production, whether unprocessed or processed commodity products are traded, and the volume and types of imports and exports. Additionally, regulation of financial markets and instruments in the United States and internationally may create uncertainty as these laws are adopted and implemented and may impose significant additional risks and costs that could impact our risk management practices. Further, increases in food and fertilizer prices have in the past resulted in increased scrutiny of our industries under antitrust and competition laws in various jurisdictions and increase the risk that these laws could be interpreted, administered or enforced in a manner that could affect our operations or impose liabilities on us that could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Future governmental policies, regulations or actions impacting our industries may adversely affect the supply of, demand for and prices of our products, restrict our ability to do business in existing and target markets, or engage in risk management activities and otherwise cause our financial results to suffer.
Finally, international trade disputes can adversely affect agricultural commodity trade flows by limiting or disrupting trade between countries or regions. For example, a trade dispute between the U.S. and China that began in 2018 has led to both countries implementing tariffs on imported goods from the other, including on imports of U.S. soybeans into China. This has led to significant volatility in commodity prices, disruptions in historical trade flows and shifts in planting patterns in the U.S. and South America, which have presented challenges and uncertainties for our business. We cannot predict the effects that future trade policy or the terms of any negotiated trade agreements and their impact on our business could have. Additionally, failure to resolve the trade dispute between the countries may also lead to unexpected operating difficulties in China, enhanced regulatory scrutiny in China, greater difficulty transferring funds, or negative currency impacts.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions, divestitures or joint ventures.
We have been an active acquirer of other companies, and we have joint ventures with several partners. Part of our strategy involves acquisitions, alliances and joint ventures designed to expand or optimize our portfolio of businesses. Our ability to benefit from acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances depends on many factors, including our ability to identify suitable prospects, access funding sources on acceptable terms, negotiate favorable transaction terms and successfully consummate and integrate any businesses we acquire. In addition, we proactively review our portfolio of businesses in order to identify opportunities to enhance shareholder value and may decide as a result of such reviews or otherwise, from time to time, to divest certain of our assets or businesses by selling them or entering into joint ventures. Our ability to successfully complete a divestiture will depend on, among other things, our ability to identify buyers that are prepared to acquire such assets or businesses on acceptable terms and to adjust and optimize our retained businesses following the divestiture.
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Our acquisition, joint venture or divestiture activities may involve unanticipated delays, costs and other problems. If we encounter unexpected problems with acquisitions, joint ventures or divestitures, our senior management may be required to divert attention away from other aspects of our businesses to address these problems. Additionally, we may fail to consummate proposed acquisitions, joint ventures or divestitures, after incurring expenses and devoting substantial resources, including management time, to such transactions.
Acquisitions also pose the risk that we may be exposed to successor liability relating to actions by an acquired company and its management before the acquisition. The due diligence we conduct in connection with an acquisition, the controls and policies we implement at acquired companies and any contractual guarantees or indemnities that we receive from the sellers of acquired companies, may not be sufficient to protect us from, or compensate us for, actual liabilities. A material liability associated with an acquisition could adversely affect our reputation and results of operations and reduce the benefits of the acquisition. Additionally, acquisitions involve other risks, such as differing levels of management and internal control effectiveness at the acquired entities, systems integration risks, the risk of impairment charges relating to goodwill and intangible assets recorded in connection with acquisitions, the risk of significant accounting charges and expenses resulting from the completion and integration of a sizable acquisition, the need to fund increased capital expenditures and working capital requirements, our ability to retain and motivate employees of acquired entities, compliance and reputational risks and other unanticipated problems and liabilities.
Divestitures may also expose us to potential liabilities or claims for indemnification, as we may be required to retain certain liabilities or indemnify buyers for certain matters, including environmental or litigation matters, associated with the assets or businesses that we sell. The magnitude of any such retained liability or indemnification obligation may be difficult to quantify at the time of the transaction, and its cost to us could ultimately exceed the proceeds we receive for the divested assets or businesses. Divestitures also have other inherent risks, including possible delays in closing transactions (including potential difficulties in obtaining regulatory approvals), the risk of lower-than-expected sales proceeds for the divested businesses and unexpected costs or other difficulties associated with the separation of the businesses to be sold from our information technology and other systems and management processes, including the loss of key personnel. Additionally, expected cost savings or other anticipated efficiencies or benefits from divestitures may also be difficult to achieve or maximize.
Additionally, we have several joint ventures and investments where we may have limited control over governance, financial reporting and operations. As a result, we face certain operating, financial and other risks relating to these investments, including risks related to the financial strength of our joint venture partners or their willingness to provide adequate funding for the joint venture, having differing objectives from our partners, the inability to implement some actions with respect to the joint venture's activities that we may believe are favorable if the joint venture partner does not agree, compliance risks relating to actions of the joint venture or our partners and the risk that we will be unable to resolve disputes with the joint venture partner. As a result, these investments may contribute significantly less than anticipated to our earnings and cash flows. In December 2019, we entered into the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture related to our sugar and ethanol business in Brazil, which resulted in the transfer of all assets and operations of this business into a new entity where we hold a 50% interest. We share control with BP, our joint venture partner, in BP Bunge Bioenergia and as a result our ability to realize the benefits of this joint venture will depend in part on our ability to work with and cooperate with BP and the ability of the leadership of BP Bunge Bioenergia to, among other things, integrate the operations of our business with that of BP into one organization, manage costs associated with such integration, retain key employees, and realize the synergies expected from the joint venture. In addition, the business and financial performance of the BP Bunge Bioenergia joint venture may be adversely affected if there is a significant shortage of sugarcane supply, which is the principal raw material used in the production of ethanol and sugar, or if there is an increase in the cost of available sugarcane, which could result from any termination of the joint venture’s partnership or supply contracts.
We are subject to industry and other risks that could adversely affect our reputation and financial results.
We are subject to food and feed industry risks which include, but are not limited to, spoilage, contamination, tampering or other adulteration of products, product liability claims and recalls. We are also subject to shifts in customer and consumer preferences and concerns regarding the outbreak of disease associated with livestock and poultry, including avian or swine influenza. Also, increasing focus on climate change, deforestation, water, animal welfare and human rights concerns and other risks associated with the global food system may lead to increased activism focusing on food companies and their suppliers, governmental intervention and consumer responses. These risks could adversely affect our or our suppliers’ reputations and businesses and our ability to procure the materials we need to operate our business.
As a company whose products comprise staple food and feed products sold globally, as well as ingredients included in trusted food brands of our customers, maintaining a good corporate reputation is critical to our continued success. Reputational value is based in large part on perceptions, which can shift rapidly in response to negative incidents. The failure or alleged failure to maintain high standards for quality, safety, integrity, environmental sustainability and social
