Keysight Technologies, Inc.
10-K on 12/18/2019   Download
SEC Document
SEC Filing
false--10-31FY201900016010460.03250.03000.02500.02500.02830.01890.00830.00790.03000.03000.02500.02500.02520.02830.00590.00540.06500.06500.04000.04006300000063000000200000001000000081000000113000000The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications and aerospace, defense and government end markets. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions and related services across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets, focusing on high-value applications in the automotive and energy industry and measurement solutions for consumer electronics, education, general electronics design and manufacturing, and semiconductor design and manufacturing. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments and systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. The Ixia Solutions Group helps customers design, validate and optimize the performance and security resilience of their networks and associated components and applications. Network test, network visibility and security solutions help organizations and their customers strengthen their physical and virtual networks. The group’s solutions consist of software applications and services, including warranty and maintenance offerings, and high-performance hardware platforms. 000not significantnot significant0.010.0110000000001000000000191000000194000000No customer represented 10 percent or more of our total net revenueNo customer represented 10 percent or more of our total net revenueNo customer represented 10 percent or more of our total net revenue2014-10-312014-10-312017-04-302019-10-3130000006000000300000050000004000000000.700.3040000000000On February 15, 2017, we entered into an amended and restated credit agreement (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) that replaced our existing $450 million unsecured credit facility dated September 15, 2014. The Revolving Credit Facility provides for a $450 million, five-year unsecured revolving credit facility that will expire on February 15, 2022 and bears interest at an annual rate of LIBOR + 1.10%. In addition, the Revolving Credit Facility permits us to increase the total commitments under this credit facility by up to $150 million in the aggregate on one or more occasions upon request. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________________
Form 10-K
_____________________________________________________________
(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2019
or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                 to

Commission File Number: 001-36334
_____________________________________________________________
Keysight Technologies, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
46-4254555
State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or organization
 
I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.
Address of principal executive offices: 1400 Fountaingrove Parkway, Santa Rosa, CA 95403
Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (800) 829-4444
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock
par value $0.01 per share
KEYS
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_____________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of common equity held by non-affiliates as of April 30, 2019 was approximately $11 billion, based upon the closing price of the Registrant's common stock as quoted on New York Stock Exchange on such date. Shares of stock held by officers, directors and 5 percent or more stockholders have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of December 16, 2019, there were 188,447,566 shares of our common stock outstanding.
_____________________________________________________________




DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Document Description
 
10-K Part 
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the "Proxy Statement") to be held on March 19, 2020 and to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A within 120 days after registrant's fiscal year ended October 31, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
 
III


Table of Contents            

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 



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Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains forward-looking statements including, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in, and drivers of, the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new solution and service introductions, the ability of our solutions to meet market needs, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs and other cost saving initiatives, and other regulatory approvals, the integration of our completed acquisitions and other transactions, our transition to lower-cost regions, the existence of political or economic instability, and our and the combined group's estimated or anticipated future results of operations, that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including but not limited to those risks and uncertainties discussed in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
PART I
Item 1.  Business
Overview
Keysight Technologies, Inc. ("we," "us," "Keysight" or the "company"), incorporated in Delaware on December 6, 2013, is a technology company that helps enterprises, service providers and governments accelerate innovation to connect and secure the world by providing electronic design and test solutions that are used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacture, installation, optimization and secure operation of electronics systems in the communications, networking and electronics industries. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle, including start-up assistance, asset management, up-time services, application services and instrument calibration and repair.
We generated $4.3 billion, $3.9 billion and $3.2 billion of net revenue in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Net revenue, income from operations and assets by business segment as of and for the fiscal years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 are provided in Note 20, "Segment Information," to our consolidated financial statements. As of October 31, 2019, we had approximately 13,600 employees worldwide. We had more than 17,500 direct customers for our solutions and services in fiscal year 2019 and greater than 32,000 customers including indirect channels. No single customer represented 10 percent or more of our net revenue. 
Strategies
With a focus on electronic design, test and optimization, we deliver market-leading solutions across a wide range of industries, including commercial communications, networking, aerospace, defense and government, automotive, energy, semiconductor, general electronics and education. Our software and hardware solutions support our customers' design and test challenges across the entire product lifecycle. We provide simulation, prototype development and validation solutions for R&D, high-volume manufacturing test solutions, as well as handheld and other solutions for operational optimization post-deployment in the field. Our objective is to increase the productivity of our customers and reduce their time to market. Keysight's solutions utilize a common portfolio of market-leading software and hardware technologies along with a suite of valued-added services. This broad portfolio of solutions enables our customers to efficiently develop and deploy their products to address the most rapidly evolving new technologies and market opportunities. The following strategies are significant:
Expanding our software portfolio
PathWave, a new software platform: PathWave software is designed to provide customers with a breakthrough design and test solution that accelerates the overall workflow from simulation of early concepts through manufacturing and optimization of deployed systems. PathWave is expected to integrate Keysight’s expanding portfolio of software solutions, including design software, measurement applications and instrument control. It provides an open and flexible development environment with common data formats and a consistent user interface in an open, scalable and predictive platform. The platform is in the early stages of a multi-year development timeline and is designed to be the foundation for many Keysight solutions going forward.
Providing complete solutions with services
The breadth of our service offerings enables Keysight to provide customers with complete solutions that incorporate both leading product capabilities and the appropriate services and support. We have expanded and deepened our service offerings

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beyond a strong foundation of calibration and repair to include customization, consulting, and optimization services. Support offerings such as KeysightCare, asset optimization, technology refresh and other value-added services enable us to provide complete customer solutions across a broad set of communications and electronics markets, technologies and industries.
Investing early to achieve first-to-market solutions
Wireless communication measurement solutions.  We are investing in the development of new wireless communications test solutions to satisfy the commercial communications end market, which is being driven by growth in mobile data, IoT and evolving wireless standards, particularly 5G. The acquisition of Anite in fiscal 2015 strengthened our wireless software design and test portfolio and expanded our served addressable market. With our technical breadth and expertise and strategic engagement with market-leading customers and partners around the world, we have leading-edge solutions for 5G applications available and have been first to market with many 5G solutions. With the acquisition of Prisma Telecom Testing ("Prisma") in fiscal 2019, we enhanced our ability to deliver total solutions to the designers of cellular base stations.
Automotive design and measurement solutions.  We are investing in the development of new automotive test solutions to address the rapidly emerging electric, hybrid electric, connected and autonomous vehicle segments. Over the prior three years, we have introduced new solutions covering vehicle intelligence, connectivity, power and security. The Automotive Cybersecurity Program validates the resiliency of connected components of a vehicle, individually or as an entirely functioning automobile. In addition, security solutions developed by Ixia, acquired in fiscal 2017, enables Keysight to deliver extensive security validations of the 4G/5G radio access network (RAN) infrastructure that connects vehicles with the back-end data centers. With the acquisition of ScienLab in fiscal 2017, we significantly enhanced our ability to deliver application-optimized, customer-specific test solutions for the development and production of charging technology and infrastructure, energy storage, battery management systems, inverters and DC/DC converters.
Network test solutions. The rapidly growing number of high-speed, connected devices requires service providers and data center operators to continuously update their networks to deliver higher levels of data transfer performance, improve quality of service and enhance network security. The acquisition of Ixia established Keysight as a market leader in next-generation network test and network visibility solutions. 
Developing solutions for network transformation
Network Transformation Requires New Solutions. Market drivers are leading to a transformation of both wireless and wired network technologies. In particular, the low-latency and high bandwidth requirements to make 5G a reality are transforming the entire network. Our organic investments and acquisitions to enable the next generation of networks and beyond is illustrated by the graphic below. We provide both wireless and wired network communications design and test solutions that address all seven layers of the communications stack. In addition, these solutions address customer needs across the entire communications ecosystem, from chipsets to devices to network access and then into the core network, data centers and the cloud.
stacklayersslidefor10kv2a01.jpg