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responsibility, including with respect to raw materials and services obtained from suppliers, even if untrue, may result in tangible effects, such as reduced demand for our products, disruptions to our operations, increased costs and loss of market share to competitors. Our reputation and results of operations could also be adversely impacted by changing consumer preferences and perceptions relating to some of the products we sell, such as with regard to the quantity and type of fats, sugars and grains consumed, as well as concerns regarding genetically modified crops. Failure to anticipate, adapt or respond effectively to these trends or issues may result in material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to numerous laws and regulations globally, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Due to our global business operations, we are required to comply with numerous laws and regulations in the countries where we operate. These include general business regulations, such as with respect to taxes, accounting, anti-corruption and fair competition, global trade, trade sanctions, product safety, the manufacturing, transport and sale of our products, environmental matters and the handling and production of regulated substances. In addition to liabilities arising out of our current and future operations for which we have ongoing processes to manage compliance with regulatory obligations, we may be subject to environmental liabilities for past operations at current facilities and in some cases to liabilities for past operations at facilities that we no longer own or operate. We may also be subject to liabilities for operations of acquired companies. Our industrial activities can also result in serious accidents that could result in personal injuries, facility shutdowns, reputational harm to our business and/or the expenditure of significant amounts to remediate safety issues or repair damaged facilities. We may incur material costs or liabilities to comply with environmental, health and safety requirements. Any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may subject us to fines, penalties and other liabilities, as well as damage to our reputation.
Due to the international scope of our operations, we are subject to a complex system of import- and export-related laws and regulations, including U.S. regulations issued by Customs and Border Protection, the Bureau of Industry and Security, the Office of Antiboycott Compliance, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls and Office of Foreign Assets Control, as well as the counterparts of these agencies in other countries. Any alleged or actual violations may subject us to government scrutiny, investigation and civil and criminal penalties, and may limit our ability to import or export our products, or to provide services outside the United States. Furthermore, embargoes and sanctions imposed by the U.S. and other governments restricting or prohibiting sales to specific persons or countries or based on product classification may expose us to potential criminal or civil sanctions. We cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our operations might be subject or in certain locations the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted.
In addition, continued government and public emphasis in countries where we operate on environmental issues, including climate change, conservation and natural resource management, have resulted in and could result in new or more stringent forms of regulatory oversight or other limitations on the agricultural industry, including increased environmental controls, land-use restrictions affecting us or our suppliers and other conditions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. For example, certain aspects of our business and the larger food production chain generate carbon emissions. The imposition of regulatory restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, which may include limitations on greenhouse gas emissions, other restrictions on industrial operations, taxes or fees on greenhouse gas emissions, and other measures, could affect land-use decisions, the cost of agricultural production and the cost and means of processing and transporting our products, which could adversely affect our business, cash flows and results of operations.
We are exposed to credit and counterparty risk relating to our customers in the ordinary course of business. In particular, we advance capital and provide other financing arrangements to farmers in Brazil and, as a result, our business and financial results may be adversely affected if these farmers are unable to repay the capital advanced to them.
We have various credit terms with customers, and our customers have varying degrees of creditworthiness, which exposes us to the risk of non-payment or other default under our contracts and other arrangements with them. In the event that we experience significant defaults on their payment obligations to us, our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
In Brazil, where there have been limited third-party financing sources available to farmers, we provide financing to farmers from whom we purchase soybeans and other agricultural commodities through prepaid commodity purchase contracts and advances, which are generally intended to be short-term in nature and are typically secured by the farmer's crop and a mortgage on the farmer's land and other assets to provide a means of repayment in the potential event of crop failure or shortfall. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, we had approximately $592 million and $568 million in outstanding prepaid commodity purchase contracts and advances to farmers. We are exposed to the risk that the underlying crop will be insufficient to satisfy a farmer's obligation under the financing arrangements as a result of weather and crop growing conditions,
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and other factors that influence the price, supply and demand for agricultural commodities. In addition, any collateral held by us as part of these financing transactions may not be sufficient to fully protect us from loss.
We are a capital intensive business and depend on cash provided by our operations as well as access to external financing to operate and grow our business.
We require significant amounts of capital to operate our business and fund capital expenditures. Our working capital needs are directly affected by the prices of agricultural commodities, with increases in commodity prices generally causing increases in our borrowing levels. We are also required to make substantial capital expenditures to maintain, upgrade and expand our extensive network of storage facilities, processing plants, refineries, mills, logistics assets and other facilities to keep pace with competitive developments, technological advances and safety and environmental standards. Furthermore, the expansion of our business and pursuit of acquisitions or other business opportunities may require us to have access to significant amounts of capital. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows or raise sufficient external financing on attractive terms to fund these activities, including as a result of a tightening in the global credit markets, we may be forced to limit our operations and growth plans, which may adversely impact our competitiveness and, therefore, our results of operations.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $4,072 million of aggregate unused committed borrowing capacity under our commercial paper program and various revolving bilateral and syndicated credit facilities and $7,288 million in total debt. Our debt levels could limit our ability to obtain additional financing, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the markets in which we compete, place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged than we are, and require us to dedicate more cash on a relative basis to servicing our debt and less to developing our business. This may limit our ability to run our business and use our resources in the manner in which we would like. Furthermore, difficult conditions in global credit or financial markets generally could adversely impact our ability to refinance maturing debt or the cost or other terms of such refinancing, as well as adversely affect the financial position of the lenders with whom we do business, which may reduce our ability to obtain financing for our operations. See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liquidity and Capital Resources." Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased volatility and pricing in the capital markets, and we may not have access to preferred sources of liquidity when needed or on terms we find acceptable, and our borrowing costs could increase.
Access to credit markets and pricing of company debt is also dependent on maintaining appropriate credit ratings, and one of our financial objectives has been to maintain an investment grade credit rating. While our debt agreements do not have any credit rating downgrade triggers that would accelerate the maturity of our debt, reductions in our credit ratings would increase our borrowing costs and, depending on their severity, could impede our ability to obtain credit facilities or access the capital markets in the future on favorable terms, as well as impair our ability to compete effectively relative to competitors with higher credit ratings.
In addition, some of our credit facilities, interest rate derivatives and commercial agreements use LIBOR (London Inter-Bank Offered Rate) as the benchmark rate. LIBOR has recently been the subject of international reform proposals and it is expected that LIBOR will be discontinued or modified by the end of 2021. In the United States, the Alternative Reference Rates Committee has proposed the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) as an alternative to LIBOR for use in contracts that are currently indexed to U.S. dollar LIBOR and has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect that these developments, any discontinuance, modification or other reforms to LIBOR, or the establishment of alternative reference rates, such as SOFR, may have on LIBOR, other benchmark rates or floating rate debt instruments, or whether SOFR or any other alternative reference rates that have been proposed will attain market acceptance as replacements of LIBOR. While certain of our credit facilities contain LIBOR alternative provisions, the use of alternative reference rates or other reforms could cause the interest rate on our borrowings to be materially different than expected. These developments may cause us to renegotiate some of these agreements. We will continue to monitor market developments related to LIBOR's modification or discontinuance.
Our risk management strategies may not be effective.
Our business is affected by fluctuations in agricultural commodity prices, transportation costs, energy prices, interest rates, and foreign currency exchange rates. We engage in hedging transactions to manage these risks. However, our exposures may not always be fully hedged, and our hedging strategies may not be successful in minimizing our exposure to these fluctuations. In addition, our risk management strategies may seek to position our overall portfolio relative to expected market movements. While we have implemented a broad range of risk monitoring and control procedures and policies to mitigate potential losses, they may not in all cases be successful in anticipating a significant risk exposure and protecting us from losses that have the potential to impair our financial position. See "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk"
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The loss of, or a disruption in, our manufacturing and distribution operations or other operations and systems could adversely affect our business.
We are engaged in manufacturing and distribution activities on a global scale, and our business depends on our ability to execute and monitor, on a daily basis, a significant number of transactions across numerous markets or geographies. As a result, we are subject to the risks inherent in such activities, including industrial accidents, environmental events, fires, explosions, strikes and other labor or industrial disputes, and disruptions in logistics or information systems, as well as natural disasters, pandemics (including the COVID-19 pandemic), acts of terrorism and other external factors over which we have no control. While we insure ourselves against many of these types of risks in accordance with industry standards, our level of insurance may not cover all losses. The potential effects of these conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our information technology systems, processes and sites may suffer interruptions, security breaches or failures that may adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.
We rely on certain key information technology systems, some of which are dependent on services provided by third parties, to provide critical data and services for internal and external users, including procurement and inventory management, transaction processing, financial, commercial and operational data, human resources management, legal and tax compliance, and other information and processes necessary to operate and manage our business. Increased social engineering threats and more sophisticated computer crime, including advanced persistent threats, pose a potential risk to the security of our information technology systems, networks and services. Our information technology and infrastructure may experience attacks by hackers, breaches or other failures or disruptions that could compromise our systems and the information stored there. Such risks increase while some of our workforce continues to work from home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, new technology that could result in greater operational efficiency may further expose our computer systems to the risk of cyber-attacks. While we have implemented security measures and disaster recovery plans designed to protect the security and continuity of our networks and critical systems, these measures may not adequately prevent adverse events such as breaches or failures from occurring, or mitigate their severity if they do occur. If our information technology systems are breached, damaged or fail to function properly due to any number of causes, such as security breaches or cyber-based attacks, systems implementation difficulties, catastrophic events or power outages, and our security, contingency disaster recovery, or other risk mitigation plans do not effectively mitigate these occurrences on a timely basis, we may experience a material disruption in our ability to manage our business operations and produce financial reports, as well as significant costs and lost business opportunities until they are remediated. We may also be subject to legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, potential regulatory penalties and damage to our reputation. These impacts may adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our competitive position.
Changes in tax laws or exposure to additional tax liabilities could have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to income taxes as well as non-income taxes in various jurisdictions throughout the world. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken and assess additional taxes, along with interest and penalties. We regularly assess the likely outcomes of these audits and assessments in order to assess the appropriateness of our tax assets and liabilities. However, the calculation of such liabilities involves significant judgment in the interpretation of complex tax regulations in many jurisdictions. Therefore, any dispute with a taxing authority may result in a payment or outcome that is significantly different from current estimates. There can be no assurance that we will accurately predict the outcomes of these audits and the actual outcomes of these audits could have a material impact on our consolidated earnings and financial condition in the periods in which they are recognized.
Additionally, changes in tax laws could materially impact our effective tax rate and the monetization of recoverable tax assets (indirect tax credits). Furthermore, the ongoing efforts in corporate tax transparency by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development ("OECD") and a number of countries has resulted in additional mandatory disclosures, which will likely cause additional scrutiny of the Company's tax positions and potentially increased tax assessments.
Risks Relating to Our Common Shares
We are a Bermuda company, and it may be difficult to enforce judgments against us and our directors and executive officers.
We are a Bermuda exempted company. As a result, the rights of holders of our common shares will be governed by Bermuda law and our memorandum of association and bye-laws. The rights of shareholders under Bermuda law may differ from the rights of shareholders of companies or corporations incorporated in other jurisdictions, including the United States. Several of our directors and some of our officers are non-residents of the United States, and a substantial portion of our assets
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and the assets of those directors and officers are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult to effect service of process on those persons in the United States or to enforce in the U.S. judgments obtained in U.S. courts against us or those persons based on civil liability provisions of the U.S. securities laws. It is doubtful whether courts in Bermuda will enforce judgments obtained in other jurisdictions, including the United States, against us or our directors or officers under the securities laws of those jurisdictions or entertain actions in Bermuda against us or our directors or officers under the securities laws of other jurisdictions.
Our bye-laws restrict shareholders from bringing legal action against our officers and directors.
Our bye-laws contain a broad waiver by our shareholders of any claim or right of action, both individually and on our behalf, against any of our officers or directors. The waiver applies to any action taken by an officer or director, or the failure of an officer or director to take any action, in the performance of his or her duties, except with respect to any matter involving any fraud or dishonesty on the part of the officer or director. This waiver limits the right of shareholders to assert claims against our officers and directors unless the act, or failure to act, involves fraud or dishonesty.
We have anti-takeover provisions in our bye-laws that may discourage a change of control.
Our bye-laws contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our Board of Directors. These provisions provide for:
directors to be removed without cause at any special general meeting only upon the affirmative vote of at least 66% of all votes attaching to all shares then in issue entitling the holder to attend and vote on the resolution;
restrictions on the time period in which directors may be nominated;
our Board of Directors to determine the powers, preferences and rights of our preference shares and to issue the preference shares without shareholder approval; and
an affirmative vote of at least 66% of all votes attaching to all shares then in issue entitling the holder to attend and vote on the resolution for some business combination transactions, which have not been approved by our Board of Directors.
These provisions, as well as any additional anti-takeover measures our Board of Directors could adopt in the future, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party's offer may be considered beneficial by many shareholders. As a result, shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.

Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.

Item 2.    Properties
The following tables provide information on our principal operating facilities as of December 31, 2020.
Facilities by Business Area
(metric tons)Aggregate Daily
Production
Capacity
Aggregate
Storage
Capacity
Business Area 
Agribusiness (1)
156,290 17,160,044 
Edible Oils and Milling (2)
90,504 2,156,035 
Fertilizer2,235 876,615 

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Facilities by Geographic Region
(metric tons)Aggregate Daily
Production
Capacity
Aggregate
Storage
Capacity
Region  
North America (1)
81,702 6,583,934 
South America71,113 10,018,456 
Europe (2)
63,228 2,562,532 
Asia-Pacific32,986 1,027,772 
(1)Includes production and storage capacities of the assets associated with our U.S. Grain business included in assets held for sale at December 31, 2020. See Note 2- Portfolio Rationalization Initiatives to our consolidated financial statements included as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
(2)Includes production and storage capacities of the assets associated with our Rotterdam Oils Refinery included in assets held for sale at December 31, 2020. See Note 2- Portfolio Rationalization Initiatives to our consolidated financial statements included as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information.
Agribusiness
In our Agribusiness segment, we have 143 commodity storage facilities globally, which are located close to agricultural production areas or export locations. We also have 51 oilseed processing plants globally. We have 35 merchandising, distribution, and administrative offices throughout the world.
Edible Oils and Milling
In our Edible Oils and Milling businesses, we have 110 refining, packaging and milling facilities throughout the world. We also have 110 storage facilities globally that are located close to food and ingredient locations. In addition, to facilitate distribution in Brazil, we operate nine distribution centers.
Sugar & Bioenergy
In December 2019, we transferred our eight sugarcane mills, all of which are located in Brazil, to BP Bunge Bioenergia, a sugar and ethanol joint venture with BP. The joint venture operates on a stand-alone basis and we no longer consolidate those operations in our consolidated financial statements. We account for our interest in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting.
Fertilizer
In our Fertilizer segment, we operate three fertilizer processing and blending plants in Argentina and fertilizer ports in Brazil and Argentina.
Other
Our corporate headquarters co-located with our North American operations in St. Louis, Missouri, occupies approximately 150,000 square feet of space under a lease that expires in December 2022. We also own or lease other office space for our operations worldwide.
We believe that our facilities are adequate to address our operational requirements.

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Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are subject to various legal proceedings and risks globally in the course of our business, including claims, suits, and government investigations or proceedings involving competition, tax, labor and employment, environmental, commercial disputes, and other matters. Although we cannot accurately predict the amount of any liability that may ultimately arise with respect to any of these matters, we make provisions for potential liabilities when we deem them probable and reasonably estimable. These provisions are based on current information and legal advice and are adjusted from time to time according to developments. We do not expect the outcome of these proceedings, net of established reserves, to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. However, due to their inherent uncertainty, there can be no assurance as to the ultimate outcome of current or future litigation, proceedings, investigations or claims and it is possible that a resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in judgments, awards, fines and penalties that could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows in a particular period.
For a discussion of certain legal and tax matters relating to Argentina and Brazil, see Note 14- Income Taxes and Note 21- Commitments and Contingencies to our consolidated financial statements included as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(a)Market Information
Our common shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "BG".
(b)Approximate Number of Holders of Common Stock
To our knowledge, based on information provided by Computershare Investor Services LLC, our transfer agent, as of December 31, 2020, we had 139,790,238 common shares issued and outstanding, which were held by approximately 70 registered holders.
(c)Dividends
We have historically paid and expect to continue to pay cash dividends to holders of our common shares on a quarterly basis. In addition, holders of our 4.875% cumulative convertible perpetual preference shares are entitled to annual dividends per share in the amount of $4.875 per year payable quarterly, when and if declared by the Board of Directors in accordance with the terms of those shares. Any future determination to pay dividends will, subject to the provisions of Bermuda law, be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon then existing conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations, contractual and other relevant legal or regulatory restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors our Board of Directors deems relevant.
Under Bermuda law, a company's board of directors may not declare or pay dividends from time to time if there are reasonable grounds for believing that the company is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or that the realizable value of its assets would thereby be less than its liabilities. Under our bye-laws, each common share is entitled to dividends if and when dividends are declared by our Board of Directors, subject to any preferred dividend right of the holders of any preference shares. There are no restrictions on our ability to transfer funds (other than funds denominated in Bermuda dollars) in or out of Bermuda or to pay dividends to U.S. residents who are holders of our common shares.
We paid quarterly dividends on our common shares of $0.50 per share in each of the four quarters of 2020 and 2019. On December 10, 2020, we declared a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.50 per share payable on March 2, 2021 to shareholders of record on February 16, 2021.
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(d)Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table sets forth certain information, as of December 31, 2020, with respect to our equity compensation plans.
 (a) (b) (c)
Plan categoryNumber of Securities
to be Issued Upon
Exercise of Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
 Weighted-Average
Exercise Price Per
Share of Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
 Number of Securities
Remaining Available for
Future Issuance Under
Equity Compensation Plans
(Excluding Securities
Reflected in Column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders(1)
7,303,778 (2)$64.92 (3)5,412,176 (4)
(1)Includes our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, 2009 Equity Incentive Plan, Equity Incentive Plan, 2007 Non-Employee Directors' Equity Incentive Plan and 2017 Non-Employee Directors' Equity Incentive Plan.
(2)Includes non-statutory stock options outstanding as to 5,316,688 common shares, performance-based restricted stock unit awards as to 910,431 common shares, and vested and deferred restricted stock units outstanding (including dividend equivalents payable in common shares) as to 1,598 common shares, as well as 1,075,061 unvested and restricted stock units outstanding (including dividend equivalents payable in common shares) under our various equity incentive plans noted in (1) above. Dividend equivalent payments that are credited to each participant’s account are paid in our common shares at the time the award is settled.
(3)Calculated based on non-statutory stock options outstanding under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan and 2009 Equity Incentive Plan. This number excludes outstanding time-based restricted stock unit awards, performance-based restricted stock unit awards and deferred restricted stock unit awards under our various equity incentive plans noted in (1) above.
(4)Includes dividend equivalents payable in common shares. Shares available under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan may be used for any type of award authorized under the plan. Awards under the plan may be in the form of statutory or non-statutory stock options, restricted stock units (including performance-based) or other awards that are based on the value of our common shares. Our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan provides that the maximum number of common shares issuable under the plan is 10,900,000, subject to adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan. This number also includes shares available for future issuance under our 2017 Non-Employee Directors' Equity Incentive Plan. Our 2017 Non-Employee Directors' Equity Incentive Plan provides that the maximum number of common shares issuable under the plan may not exceed 120,000, subject to adjustment in accordance with the terms of the plan. No additional awards may be granted under the Equity Incentive Plan and the Non-Employee Directors' Equity Incentive Plan.