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Strengths
Our electronic measurement business originated in 1939. Our legacy encompasses 80 years of innovation, measurement science expertise and deep customer relationships. We conduct business annually with over 32,000 customers around the world, including most Fortune 1000 companies who are developing new electronic technologies, networks, systems, devices and components. The following strengths are significant:
Industry-Focused Organization Structure to Support Customer Success: In 2016, Keysight transformed the company structure from product-focused divisions to industry-focused solution organizations, enabling closer customer alignment. This allows us to partner closely with market leaders to enable new technologies and provide first-to-market solutions for emerging applications. Our solution-centric industry groups provide end-to-end design, test and optimization solutions driven by customer specifications and timetables. Keysight is viewed as a trusted adviser and partner across industries.
Technology Leadership as a Competitive Differentiator. Proprietary software and hardware technologies unavailable on the commercial market and developed by our research and development technology centers around the world enable many Keysight products to deliver the best design and measurement solution capability available for our customers’ engineering requirements. Some of Keysight’s hardware technologies are designed and manufactured in our own in-house integrated circuit fabrication facilities, which were purpose-built and optimized to deliver leading-edge performance and capabilities across the broad portfolio of Keysight instruments. This differentiation enables Keysight to be recognized as a leader in six core measurement platforms: RF and Microwave Design Simulation software, Network Test, Network Analyzers, Oscilloscopes, Signal Analyzers and Signal Sources. Keysight’s technology leadership supports our strategy to deliver first-to-market solutions for our customers, which in turn enables them to be first to market with their products and gain a competitive advantage.
Broad Portfolio of Solutions and Products to Address Customer Needs. Keysight has a broad portfolio of electronic design and test solutions and products, which we continue to expand. Our hardware product portfolio spans many technologies and price points. Products are available in various physical form factors, such as benchtop instruments, handheld units, custom or industry-standard modular formats, and others. We address time and frequency domain applications with radio-frequency ("RF"), microwave, high-speed digital and general instrumentation. We also address network test, visibility, and security applications. In addition, we have a broad portfolio of software solutions and products to enable our customers' success, including electronic design automation ("EDA") software for RF and high-speed digital design, software tools for programming, automation, and data analysis, and a broad range of application-specific software for our instruments. Our PathWave software platform incorporates some of these software elements. Finally, we offer an expanding set of services and support delivered under our KeysightCare offering. Our broad portfolio of solutions and products includes, among others, the following:
capturenewa02.jpg

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Industry-Leading Commitment to Product Quality and Reliability. Keysight has a reputation in the industry for high-quality and high-reliability electronic measurement instrumentation and software. Ensuring quality and reliability is an integral part of our new product development processes.
Sales Channel with Global Reach. We have a comprehensive sales channel. We have experienced management teams and highly technical sales and application engineers in all parts of the world, including a strong local presence in emerging markets. As a part of our sales channel strategy, we have increased our direct sales capacity by more than 50% since the beginning of fiscal 2017. This global direct channel is focused on selling high performance products and industry solutions to global and geographic accounts. Approximately 75 percent of our business comes from customer interactions with our direct sales organization. In countries with low sales volumes, sales are made through various representatives and channel partners. To ensure broad geographic coverage and further drive growth, we maintain a network of over 650 channel partners to complement our direct sales force.
Large Installed Base. We have a large worldwide installed base of equipment because of the breadth of our solutions portfolio and our long history of producing high-performance and high-quality solutions. This installed base enables a strong and growing services solutions portfolio, which provides a wide range of calibration and repair services, on both a per incident and contract basis, and provides opportunities as loyal customers refresh or upgrade their equipment.
Centralized Order Fulfillment. Our order fulfillment organization allows us to leverage the scale and scope of our business to provide high-quality, market-leading instrument solutions to our customers while generating competitive gross margins. Keysight has a central order fulfillment organization that supplies solutions to customers across geographies. Our Penang, Malaysia site is our largest manufacturing facility, with a proven track record of operational excellence, technology capability and quality. We have an established network of suppliers and subcontractors, especially in Asia, that complements our in-house capabilities.
Business Model. Our operating model incorporates a substantial amount of cost structure flexibility with the intent to be materially profitable across a range of economic and market conditions. Our variable compensation programs, sales channel strategy and the outsourced components of our supply chain have been implemented to improve the flexibility of our cost structure.
The Keysight Leadership Model
Keysight's Leadership Model (“KLM”) is the company's framework to continuously deliver value to our customers, stockholders and employees. KLM provides the structure to execute Keysight's strategy. This model encompasses seven interlinked areas of focus centered around our customers, including: Customer Success, Market Insight, Capital Allocation, First-to-Market Solutions, Operational Excellence, Employee Growth and Keysight Values.
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Customer Success is the heart of everything we do, embodying our relentless drive to deeply understand our customers challenges and help them achieve positive, sustained outcomes through the application of new insights and the use of Keysight solutions.

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Market Insight is enabled by our deep customer relationships and focuses our product and solution roadmaps, informs our merger and acquisition ("M&A") priorities, and factors into our hiring priorities and talent development plans. Our market insight allows us to move with speed and focus delivering first-to-market solutions that enable customers to address their engineering challenges.
Capital Allocation is how we direct our financial and human capital to business opportunities, projects and processes that align with our strategy to generate financial returns, which create value for the company, shareholders and employees. The threshold for our capital allocation is an expected return on invested capital that is above our cost to procure that capital.
First-to-Market Solutions is what we strive to deliver to our customers across the industries we serve. By being first-to-market with the right solutions we enable our customers to also be first-to-market with their products.
Operational Excellence across all functions is a relentless focus. It allows us to accelerate R&D by developing common technology platforms, maximize margins through cost reductions and supply optimization, implement LEAN+ processes for continuous improvement and leverage general and administrative spend as the company grows. We believe this focus drives long-term competitive advantage and growth, while building customer loyalty.
Employee Growth is enabled in a dynamic work environment where employees are encouraged to be innovative and act with speed. This environment supports employees throughout their careers, with the goal of connecting their passions to business results.
Keysight Values of speed and courage, uncompromising integrity, high performance and social responsibility foster a dynamic and inspiring environment conducive to innovation and experimentation. Our values help us attract and retain top talent and guide how we work with each other and engage with our customers, suppliers and communities.
More information on the KLM can be found at https://about.keysight.com/en/companyinfo/leadership.shtml.
Operating Segments
In 2019 we completed an organizational change to align our services business with our customer-solutions-oriented, go-to-market strategy as reflected by our Keysight Leadership Model ("KLM"). This change was made to fully reflect our services delivery within the markets served and further enable the growth of our services solutions portfolio. Prior period segment results were revised to conform to the presentation. As a result, Keysight has three segments: Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Ixia Solutions Group. The organizational structure continues to include centralized enterprise functions that provide support across the groups.
Communications Solutions Group
The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications and aerospace, defense and government end markets. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments and systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. This business generated revenue of $2.7 billion in fiscal 2019, $2.4 billion in fiscal 2018 and $2.1 billion in fiscal 2017.
Communications Solutions Group Markets
Our Communications Solutions Group serves the following two markets:
Commercial Communications Market
We market our electronic design and test solutions to chipset providers, network equipment manufacturers (“NEMs”), wireless device providers and component providers within the supply chain for these customers and communications service providers. Growth in mobile data traffic and increasing complexity in semiconductors and components are driving test demand across the communications market. We provide end-to-end solutions for mobile chipsets, connected smart sensors/devices (IoT), wireless base stations, networks, data centers and cloud. Our leading-edge solutions enable new technology waves, including 5G wireless, Wi-Fi 6, 400G+ telecom and optical test and PCIe Gen5 high speed digital. Our ability to design and deliver first-to-market solutions is enabled by our technical expertise as well as our strategic engagements with market-leading customers across the commercial communications ecosystem.
NEMs and chipset providers, design and manufacture products to enable the transmission of voice, data and video traffic. The NEMs’ customers are communications service providers that deploy and operate the networks and deliver services, as well as distribute end‑user subscriber devices, including wireless smart phones, tablets and other connected devices. To meet their

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customers’ demands, NEMs require test and measurement instruments, systems and solutions for the development, production and installation of each optical, electrical and wireless network technology.
Wireless device providers require design and test solutions for the design, development, manufacture and repair of a variety of mobile and connected devices, including both smart phones and tablets. These mobile devices are used for voice, data and video delivery to individuals who connect wirelessly to the service provider’s network. The device manufacturers’ customers are large and small service providers, enterprises and consumers who purchase directly from retailers. Wireless device manufacturers require design and test solutions that enable technology development that conforms to the latest standards.
Component providers design, develop and manufacture electronic and optical components and modules used in network equipment and mobile devices. The component providers require test and measurement products to verify that the performance of their components and modules meets the specifications of their customers.
Communications service providers require reliable data center and network equipment that enables new service offerings and allows their networks to operate with ever‑increasing capacities. To achieve this, communications service providers require a range of sophisticated test instruments and systems to ensure conformance to communication standards and network requirements and to evaluate network performance.
Aerospace, Defense and Government Market
We market our electronic design and test solutions to manufacturers and research laboratories within the aerospace and defense industries. This market includes commercial and government customers and their contracted suppliers. Electronic warfare, digital transformation and modernization of satellites, radars and surveillance systems worldwide are the drivers of test demand within the aerospace and defense market.
Government customers include departments or ministries of defense and related agencies around the world. Prime contractors, sub-contractors and component manufacturers support the government customers by providing design and manufacturing capabilities for a variety of programs. Commercial customers include aerospace and satellite equipment manufacturers and related component suppliers.
Customers use our electronic design and test solutions to develop and manufacture a wide variety of electronic components and systems used in aerospace and defense industries, including commercial and military aircraft, space, satellite, electronic warfare, radar, signal monitoring and public safety. Customers test the electrical parameters of a broad spectrum of components and assemblies and final products and often require large systems containing multiple electronic instruments.
Communications Solutions Group Solutions
Our software-driven electronic design and test solutions include software design tools, software-driven RF and microwave (“uW”) instruments, digital instruments and various other general purpose test instruments and targeted test solutions. Our technical breadth and expertise enables leading-edge solutions across commercial and government communications.
Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Software
Our EDA software models, simulates and analyzes product designs at the circuit and system levels, across RF/uW, high-speed digital, power electronics and semiconductor markets. R&D engineers use the software to predict the behavior of designs prior to building a prototype. They identify and correct issues with the design and optimize performance in a virtual environment, thus reducing the number of design iterations, reducing both time to market and cost.
RF and Microwave Solutions
Our software-driven RF and microwave test solutions and related software tools are used mainly in commercial, wireless and aerospace and defense applications. These solutions are required for the design and production of wireless network products, communications links, mobile devices and base stations. RF and microwave test instruments include signal analyzers, signal generators, network analyzers, network emulation tools and power meters. Our measurement application software is an integrated extension of our hardware solutions and enables a wide range of measurement capability used across all end markets to design and manufacture next-generation electronic components and products. Software tools are used to design and test the software portion of wireless devices and test the performance of networks.
Digital Solutions
Our software-driven digital test solutions are used by research and development engineers across a broad range of customers to validate the function and performance of their digital product and system designs. These designs include a wide range of products

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from simple digital control circuits to complex high-speed systems such as computer servers. The test solutions offered include oscilloscopes, logic and serial protocol analyzers, logic‑signal sources, arbitrary waveform generators and bit error rate testers. Our customers also use our high‑frequency EDA software tools to model signal integrity problems in digital design applications as digital speeds continue to increase.
Other Measurement Solutions
Our suite of fiber optic test solutions measures and analyzes a wide variety of critical optical and electrical parameters in fiber optic networks and their components. Components that can be tested with our solutions include source lasers, optical amplifiers, filters and other passive components. Test solutions include optical modulation analyzers, optical component analyzers, optical power meters and optical laser source solutions.
Service Solutions
Our services solutions include repair, calibration and consulting services, and resale of refurbished used Keysight equipment. Customer demand is fulfilled by trained technicians and engineers through regional service centers, located in close proximity to customers at more than 70 Keysight service locations in 34 countries. Our global presence, with localized service proximity, is an important factor in sustaining our customers’ equipment uptime and utilization requirements. In addition to providing repair and calibration support for Keysight equipment, we repair and calibrate non-Keysight equipment. We also provide industry-specific services to deliver complete Keysight solutions and help customers reduce their total cost of ownership for their design and test equipment. Services solutions include the following general types of solutions and services:
Accredited Product Support Services. Comprehensive support services that include repair, parts, and accredited calibrations of Keysight and non-Keysight test equipment.
Professional Services. Training and engineering services to optimize equipment adoption, utilization, and design and test processes.
KeysightCare. Beyond the basic warranty, KeysightCare is a for-pay service that provides dedicated, proactive support through a single point of contact for instruments, software, and solutions.
Re-manufactured Equipment. Refurbished used equipment, including Keysight Premium Used, that ensures the same high quality as our new equipment.
Communications Solutions Group Customers
Our customers include commercial companies and government agencies around the world. We have customers across the product lifecycle that design, develop, manufacture, install and monitor a variety of commercial and government communications equipment. Commercial customers include original equipment and contract manufacturers of chipsets, wireless devices, network equipment, electronic components and semiconductors as well as network service providers that implement, maintain and manage communication networks and services. Other communications customers include defense contractors and sub-contractors. Government customers include departments or ministries of defense, government agencies and related research institutes. Our customers use our solutions to conduct research and development to manufacture, and to install and maintain radio frequency, microwave frequency, digital, semiconductor and optical products and systems.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group's net revenue.
Communications Solutions Group Competition
The market for electronic design and test solutions is highly competitive across our targeted markets. In the commercial communications market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Anritsu Corporation, Fortive Corporation, Teledyne Technologies, National Instruments Corporation, Teradyne, Inc. and VIAVI Solutions Inc. In the aerospace, defense and government market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Teledyne Technologies, Fortive Corporation and VIAVI Solutions Inc.
We offer complete solutions that include a wide range of products, related software and services that compete primarily on the basis of differentiated capability, first-to-market leading-edge technology, product quality and long-term value to our customers.