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(e) Performance Graph
The performance graph shown below compares the quarterly change in cumulative total shareholder return on our common shares with the Standard & Poor's (S&P) 500 Stock Index and the S&P Food Products Index from December 31, 2013 through the quarter ended December 31, 2020. The graph sets the beginning value of our common shares and the indices at $100 and assumes that all dividends are reinvested. All index values are weighted by the capitalization of the companies included in the index.
bg-20201231_g2.gif
Purchases of Equity Securities by Registrant and Affiliated Purchasers
In May 2015, we established a program for the repurchase of up to $500 million of our issued and outstanding common shares. The program has no expiration date. Bunge repurchased 2,546,000 common shares during the year ended December 31, 2020 for $100 million. Total repurchases under the program from its inception in May 2015 through December 31, 2020 were 7,253,440 shares for $400 million.
Any repurchases may be made from time to time through a variety of means, including in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions or through other means as determined by us, and in compliance with applicable legal requirements. The timing and number of any shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors, including share price and market conditions, and the program may be suspended or discontinued at any time at our discretion.

Item 6.    Selected Financial Data
The following table sets forth our selected historical consolidated financial information for each of the five periods indicated. You should read this information together with "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and with the consolidated financial statements and notes to the consolidated financial statements included as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in U.S. dollars and in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The selected historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes.


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 Year Ended December 31,
(US$ in millions)20202019201820172016
Consolidated Statements of Income Data:     
Net sales$41,404 $41,140 $45,743 $45,794 $42,679 
Cost of goods sold(38,619)(40,598)(43,477)(44,029)(40,269)
Gross profit2,785 542 2,266 1,765 2,410 
Selling, general and administrative expenses(1,358)(1,351)(1,423)(1,437)(1,284)
Interest income22 31 31 38 51 
Interest expense(265)(339)(339)(263)(234)
Foreign exchange gains (losses)150 (117)(101)95 (8)
Other income (expense)—net126 97 (9)47 133 
Income (loss) from affiliates(47)40 31 (1)
Investments in affiliate impairments — — (17)(59)
Goodwill and intangible impairments (108)— — (12)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income tax1,413 (1,205)456 230 996 
Income tax (expense) benefit(248)(86)(179)(56)(220)
Income (loss) from continuing operations1,165 (1,291)277 174 776 
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax — 10 — (9)
Net income (loss)1,165 (1,291)287 174 767 
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests(20)11 (20)(14)(22)
Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge1,145 (1,280)267 160 745 
Convertible preference share dividends and other obligations(34)(34)(34)(34)(36)
Adjustment of redeemable noncontrolling interest10 (8)— — — 
Net income (loss) available to Bunge common shareholders$1,121 $(1,322)$233 $126 $709 
 Year ended December 31,
(US$, except outstanding share data)20202019201820172016
Per Share Data:     
Earnings (loss) per common share—basic     
Net income (loss) from continuing operations$7.97 $(9.34)$1.58 $0.90 $5.13 
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations — 0.07 — (0.06)
Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge common shareholders$7.97 $(9.34)$1.65 $0.90 $5.07 
Earnings (loss) per common share—diluted    
Net income (loss) from continuing operations$7.71 $(9.34)$1.57 $0.89 $5.07 
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations — 0.07 — (0.06)
Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge common shareholders$7.71 $(9.34)$1.64 $0.89 $5.01 
Cash dividends declared per common share$2.00 $2.00 $1.96 $1.80 $1.64 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding—basic140,693,658 141,492,289 140,968,980 140,365,549 139,845,124 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding—diluted149,689,816 141,492,289 141,703,783 141,265,077 148,226,475 
 
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 December 31,
(US$ in millions)20202019201820172016
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:     
Cash and cash equivalents$352 $320 $389 $601 $934 
Inventories(1)
7,172 5,038 5,871 5,074 4,773 
Working capital(2)
5,196 3,653 3,896 4,188 3,408 
Total assets23,655 18,317 19,425 18,871 19,188 
Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt2,836 1,278 1,169 319 1,195 
Long-term debt4,452 3,716 4,203 4,160 3,069 
Convertible perpetual preference shares(3)
690 690 690 690 690 
Common shares and additional paid-in-capital5,409 5,330 5,279 5,227 5,144 
Total equity6,205 6,030 6,378 7,357 7,343 
 Year ended December 31,
(in millions of metric tons)20202019201820172016
Other Data:     
Volumes:     
Agribusiness143.0 140.0 146.3 142.9 134.6 
Edible Oil Products9.5 9.6 9.0 7.7 7.0 
Milling Products4.7 4.5 4.6 4.5 4.5 
Sugar & Bioenergy (4)
0.3 3.8 6.5 9.4 8.8 
Fertilizer1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 
_______________________________________________________________________________

(1)Included in inventories were readily marketable inventories of $5,961 million, $3,934 million, $4,532 million, $4,056 million and $3,855 million at December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Readily marketable inventories are agricultural commodity inventories, including soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, corn and wheat that are readily convertible to cash because of their commodity characteristics, widely available markets and international pricing mechanisms.
(2)Working capital is calculated as current assets less current liabilities.
(3)Bunge has 6,899,683 4.875% cumulative convertible perpetual preference shares outstanding. Each cumulative convertible preference share has an initial liquidation preference of $100 per share plus accumulated and unpaid dividends up to a maximum of an additional $25 per share. As a result of adjustments made to the initial conversion price because cash dividends paid on Bunge Limited's common shares exceeded certain specified thresholds, each cumulative convertible preference share is convertible, at the holder's option, at any time, into approximately 1.2585 Bunge Limited common shares (8,683,251 Bunge Limited common shares), subject to certain additional anti-dilution adjustments.
(4)In December 2019, we contributed our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations, which formed the majority of our Sugar and Bioenergy segment, into BP Bunge Bioenergia, a joint venture with the Brazilian biofuels business of BP p.l.c. As a result of this transaction, we no longer consolidate our sugar and bioenergy operations in Brazil in our consolidated financial statements and instead account for our interest in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting.