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Electronic Industrial Solutions Group
The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions and related services across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets, focusing on high-value applications in the automotive and energy industry and measurement solutions for consumer electronics, education, general electronics design and manufacturing, and semiconductor design and manufacturing. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments and systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment. This business generated revenue of $1,135 million in fiscal 2019, $1,071 million in fiscal 2018 and $929 million in fiscal 2017.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Markets
We market our electronic design and test solutions to customers incorporating significant electronic content in their products across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets. These customers design, develop and manufacture a wide range of products, including those produced in high volumes, such as computers, computer peripherals, electronic components, consumer electronics, enterprise servers, storage networks and automotive electronics. The components, printed circuit assemblies and functional devices for these products may be designed, developed and manufactured by electronic components companies, original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") or contract manufacturers, all of whom are potential customers for Keysight. Other industrial applications for our electronic industrial solutions include power, energy, automotive, medical, and university research and teaching labs.
Customers use our test solutions in developing, manufacturing and operating a wide variety of electronic components and systems. Customer requirements include testing the electrical parameters of digital, radio frequency, and microwave frequency semiconductors, components and assemblies; testing multiple parameters of the printed circuit boards used in almost every electronic device; testing of the final product; and testing of systems containing multiple electronic devices.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Solutions
Our software-driven electronic industrial solutions include design and design verification tools, a broad range of electronic test and measurement instruments, comprehensive manufacturing test systems, material analysis and education solutions to teach and train the next generation of engineers and scientists and solutions to enable scientific discovery in university research labs in a variety of fields.
Design tools include design-for-test (“DFT”) software for printed circuit assemblies and automotive radar, and EDA software for the design and simulation of wireless and wired communication links in industrial, automotive and power semiconductor devices.
Design verification solutions include physical signal characterization and protocol compliance, notably for those communication links used in industrial, energy and automotive devices and products. Major automotive and battery manufacturers are electrifying transportation and changing how electrical energy is generated, stored and controlled. Examples of verification solutions include those that help design engineers qualify and characterize power semiconductor devices, photo-voltaic/electrical vehicle/storage inverters, AC power analysis, DC battery cells/modules and automotive body/safety/engine electronic modules. High-precision and higher-bandwidth power analysis products address the increased power efficiency required with the proliferation of battery-powered and energy-efficient devices. We also provide the solutions required to test the components in the electrified drive train.
We offer a broad portfolio of general-purpose precision measurement solutions in the market, from handheld test tools to bench measurement instruments and measurement solutions. Many of these products are designed for demanding industrial environments and provide high performance capabilities and include Digital Multimeters, Function Generators, Frequency Counters, Data Acquisition Systems, Audio Analyzers, LCR Meters, Thermal Imagers, precision SMU (“Source Measure Units”), ultra-high precision device current analyzers, test executive software platforms and a wide variety of power supplies ranging from bench to highly scalable AC/DC modular supplies and electronically programmable loads. These instruments are increasingly integrated with solution-specific software that enables our customers to dramatically accelerate and improve the effectiveness of their product design, design validation, manufacturing and support activities. Our solutions also support fundamental measurement science for voltage, current, frequency, signal pulse width, sub-nanometer distance and other complex electronic measurements. This enables industry and government customers to measure fundamental electrical parameters.
Comprehensive manufacturing test systems include: printed-circuit-board-assembly testers that ensure complex boards and components are assembled properly, Integrated Circuit (“IC”) parametric testers that ensure semiconductor wafers are processed consistently with high-precision and sub-nano-meter positioning sub-assemblies for semiconductor wafer manufacturing. We provide effective and efficient manufacturing test solutions for complex transportation electronic control/safety systems that include radar, autonomous driving capability, and state-of-the-art wired and wireless components that enable advanced communications

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capability. Our flexible and scalable manufacturing systems offer the best-in-class value to enable our manufacturing customers to deliver outstanding yield, quality and productivity resulting in lower overall cost of test.
Our highly regarded test and measurement products and software have a long history of broad adoption and use in universities and research centers that teach the next generation of engineers and scientists and enable basic research to flourish. Increasing global competition in education is driving the need for efficient and timely education solutions, and we are making those available in areas such as the Internet of Things ("IoT"), 5G communications technology and smart devices.
Service Solutions
Our services solutions include repair, calibration and consulting services, and resale of refurbished used Keysight equipment. Customer demand is fulfilled by trained technicians and engineers through regional service centers, located in close proximity to customers at more than 70 Keysight service locations in 34 countries. Our global presence, with localized service proximity, is an important factor in sustaining our customers’ equipment uptime and utilization requirements. In addition to providing repair and calibration support for Keysight equipment, we repair and calibrate non-Keysight equipment. We also provide industry-specific services to deliver complete Keysight solutions and help customers reduce their total cost of ownership for their design and test equipment. Services solutions include the following general types of solutions and services:
Accredited Product Support Services. Comprehensive support services that include repair, parts, and accredited calibrations of Keysight and non-Keysight test equipment.
Professional Services. Training and engineering services to optimize equipment adoption, utilization, and design and test processes.
KeysightCare. Beyond the basic warranty, KeysightCare is a for pay service which provides dedicated, proactive support through a single point of contact for instruments, software, and solutions.
Re-manufactured Equipment. Refurbished used equipment, including Keysight Premium Used, which ensures the same high quality as our new equipment.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Customers
Our customers include semiconductor and component manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers and contract manufacturers of electronic industrial products and services. These customers use our solutions to perform research and development and to design, manufacture and support their products and services. Customer products include semiconductor equipment and devices, printed circuit assemblies, electronic modules and systems that go into a wide range of electronic industrial products such as electric/autonomous vehicles, connected consumer and industrial devices and digital healthcare in the IoT domain. Our customers range from the largest multi-national global companies to the smallest start-ups and include universities and government agencies around the world. Our automotive customers use Keysight's solutions to develop, test and manufacture the electrified drive train, battery management systems, e-mobility and advanced vehicle-to-everything ("V2X") communications that will enable electric and hybrid-electric vehicles to be fully autonomous.
In order to address the growing needs of customers involved in the design and development of the latest automotive electronic technologies, we have opened four automotive application centers in Boeblingen, Germany; Novi, Michigan, United States; Shanghai, China; and Nagoya, Japan. These centers enable us to collaborate with and serve customers on a local basis and in close proximity to the world’s major automotive development ecosystems.  They include electronic test and measurement labs, technical experts, and state-of-the-art design and test software and hardware, as well as a customer training facility for hands-on workshops and seminars. These centers address the next-generation technology needs of the automotive industry, including OEMs, electronic components suppliers, semiconductor chipset manufacturers, battery and charging infrastructure providers and compliance labs, where we provide solutions across the entire ecosystem for the connected “smart” vehicle.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group's net revenue.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group Competition
The market for electronic industrial design and test solutions is highly competitive across our targeted markets. In the electronic industrial test market, our primary competitors are Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Ametek, Inc., Fortive Corporation,Teledyne Technologies, National Instruments Corporation, and Teradyne, Inc.
Our electronic industrial design and test solutions offer a wide range of products and related software, and these compete primarily on the basis of differentiated capability, first-to-market leading edge technology, product quality and long-term value to our customers.

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Ixia Solutions Group
The Ixia Solutions Group helps customers design, validate and optimize the performance and security resilience of their networks and associated components and applications both pre and post go live. Network test, network visibility and security solutions help organizations and their customers strengthen their physical and virtual networks. The group’s solutions consist of software applications and services, including warranty and maintenance offerings, and high-performance hardware platforms. This business generated revenue of $489 million in 2019, $451 million in fiscal 2018 and $256 million in fiscal 2017. The Ixia Solutions Group revenues in fiscal 2019 and 2018 are not comparable with fiscal 2017, which only includes activity from the date of acquisition, April 18, 2017, through October 31, 2017.
Ixia Solutions Group Markets
Our Ixia Solutions Group serves the network test and network visibility markets.
Network Test
We market our network test solutions and services to network equipment manufacturers, service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide. Our network test customers use our solutions to evaluate the performance of their equipment and networks primarily during the design, manufacturing and pre-deployment stages.
We offer a comprehensive suite of solutions consisting of software applications in conjunction with our network test hardware platforms that provide customers with the ability to perform a broad range of testing for layers 2-7 of the network stack. These solutions measure and analyze the performance, functionality, interoperability, service quality and conformance of network equipment and networks as well as applications and services that run on these networks. Our technology-specific application test solutions are targeted at a wide range of critical performance and conformance requirements across various protocols, interfaces and types of devices. These include data center, routing and switching, Software Defined Networking ("SDN"), security, encryption and applications, services like voice, video and wireless technologies including 4G and 5G as well as Wi-Fi. Our data center test solution includes the world’s first 400 Gigabit Ethernet test products that enable the roll-out of next generation data centers. For security, our security solutions enable the testing of new technologies like Transport Layer Security as well as providing a comprehensive suite of tools to test and detect malware and Distributed Denial of Service. Our wireless test solutions include 5G and 4G as well as IoT and Wi-Fi 802.11ax. These test solutions are both hardware-based and virtual. For the hardware-based solutions, our purpose-built hardware allows us to provide the industry’s best precision, performance and scale. Our virtual solutions offer a comprehensive feature set as well as the flexibility to operate in various virtual environments.
Network Visibility
We market our network visibility solutions to network equipment manufacturers, service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide. Our network visibility solutions improve the way our customers manage their data centers, save valuable IT time and maximize return on IT investments.
Keysight's network visibility solutions provide real-time, end-to-end visibility, insight and security into physical, virtual, SDN and Network Functions Virtualization networks, delivering the control, coverage, intelligence and performance customers need in a seamless fashion to protect and improve crucial networking, data center and cloud business assets. Our comprehensive network visibility platform ranges from network test access points to high-density, high-availability, cutting edge solutions designed for large and complex data centers and networks. Our proprietary software includes patented filtering and content handling technology that ensures each monitoring tool gets exactly the right data needed for analysis, all powered by an easy to use, drag-and-drop management system. Our advanced processing technologies enable additional intelligence and functionality, including de-duplication, packet slicing, time-stamping, real-time application and threat data, network flow, and session aware mobility load balancing.
Ixia Solutions Group Customers
Our customers include NEMs, service providers, enterprises and governments. These customers seek to optimize networks and data centers in order to accelerate, secure and scale the delivery of their services. NEMs, including chipset providers, deliver voice, video, and data and service infrastructure equipment to customer network operators, service providers and network users. Such users require high standards of functionality, performance, security and reliability and must ensure the quality of their products during development and manufacturing (prior to deployment). Service providers seek to deliver a growing variety of high quality, advanced network services ranging from traditional telecommunications and internet services to social networking, cloud storage and entertainment streaming. Enterprise and government organizations depend on their networks and data centers to get business done, and they devote significant resources to ensure applications and services run optimally and securely. These enterprise and

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government customers rely on our solutions to help evaluate equipment during selection, optimize and harden their network designs in labs prior to roll-out, and once rolled out, continuously monitor the production network to ensure optimal performance and security of the contents flowing through it. Our security solutions are also used by major organizations to address the new generation of cyber warfare and defend against massive cyber-attacks.
No single customer represented 10 percent or more of the group’s net revenue.
Ixia Solutions Group Competition
The market for providing network test and monitoring systems is highly competitive. We currently compete with network test and monitoring solution vendors such as Spirent Communications, Gigamon and NetScout. We also compete either directly or indirectly with large Ethernet switch vendors and network management, analysis, compliance and test tool vendors that offer point solutions that address a subset of the issues that we solve. Additionally, some of our significant customers have developed or may develop competitive in-house products for their own use or for sale to others.
Within our network test and visibility solutions, we offer a wide range of products and related software. We compete with these solutions primarily on the basis of differentiated capability, first-to-market leading-edge technology, product quality and long-term value to our customers.
The following discussions of Research and Development, Sales, Manufacturing, Marketing, Backlog, Intellectual Property, Materials, Environmental and Acquisition of Material Assets include information common to each of our businesses.
Research and Development
We are committed to investing in research and development ("R&D") and have focused our development efforts on key strategic opportunities in order to align our business with available markets and position the company for growth. Our R&D efforts focus on development of first-to-market solutions with differentiated technology to support new software and hardware product introductions and improvements to existing software and hardware products to provide complete customer solutions aligned to our industry. We conduct R&D in four principal areas: enabling technologies, system design, simulation and measurement. Our R&D seeks to improve on various technical competencies in software and hardware systems, electronics and solution delivery. R&D investments are focused on delivering technology and first-to-market solutions, as well as building a strong foundation for future solutions over a longer time horizon. Our primary technology development centers are in California, Colorado, Georgia and Texas in the United States and in China, Finland, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Romania, Singapore, Spain and U.K. We anticipate that we will continue to have significant R&D expenditures in order to maintain our competitive position with a continuous flow of innovative, high-quality software, customer solutions, products and services.
Sales
Our direct sales force focuses on addressing the needs of our global and regional customers by selling Keysight products, systems, solutions and services. Keysight’s direct sales force consists of sales and application engineers who have in‑depth knowledge of the customers’ business and technology needs. Our direct sellers concentrate on providing more complex, end-to-end solutions where customers require strategic consultation. Our application engineers bring deep solution and application expertise to provide a combination of consulting, systems integration and software engineering services that span all stages of the sale, deployment and support of our complex systems and solutions. Our direct sales organizations serve customers globally across the commercial communications, aerospace, defense and government, automotive and energy, semiconductor, general electronics, network test and network visibility markets.
To complement our direct sales force, we have an extensive network of channel partners around the world. These channel partners include resellers, manufacturer’s representatives and distributors. They serve thousands of customers across a wide range of end-user markets. They are expected to provide the same level of service and support as our direct sales force for the products they sell and generate new sales opportunities to extend our reach. Electronic commerce and tele‑sales channels are also in place for transactional, lower-touch sales.
For certain verticals such as network monitoring and performance management, our go-to-market solution strategy is based on strategic relationships with technical partners to provide the customer with a complete solution. In these cases, we work with technical partners in two main ways: (i) through customer referrals and recommendations and (ii) through automation integration/interoperability that provides a differentiated solution for our customers.