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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
        The following should be read in conjunction with "Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements" and our combined consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Operating Results
Factors Affecting Operating Results
    Bunge Limited, a Bermuda company, together with its subsidiaries, is a leading global agribusiness and food company with integrated operations that stretch from farmer to consumer. The commodity nature of the Company's principal products, as well as regional and global supply and demand variations that occur as an inherent part of the business, make volumes an important operating measure. Accordingly, information is included in "Segment Results" that summarizes certain items in our consolidated statements of income and volumes by reportable segment. The common unit of measure for all reported volumes is metric tons. A description of reported volumes for each reportable segment has also been included in the discussion of key factors affecting results of operations in each of our business segments as discussed below.
Agribusiness
    In the Agribusiness segment, we purchase, store, transport, process and sell agricultural commodities and commodity products. Profitability in this segment is affected by the availability and market prices of agricultural commodities and processed commodity products and the availability and costs of energy, transportation and logistics services. Profitability in our oilseed processing operations is also impacted by volumes procured, processed and sold and by capacity utilization rates. Availability of agricultural commodities is affected by many factors, including weather, farmer planting and selling decisions, plant diseases, governmental policies, and agricultural sector economic conditions. Reported volumes in this segment primarily reflect (i) grains and oilseeds originated from farmers, cooperatives or other aggregators and from which "origination margins" are earned; (ii) oilseeds processed in our oilseed processing facilities and from which "crushing margins" are earned, representing the margin from the industrial separation of the oilseed into its protein meal and vegetable oil components, both of which are separate commodity products; and (iii) third party sales of grains, oilseeds and related commodity products merchandised through our distribution businesses and from which "distribution margins" are earned. The foregoing subsegment volumes may overlap as they produce separate margin capture opportunities. For example, oilseeds procured in our
South American grain origination activities may be processed in our oilseed processing facilities in Asia-Pacific and will be reflected at both points within the segment. As such, these reported volumes do not represent solely volumes of net sales to third-parties, but rather where margin is earned, appropriately reflecting their contribution to our global network's capacity utilization and profitability.

    Demand for our purchased and processed Agribusiness products is affected by many factors, including global and regional economic conditions, changes in per capita income, the financial condition of customers and customer access to credit, worldwide consumption of food products, particularly pork and poultry, population growth rates, relative prices of substitute agricultural products, outbreaks of disease associated with livestock and poultry, and demand for renewable fuels produced from agricultural commodities and commodity products.

    We expect that the factors described above will continue to affect global supply and demand for our Agribusiness products for the foreseeable future. We also expect that, from time to time, imbalances will likely exist between oilseed processing capacity and demand for oilseed products in certain regions, which impacts our decisions regarding whether, when and where to purchase, store, transport, process or sell these commodities, including whether to change the location of or adjust our own oilseed processing capacity.

    Additionally, price fluctuations and availability of commodities may cause fluctuations in our working capital, such as inventories, accounts receivable and borrowings over the course of a given year. For example, increased availability of commodities at harvest times often causes fluctuations in our inventories and borrowings. Increases in agricultural commodity prices will also generally cause our cash flow requirements to increase as our operations require increased use of cash to acquire inventories and fund daily settlement requirements on exchange traded futures that we use to hedge our physical inventories.
Edible Oils and Milling
    In Edible Oil Products and Milling Products segments, our operating results are affected by changes in the prices of raw materials, such as crude vegetable oils and grains, the mix of products that we sell, changes in consumer eating habits, changes in per capita income, consumer purchasing power levels, availability of credit to customers, governmental dietary guidelines and policies, changes in regional economic conditions and the general competitive environment in our markets. Raw material inputs to our production processes in the Edible Oil Products and Milling Products segments are largely sourced at
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market prices from our Agribusiness segment. Reported volumes in these segments reflect third-party sales of our finished products and, as such, include the sales of products derived from raw materials sourced from the Agribusiness segment as well as from third-parties. The unit of measure for these volumes is metric tons as these businesses are linked to the commodity raw materials, which are their primary inputs.
Fertilizer
    In the Fertilizer segment, demand for our products is affected by the profitability of the agricultural sectors we serve, the availability of credit to farmers, agricultural commodity prices, the types of crops planted, the number of acres planted, the quality of the land under cultivation and weather-related issues affecting the success of the harvests. Our profitability is impacted by international selling prices for fertilizers and fertilizer raw materials, such as phosphate, sulfur, ammonia and urea, ocean freight rates and other import costs, as well as import volumes at the port facilities we manage. As our operations are in South America, primarily Argentina, our results in this segment are typically seasonal, with fertilizer sales normally concentrated in the third and fourth quarters of the year due to the timing of the South American agricultural cycle. Reported volumes in this segment reflect third-party sales of our finished products.
Sugar and Bioenergy
    Our Sugar and Bioenergy segment primarily comprises our 50% interest in BP Bunge Bioenergia, the joint venture formed in December 2019 by the combination of our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations with the Brazilian biofuels business of BP. Our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations formed the majority of our Sugar and Bioenergy segment through which we produced and sold sugar and ethanol derived from sugarcane, as well as energy derived from the sugar and ethanol production process. BP Bunge Bioenergia operates on a stand-alone basis with a total of 11 mills located across the Southeast, North and Midwest regions of Brazil. BP Bunge Bioenergia is now the second largest operator by effective crushing capacity in the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol biofuel industry. As a result of this transaction, we no longer consolidate our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations in our consolidated financial statements and instead account for our interest in the joint venture under the equity method of accounting. Accordingly, our reported Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2020 include our share of the net earnings in BP Bunge Bioenergia, whereas our Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2019 reflect our former 100% ownership interest in the Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations contributed to the Joint Venture. Although we are committed to supporting the growth and development of BP Bunge Bioenergia, our long-term goal is to seek strategic opportunities for our investment in the joint venture.
Profitability in this segment is affected by the profitability of the joint venture and, therefore the value of our investment and the amount and timing of distributions we receive, if any. In turn, the profitability of the joint venture is affected by the availability and quality of sugarcane, which impacts capacity utilization rates and the amount of sugar that can be extracted from the sugarcane, and by market prices of sugar and ethanol. The availability and quality of sugarcane is affected by many factors, including weather, geographical factors such as soil quality and topography, and agricultural practices. Once planted, sugarcane may be harvested for several continuous years, but the yield decreases with each subsequent harvest. As a result, the current optimum economic cycle is generally five to seven consecutive harvests, depending on location. The joint venture owns and/or has partnership agreements to manage farmland on which it grows and harvests sugarcane and also purchases sugarcane from third parties. Prices of sugarcane in Brazil are established by Consecana, the state of São Paulo sugarcane, sugar and ethanol council, and are based on the sucrose content of the cane and the market prices of sugar and ethanol. Demand for the joint venture's products is affected by such factors as changes in global or regional economic conditions, the financial condition of customers and customer access to credit, worldwide consumption of food products, population growth rates, changes in per capita income and demand for and governmental support of renewable fuels produced from agricultural commodities, including sugarcane.
    In addition to these industry related factors which impact our business areas, our results of operations in all business areas and segments are affected by the following factors:
Foreign Currency Exchange Rates
    Due to the global nature of our operations, our operating results can be materially impacted by foreign currency exchange rates. Both translation of our foreign subsidiaries' financial statements and foreign currency transactions can affect our results. On a monthly basis, for subsidiaries whose functional currency is a currency other than the U.S. dollar, subsidiary statements of income and cash flows must be translated into U.S. dollars for consolidation purposes based on weighted-average exchange rates in each monthly period. As a result, fluctuations of local currencies compared to the U.S. dollar during each monthly period impact our consolidated statements of income and cash flows for each reported period (per quarter and year-to-date) and also affect comparisons between those reported periods. Subsidiary balance sheets are translated using exchange rates as of the balance sheet date with the resulting translation adjustments reported in our consolidated balance sheets as a component of Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
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    Additionally, we record transaction gains or losses on monetary assets and liabilities that are not denominated in the functional currency of the entity. These amounts are remeasured into their respective functional currencies at exchange rates as of the balance sheet date, with the resulting gains or losses included in the entity's statement of income and, therefore, in our consolidated statements of income as Foreign exchange gains (losses).
    We primarily use a combination of equity and intercompany loans to finance our subsidiaries. Intercompany loans that are of a long-term investment nature with no intention of repayment in the foreseeable future are considered permanently invested and as such are treated as analogous to equity for accounting purposes. As a result, any foreign currency translation gains or losses on such permanently invested intercompany loans are reported in Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in our consolidated balance sheets. In contrast, foreign currency translation gains or losses on intercompany loans that are not of a permanent nature are recorded in our consolidated statements of income as Foreign exchange gains (losses).
Income Taxes
    As a Bermuda exempted company, we are not subject to income taxes on income in our jurisdiction of incorporation.  However, our subsidiaries, which operate in multiple tax jurisdictions, are subject to income taxes at various statutory rates ranging from 0% to 34%. The jurisdictions that significantly impact our effective tax rate are Brazil, the United States, Argentina and Bermuda. Determination of taxable income requires the interpretation of related and often complex tax laws and regulations in each jurisdiction in which we operate, and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding future events.
Non-U.S. GAAP Financial Measures
    Total segment earnings before interest and taxes ("EBIT") is an operating performance measure used by our management to evaluate segment operating activities. Our management believes total segment EBIT is a useful measure of operating profitability, since the measure allows for an evaluation of the performance of its segments without regard to its financing methods or capital structure. In addition, EBIT is a financial measure that is widely used by analysts and investors in our industries. Total Segment EBIT is a non-U.S. GAAP financial measure and is not intended to replace Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge, the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure.
Cash provided by (used for) operating activities, adjusted is calculated by including the Proceeds from beneficial interested in securitized trade receivables with Cash provided by (used for) operating activities. Cash provided by (used for) operating activities, adjusted is a non-GAAP financial measure and is not intended to replace Cash provided by (used for) operating activities, the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure. Our management believes presentation of this measure allows investors to view our cash generating performance using the same measure that management uses in evaluating financial and business performance and trends.