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Manufacturing
To maximize our productivity and our ability to respond to market conditions, we have significant in-house manufacturing capabilities that are supplemented by contract manufacturers. Our in-house manufacturing efforts are focused on the highest value added, more complex and highly technical aspects of production, and we use contract manufacturers for assembly, printed circuit board production, metal die-casting and plastic moulding. Our largest manufacturing facility in Penang, Malaysia focuses on the final assembly of our most sophisticated instruments and, on final tuning, calibration and test of instruments across the broader portfolio. We also operate three technology centers in Santa Rosa, California; Colorado Springs, Colorado; and Boeblingen, Germany that collectively provide key components and sub‑systems for our instruments, including microwave monolithic integrated circuits, thick and thin film circuits, optical components, high-speed probes and precision machining. Our technology centers provide a competitive advantage by developing and manufacturing differentiated technology components with performance levels that are not available commercially.
We have manufacturing facilities in California and Colorado in the United States. Outside of the United States, we have manufacturing centralized in Malaysia with other manufacturing facilities in China, Germany, Japan and Finland.
We generally manufacture products after we have received firm orders for delivery and do not generally hold large stocks of finished inventory.
Marketing
We have several ongoing programs to support the sale and distribution of our solutions and to inform existing and potential customers, partners and distributors about the capabilities and benefits of our expansive solutions and services portfolio. We are modernizing our marketing platforms to increase focus on lead generation for top growth segments, including broad territory customers. We continue to invest in improving the Keysight brand recognition in strategic industries, such as automotive and commercial communications, and geographies, including the greater San Francisco area, Germany, Shanghai, and Nagoya. Our marketing efforts promote the Keysight business through participating in industry trade shows and technical conferences, sponsoring technical seminars and webinars that highlight our solutions, and advertising in digital media publications and physical locations. Additionally, we write and distribute various forms of marketing collateral including brochures, white papers, application notes, solutions briefs and articles for online and print journals. Finally, we communicate to our existing and potential customers through our corporate website and various social media outlets, such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter and our corporate blog.
Backlog
Backlog represents the amount of revenue expected from orders that have already been booked, including orders for goods and services that have not been delivered to customers, orders invoiced but not yet recognized as revenue, and orders for goods that were shipped but not invoiced, awaiting acceptance by customers and/or completion of a commitment to a customer.
At October 31, 2019, our unfilled backlog was approximately $1,380 million, as compared to approximately $1,311 million at October 31, 2018. Our unfilled backlog as of October 31, 2019 reflects the impact of the deferred revenue adjustment related to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue From Contracts With Customers ("ASC 606"). See Note 2, "New Accounting Pronouncements," to the consolidated financial statements for additional information. Consistent with our strategy, we are seeing an increase in solution sales, which have a longer order-to-revenue conversion cycle; however, we expect that the majority of unfilled backlog will be recognized as revenue within six months. While backlog on any particular date can be an indicator of short-term revenue performance, it is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.
Intellectual Property
We generate patent and other intellectual property rights covering significant inventions and other innovations in order to create a competitive advantage. Although we believe that our licenses, patents and other intellectual property rights have value, in general no single license, patent or other intellectual property right is in itself material, other than the Keysight mark.
Materials
Our manufacturing operations employ a wide variety of semiconductors, electromechanical components and assemblies and raw materials, such as plastic resins and sheet metal. We purchase materials from thousands of suppliers on a global basis. Some of the parts that require custom design work are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Our long-term relationships with suppliers allow us to proactively manage technology road maps and product discontinuance plans and monitor their financial health. To address the potential disruption in, and other risks related to, our supply chain, we use a number of techniques, including qualifying multiple sources of supply and redesign of

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solutions for alternative components. In addition, while we generally attempt to keep our inventory at minimal levels, we do purchase incremental inventory as circumstances warrant to protect the supply chain. For a further discussion of risks related to the materials and components required for our operations, please refer to “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”
Environmental
Our R&D, manufacturing and distribution operations involve the use of hazardous substances and are regulated under international, federal, state and local laws governing health and safety and the environment. We apply strict standards for protection of the environment and occupational health and safety to sites inside and outside the United States, even if not subject to regulation imposed by foreign governments. We believe that our properties and operations at our facilities comply in all material respects with applicable environmental laws and occupational health and safety laws. However, the risk of environmental liabilities cannot be completely eliminated, and there can be no assurance that the application of environmental and health and safety laws will not require us to incur significant expenditures. We are also regulated under a number of international, federal, state and local laws regarding recycling, product packaging and product content requirements. The environmental, product content/disposal and recycling laws are gradually becoming more stringent and may cause us to incur significant expenditures in the future.
Some of our properties are undergoing remediation by HP Inc. ("HP") for subsurface contaminations that were known at the time of Agilent’s separation from HP in 1999. In connection with Agilent’s separation from HP, HP and Agilent entered into an agreement pursuant to which HP agreed to retain the liability for this subsurface contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify Agilent with respect to claims arising out of that contamination. Agilent has assigned its rights and obligations under this agreement to Keysight in respect of facilities transferred to Keysight in our separation from Agilent on November 1, 2014 (the "Separation"). As a result, HP has access to a limited number of our properties to perform remediation. Although HP agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at such properties, remediation activities and subsurface contamination may require us to incur unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties. In connection with the Separation, Agilent will indemnify us directly for any liabilities related thereto. We cannot be sure that HP will continue to fulfill its remediation obligations or that Agilent will continue to fulfill its indemnification obligations.
In connection with the Separation, Agilent also agreed to indemnify us for any liability associated with contamination from past operations at all properties transferred from Agilent to us. We cannot be sure that Agilent will fulfill its indemnification obligations.
We maintain a comprehensive environmental site liability insurance policy that may cover certain clean-up costs or legal claims related to environmental contamination. This policy covers specified active, inactive and divested locations.
Acquisition of Material Assets
On April 18, 2017, pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated January 30, 2017, between Keysight and Ixia (the "Merger Agreement"), we acquired all of the outstanding common stock of Ixia for $1,622 million, net of $72 million of cash acquired, pursuant to an exchange offer for $19.65 per share (the "Merger Consideration").

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Executive Officers of the Registrant
The names of our executive officers and their ages, titles and biographies as of December 1, 2019 appear below:
Ronald S. Nersesian, 60, has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, served as Executive Vice President of Agilent. Mr. Nersesian served as President of Agilent from November 2012 to September 2013 and as Chief Operating Officer, Agilent from November 2011 to September 2013. From November 2011 to November 2012, Mr. Nersesian served as Agilent’s Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer. Mr. Nersesian serves on the Board of Directors of Trimble Inc. Mr. Nersesian has served as a Director on our Board of Directors since our separation from Agilent, and as Chairman of our Board of Directors since November 2019.
Neil Dougherty, 50, has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Keysight since December 2013 and, prior to the Separation, served as Vice President and Treasurer of Agilent since 2012. He served as Senior Director in Agilent’s Corporate Development Group from 2010 to 2012, and from 2006 to 2010, he served as Agilent’s Assistant Treasurer.
Jay Alexander, 56, has served as Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Keysight since May 2014. Prior to the Separation, he served as Vice President and General Manager for the Oscilloscope and Protocol Division of Agilent since October 2009.
Satish Dhanasekaran, 47, has served as Senior Vice President and President of the Communications Solutions Group since July 2017. Previously, he served as Keysight's Vice President and General Manager, Wireless Devices and Operators business segment, as well as a variety of customer-facing leadership positions.
Ingrid Estrada, 55, has served as Senior Vice President, Chief People & Administrative Officer and Chief of Staff since August 2017. Previously, she served as Keysight’s Senior Vice President, Human Resources from December 2013 until August 2017. Prior to the Separation, she served as Vice President and General Manager of Global Sourcing of Agilent from 2011.
Soon Chai Gooi, 58, has served as Senior Vice President and President of the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group since November 2015. From December 2013 to November 2015, Mr. Gooi served as Senior Vice President of Order Fulfillment and Infrastructure for Keysight. Prior to the Separation, Mr. Gooi served as President, from November 2012 to September 2013, and as Senior Vice President, from December 2011 to November 2012, of Agilent's Order Fulfillment and Supply Chain.
Jeffrey Li, 50, has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary since July 2019. Before that, Mr. Li served as Vice President, Assistant General Counsel, and Assistant Secretary, and prior to the Separation, as Senior Counsel of Agilent since 2011.
John Page, 55, has served as Senior Vice President and President of Global Services since November 2015 and most recently served as Vice President of business finance of Keysight from February 2014 to November 2015. Prior to joining Keysight, Mr. Page served as the Chief Financial Officer of Nanosys, Inc. from 2010 to 2014.
John Skinner, 57, has served as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer of Keysight since December 2013, and prior to the Separation, Mr. Skinner served as Vice President, Agilent and Controller of Global Infrastructure and Enterprise Financial Planning and Analysis from April 2012 to December 2013.
Mark Wallace, 54, has served as Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales since November 2016. From November 2014 to November 2016, Mr. Wallace served as Vice President and General Manager of Americas Field Operations and, prior to the Separation, as Americas Field Operations Vice President of Agilent's Electronic Measurement Group since November 2011.
Investor Information
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”). Therefore, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains an internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers.
You can access financial and other information at our Investor Relations website at www.investor.keysight.com. We make available, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC.
Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the charters of our Audit and Finance Committee, Compensation Committee, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, Executive Committee as well as our Standards of Business Conduct are

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available on our website at www.investor.keysight.com under “Corporate Governance.” These items are also available in print to any stockholder in the United States and Canada who requests them by calling (800) 829-4444. This information is also available by writing to the company at the address on the cover of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 1A.  Risk Factors
Risks, Uncertainties and Other Factors That May Affect Future Results
Risks Related to Our Business
Failure to introduce successful new solutions and services in a timely manner to address increased competition, rapid technological changes, and changing industry standards could result in our solutions and services becoming obsolete.
We generally sell our solutions in industries that are characterized by increased competition through frequent new solution and service introductions, rapid technological changes and changing industry standards. In addition, many of the markets in which we operate are seasonal and cyclical. Without the timely introduction of new solutions, services and enhancements, our solutions and services will become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer. Our ability to offer new solutions and services and to deploy them in a timely manner depend on several factors, including but not limited to our ability to:
properly identify customer needs;
innovate and develop new technologies, services and applications;
successfully commercialize new technologies in a timely manner;
manufacture and deliver our solutions in sufficient volumes and on time;
differentiate our offerings from our competitors' offerings;
price our solutions competitively;
anticipate our competitors' development of new solutions, services or technological innovations; and
control product quality in our manufacturing process.
Our future operating results may fluctuate significantly if our investments in innovative technologies are not as profitable as we anticipate.
On a regular basis, we review the existing technologies available in the market and identify strategic new technologies to develop and invest in. We are currently devoting significant resources to the 5G technology and other new technologies in the automotive, battery, Internet of Things, and mobile industries. We are investing in R&D, developing relationships with customers and suppliers, and re-directing our corporate and operational resources to grow within these innovative technologies. Our income could be harmed if we fail to gain sufficient market share, if demand for our solutions is lower than we expect, or if our income related to the innovative technologies is lower than we anticipate. For example, when the 5G standards are published, we may not be able to produce a satisfactory return on investment if our strategic vision and the resources that we are spending on developing our presence in the 5G technology industry turn out to be misaligned with such standards. We provide solutions for the design, development, and manufacturing stages of our customers’ workflow. Our customers who currently use our solutions in one stage of their workflow may not use our solutions in other aspects of their manufacturing process.
Uncertainty in general economic conditions may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our business is sensitive to negative changes in general economic conditions, both inside and outside the United States. Global and regional economic uncertainty or depression may impact our business, resulting in:
reduced demand for our solutions, delays in the shipment of orders or increases in order cancellations;
increased risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
increased price pressure for our solutions and services; and
greater risk of impairment to the value, and a detriment to the liquidity, of our future investment portfolio.

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In addition, global and regional macroeconomic developments, such as increased unemployment, decreased income, reduced access to credit, volatility in capital markets, decreased liquidity, uncertain or destabilizing national election results in the U.S., Europe, and Asia, and negative changes or volatility in general economic conditions in the U.S., Europe, and Asia could negatively affect our ability to conduct business in those territories. Financial difficulties experienced by our suppliers and customers, including distributors, due to economic volatility or negative changes could result in product delays and inventory issues. Economic risks related to accounts receivable could result in delays in collection and greater bad debt expense.
Our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if the markets into which we sell our solutions decline or do not grow as anticipated.
Visibility into our markets is limited. Our quarterly sales and operating results are highly dependent on the volume and timing of technology-related spending and orders received during the fiscal quarter, which are difficult to forecast and may be cancelled by our customers. In addition, our revenues and earnings forecasts for future fiscal quarters are often based on the expected seasonality or cyclicality of our markets. However, the markets we serve do not always experience the seasonality or cyclicality that we expect. Any decline in our customers' markets would likely result in a reduction in demand for our solutions and services. The broader semiconductor market is one of the drivers for our business, and therefore, a decrease in the semiconductor market could harm our business. Also, if our customers' markets decline, we may not be able to collect on outstanding amounts due to us. Such declines could harm our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price, and could limit our profitability. Also, in such an environment, pricing pressures could intensify. Since a significant portion of our operating expenses is relatively fixed in nature due to sales, R&D and manufacturing costs, if we were unable to respond quickly enough, these pricing pressures could further reduce our operating margins.
Failure to adjust our purchases due to changing market conditions or failure to estimate our customers' demand could adversely affect our income.
Our income could be harmed if we are unable to adjust our purchases to market fluctuations, including those caused by the seasonal or cyclical nature of the markets in which we operate. The sale of our solutions and services are dependent, to a large degree, on customers whose industries are subject to seasonal or cyclical trends in the demand for their products. For example, the consumer electronics market is particularly volatile, making demand difficult to anticipate. During a market upturn, we may not be able to purchase sufficient supplies or components to meet increasing product demand, which could materially affect our results. In the past, we have seen a shortage of parts for some of our products. In addition, some of the parts that require custom design are not readily available from alternate suppliers due to their unique design or the length of time necessary for design work. Should a supplier cease manufacturing such a component, we would be forced to re-engineer our solution. In addition to discontinuing parts, suppliers may also extend lead times, limit supplies or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. In order to secure components for the production of products, we may continue to enter into non-cancellable purchase commitments with vendors, or at times make advance payments to suppliers, which could impact our ability to adjust our inventory to declining market demands. Prior commitments of this type have resulted in an excess of parts when demand for electronic products has decreased. If demand for our solutions is less than we expect, we may experience additional excess and obsolete inventories and be forced to incur additional charges.
Economic and political policies favoring national interests could adversely affect our results of operations.
Nationalistic economic policies and political trends in the United States, the United Kingdom, the European Union, Singapore, Malaysia and China among other countries, such as opposition to globalization and free trade, sanctions or trade restrictions, withdrawal from or re-negotiation of global trade agreements, tax policies that favor domestic industries and interests, the anticipated exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union (known as Brexit), the distancing or potential exit of other countries from the European Union, and other similar actions may result in increased transaction costs, reduced ability to hire employees, reduced access to supplies and materials, reduced demand or access to customers in international markets, and inability to conduct our operations as they have been conducted historically. Each of these factors may adversely affect our business.
International trade disputes and increased tariffs between the United States and such jurisdictions could substantially change our expectations and ability to operate in such jurisdictions as we have done historically. Many of our suppliers, vendors, customers, partners, and other entities with whom we do business have strong ties to doing business in China. Their ability to supply materials to us, buy products or services from us, or otherwise work with us is affected by their ability to do business in China. If the U.S.’s relationship with China deteriorates or results in trade disputes, trade protection measures, retaliatory actions, tariffs and increased barriers, policies that favor domestic industries, or increased import or export licensing requirements or restrictions, then our deployment of resources in jurisdictions affected by such measures could be misaligned and our operations may be adversely affected due to such changes in the economic and political ecosystem in which our suppliers, vendors, customers, partners, and other entities with whom we do business operate.