2020 Overview
Net Income (Loss) Attributable to Bunge - For the year ended December 31, 2020, net income attributable to Bunge was $1,145 million, an increase of $2,425 million compared to a net loss attributable to Bunge of $1,280 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase is due to higher Segment EBIT in our Core and Non-core segments, as further discussed in the Segment Overview and Results of Operations section below.
Earnings Per Common Share - Diluted - For the year ended December 31, 2020, net income attributable to Bunge common shareholders, diluted, was $7.71 per share, an increase of $17.05 per share, compared to a loss of $9.34 per share for the year ended December 31, 2019.
EBIT - For the year ended December 31, 2020, Total Segment EBIT was $1,633 million, an increase of $2,524 million compared to EBIT of $(891) million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in Total Segment EBIT for the year ended December 31, 2020 was due to higher Segment EBIT in our Core and Non-core segments, as further discussed in the Segment Overview and Results of Operations section below, which provides a reconciliation of net income (loss) attributable to Bunge to Total Segment EBIT.
Income Tax (Expense) Benefit - Income tax expense was $248 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to income tax expense of $86 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 was primarily due to higher pretax income, resulting from higher EBIT in our Core and Non-core segments, as noted above.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources – At December 31, 2020, working capital, which equals total current assets less total current liabilities, was $5,196 million, an increase of $1,543 million, compared to working capital of $3,653 million at December 31, 2019. The increase in working capital is primarily due to increased readily marketable inventories ("RMI") purchases associated with strong farmer selling activity in Brazil during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 as well as higher commodity prices at December 31, 2020.
Segment Overview and Results of Operations
Our operations are organized, managed and classified into five reportable segments based upon their similar economic characteristics, nature of products and services offered, production processes, types and classes of customer, and distribution methods.
We further organize these reportable segments into Core operations and Non-core operations. Core operations comprise our Agribusiness, Edible Oil Products, Milling Products, and Fertilizer segments.
Non-core operations comprise our Sugar and Bioenergy segment, which itself primarily comprises our 50% interest in BP Bunge Bioenergia, a joint venture formed with BP in December 2019 by the combination of our Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations with the Brazilian biofuels business of BP. Therefore, our reported Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2020 include our share of the net earnings in BP Bunge Bioenergia, whereas our Sugar and Bioenergy results for 2019 reflect our former 100% ownership interest in the Brazilian sugar and bioenergy operations contributed to the joint venture.
Our remaining operations are not reportable segments, as defined by the applicable accounting standard, and are classified as Corporate and Other. Effective January 1, 2020, we changed our segment reporting to separately disclose Corporate and Other activities from our reporting segments, as further described in Note 28- Segment Information. Certain reclassifications of prior period amounts within the reporting segments have been made to conform to current presentation.
A reconciliation of Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge to Total Segment EBIT follows:
 Year Ended
December 31,
(US$ in millions)202020192018
Net income (loss) attributable to Bunge$1,145 $(1,280)$267 
Interest income(22)(31)(31)
Interest expense265 339 339 
Income tax expense248 86 179 
(Income) loss from discontinued operations, net of tax — (10)
Noncontrolling interests' share of interest and tax(3)(5)(7)
Total segment EBIT$1,633 $(891)$737 
Agribusiness Segment EBIT1,482 682 848 
Edible Oil Products Segment EBIT440 121 174 
Milling Products Segment EBIT78 88 114 
Fertilizer Segment EBIT85 62 46 
Core Segment EBIT2,085 953 1,182 
Corporate and Other EBIT(365)(245)(342)
Sugar & Bioenergy Segment EBIT(87)(1,599)(103)
Non-core Segment EBIT(87)(1,599)(103)
Total Segment EBIT$1,633 $(891)$737 

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Core Segments
Agribusiness Segment
 Year Ended
December 31,
(US$ in millions)202020192018
Volumes (in thousand metric tons)142,959 139,968 146,309 
Net sales$29,529 $28,407 $32,206 
Cost of goods sold(27,749)(27,314)(30,759)
Gross profit1,780 1,093 1,447 
Selling, general and administrative expense(517)(487)(531)
Foreign exchange gains (losses)148 (34)(122)
EBIT attributable to noncontrolling interests (18)(14)
Other income (expense) — net43 65 41 
Income (loss) from affiliates46 43 27 
Total Agribusiness Segment EBIT$1,482 $682 $848 

2020 Compared to 2019
Agribusiness segment Net sales increased by $1,122 million, or 4%, to $29,529 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $28,407 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The net increase was due to the following:
In Oilseeds, Net sales increased $1,586 million primarily due to higher soybean sales volumes and prices in our Chinese, Brazilian, European, and North American oilseed processing businesses, primarily driven by increased meal demand in China and increased oil demand in North America, higher sales volumes and prices in our European and Canadian oilseed processing businesses, and higher sales prices in our global oilseed trading and distribution businesses, partially offset by lower overall trading and distribution volumes.
In Grains, Net sales decreased $464 million due to lower sales volumes and prices in our grain trading and distribution businesses, lower sales volumes and prices in our European grain origination business, and lower sales prices in our Brazilian origination business. These decreases were partially offset by higher volumes in our Brazilian grain origination business driven by increased farmer selling in response to depreciation of Brazilian real versus the U.S. dollar earlier in the year, and higher volumes in our North American grain origination business driven by increased demand from China following an easing of trade restrictions in place for much of the prior year.
Cost of goods sold increased by $435 million, or approximately 2%, to $27,749 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $27,314 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The net increase was primarily due to the following:
In Oilseeds, Cost of goods sold increased by $1,242 million due to higher Net sales in our oilseed processing and trading and distribution businesses, as described above, as well as unfavorable mark-to-market results in our oilseed processing businesses, partially offset by favorable translation impacts on industrial costs, as most currencies in which such expenses are denominated depreciated versus the U.S. dollar during the year, and non-recurring prior year property, plant and equipment (PP&E) impairment charges at various facilities associated with portfolio rationalization initiatives.
In Grains, Cost of goods sold decreased by $807 million due to the decrease in Net sales noted above, risk management and optimization in our trading and distribution businesses, favorable translation impacts on industrial costs as most currencies in which such expenses are denominated depreciated versus the U.S. dollar during the year, and non-recurring prior year PP&E impairment charges at various facilities associated with portfolio rationalization initiatives.
Gross profit increased by $687 million, or 63%, to $1,780 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $1,093 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily due to the following:
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In Oilseeds, an increase of $344 million was due to higher Net sales in excess of Cost of goods sold, as described above.
In Grains, an increase of $343 million was due to lower Cost of goods sold, which more than offset lower Net sales, primarily in our North American operations as described above.
SG&A expenses increased $30 million, or 6%, to $517 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $487 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was mainly due to higher variable incentive costs on the back of improved overall company profitability, partially offset by savings associated with ongoing cost initiatives, lower expenses due to COVID-19 travel restrictions, favorable translation impacts, as most currencies in which SG&A expenses are denominated depreciated versus the U.S. dollar during the year, and an $11 million prior year write-off of an indemnification asset associated with the reversal of an uncertain tax position.
Foreign exchange results increased $182 million, to a gain of $148 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to a loss of $34 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Foreign exchange results were primarily driven by gains on U.S. dollar denominated loans receivable in non-U.S. functional currency operations.
Other income (expenses) - net decreased $22 million, to income of $43 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to income of $65 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The decrease was primarily due to lower results from our financial services activities during the current year.
Segment EBIT increased $800 million, or 117%, to $1,482 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $682 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase was primarily due to the following:
In Oilseeds, an increase of $440 million was primarily due to higher Gross profit and increased foreign exchange results, as described above.
In Grains, an increase of $360 million was primarily due to higher Gross profit and increased foreign exchange results as described above.
2019 Compared to 2018
Agribusiness segment Net sales decreased by $3,799 million, or 12%, to $28,407 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $32,206 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net decrease was due to the following:
In Oilseeds, Net sales decreased $1,979 million due to lower average sales prices following increased global soybean meal availability due to increased Argentinian supply compared to the 2018 drought and limited harvest, coupled with lower Chinese demand as a result of the African Swine Fever outbreak.
In Grains, Net sales decreased $1,820 million due to lower sales volumes in our grain origination, trading and distribution businesses, associated with lower supply in North America due to adverse weather conditions and the ongoing US-China trade dispute, and lower farmer selling in Brazil through much of 2019.
Cost of goods sold decreased by $3,445 million, or 11%, to $27,314 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $30,759 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net decrease was primarily due to the following:
In Oilseeds, Cost of goods sold decreased by $1,669 million due to lower purchase prices and improved trading results in our oilseed businesses, partially offset by unfavorable mark-to-market results in our oilseed processing business, and approximately $87 million of impairment charges related to PP&E at various facilities associated with portfolio rationalization initiatives.
In Grains, Cost of goods sold decreased by $1,776 million due to lower sales volumes and purchase prices in our grain origination, trading and distribution businesses, partially offset by stronger results in our ocean freight business.
Gross profit decreased by $354 million, or 24%, to $1,093 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $1,447 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net decrease was primarily due to the following:
In Oilseeds, a decrease of $310 million was due to lower Net sales in excess of lower Cost of goods sold, as described above.
In Grains, a decrease of $44 million was due to lower Net sales in excess of lower Cost of goods sold, as described above.
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SG&A expenses decreased $44 million, or 8%, to $487 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $531 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease was mainly due to savings from actions associated with the Global Competitiveness Program ("GCP"), as well as lower charges recognized in connection with the execution of the GCP itself, in addition to depreciation of the Brazilian real against the U.S. dollar. These decreases were partially offset by impairment charges at facilities associated with portfolio rationalization initiatives and the write-off of a tax indemnification asset associated with the reversal of an uncertain tax position recorded in a previous year.
Foreign exchange gains (losses), on a net basis, increased $88 million, or 72%, to a loss of $34 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to a loss of $122 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Foreign exchange results are primarily driven by funding non-U.S. functional currency operations. Results in 2018 were primarily driven by the devaluation of the Argentine peso on U.S. dollar loans to fund operations in Argentina.
Other income (expenses) - net increased $24 million, to income of $65 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to income of $41 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase was primarily due to higher income earned from financial services activities and improved results from our soy crush investments in South America.
Segment EBIT decreased $166 million, or 20%, to $682 million for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to $848 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The net decrease was primarily due to the following:
In Oilseeds, a decrease of $252 million was primarily due to lower profits in our oilseed processing business, including an unfavorable mark-to-market impact on forward contracts compared to the prior year.
In Grains, an increase of $86 million was primarily due higher results in our ocean freight business, better results in our financial services businesses, lower SG&A expenses, and higher net foreign exchange results, partially offset by lower profits in our grain origination, trading and distribution businesses.
Edible Oil Products Segment
 Year Ended
December 31,
(US$ in millions)20202019