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A decreased demand for our customers’ products or trade restrictions could adversely affect our results of operations.
Our business depends on our customers’ ability to manufacture, design, and sell their products in the marketplace. International trade disputes affecting our customers could adversely affect our business. Tariffs on imports to or from China could increase the cost of our customers’ components and raw materials, which could make our customers’ products and services more expensive and could reduce demand for our customers’ products. Protectionist and retaliatory trade measures by either China or the United States could limit our customers’ ability to sell their products and services and could reduce demand of our customers’ products. Our customers and other entities in our customer chain could decide to take actions in response to international trade disputes that we could not foresee. A decrease in demand or significant change in operations from our customers due to international trade disputes could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
In addition to the above, our customers and suppliers could become subject to U.S. export restrictions and sanctions, such as, being added to the U.S. Department of Commerce’s “Lists of Parties of Concern” and having U.S. export privileges denied or suspended. In the event that a customer or supplier of ours becomes subject to such sanctions, we will suspend our business with such customer or supplier. Because of the increasingly tense political and economic relationship between the United States and China, such sanctions could be imposed with little notice, which could leave us without an adequate alternative solution to compensate for our inability to continue to do business with such customer or supplier. Some of our suppliers and customers in the supply chain are working on unique solutions and products in the market, and it may be difficult if not impossible to replace them, especially with short notice. We cannot predict what impact future sanctions could have on our customers or suppliers, and therefore, our business. Any export restrictions or sanctions and any tariffs or other trade restriction imposed on our customers or suppliers could adversely affect our financial condition and business.
Economic, political, and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations.
Because we sell our solutions worldwide, our business is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally. We anticipate that revenue from international operations will continue to represent a majority of our total revenue. However, there can be no assurances that our international sales will continue at existing levels or grow in accordance with our effort to increase foreign market penetration. In addition, many of our employees, contract manufacturers, suppliers, job functions and manufacturing facilities are located outside the United States. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including but not limited to:
changes in a specific country's or region's political, economic or other conditions, including but not limited to changes that favor national interests and economic volatility;
negative consequences from changes in tax laws;
difficulty in protecting intellectual property;
interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;
local competition;
differing labor regulations;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements;
inadequate local infrastructure;
potential incidences of corruption and fraudulent business practices; and
volatile geopolitical turmoil, including popular uprisings, regional conflicts, terrorism, and war.
We centralize most of our accounting processes at two locations: India and Malaysia. These processes include general accounting, inventory cost accounting, accounts payable and accounts receivables functions. If conditions change in those countries, it may adversely affect operations, including impairing our ability to pay our suppliers. Our results of operations, as well as our liquidity, may be adversely affected and possible delays may occur in reporting financial results.

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Further, even if we are able to successfully manage the risks of international operations, our business may be adversely affected if our business partners are not able to successfully manage similar risks.
Dependence on contract manufacturing and outsourcing other portions of our supply chain may adversely affect our ability to bring solutions to market and damage our reputation. Dependence on outsourced information technology and other administrative functions may impair our ability to operate effectively.
As part of our efforts to streamline operations and to cut costs, we outsource aspects of our manufacturing processes and other functions and continue to evaluate additional outsourcing. If our contract manufacturers or other outsourcers fail to perform their obligations in a timely manner or at satisfactory quality levels, our ability to bring solutions to market and our reputation could suffer. For example, during a market upturn, our contract manufacturers may be unable to meet our demand requirements, which may preclude us from fulfilling our customers' orders on a timely basis. The ability of these manufacturers to perform is largely outside of our control. Additionally, changing or replacing our contract manufacturers or other outsourcees could cause disruptions or delays. In addition, we outsource significant portions of our information technology ("IT") and other administrative functions. Since IT is critical to our operations, any failure of our IT providers to perform could impair our ability to operate effectively. In addition to the risks outlined above, problems with manufacturing or IT outsourcing could result in lower revenues and unrealized efficiencies, and could impact our results of operations and stock price. Much of our outsourcing takes place in developing countries and, as a result, may be subject to geopolitical uncertainty.
Our operating results may suffer if our manufacturing capacity does not match the demand for our solutions.
Because we cannot immediately adapt our production capacity and related cost structures to rapidly changing market conditions, when demand does not meet our expectations, our manufacturing capacity will likely exceed our production requirements. During a general market upturn or an upturn in our business, we cannot increase our manufacturing capacity to meet product demand, we will not be able to fulfill orders in a timely manner, which could lead to order cancellations, contract breaches or indemnification obligations. This inability could materially and adversely limit our ability to improve our income, margin and operating results. By contrast, if, during an economic downturn, we had excess manufacturing capacity, then our fixed costs associated with excess manufacturing capacity would adversely affect our income, margins and operating results.
Key customers or large orders may expose us to additional business and legal risks that could have a material adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.
Certain key customers have substantial purchasing power and leverage in negotiating contractual arrangements with us. These customers may demand contract terms that differ considerably from our standard terms and conditions. Large orders may also include severe contractual liabilities for us if we fail to provide the quantity and quality of product at the required delivery times. While we attempt to contractually limit our potential liability under such contracts, we may have to agree to some or all of these types of provisions to secure these orders and to continue to grow our business. Such actions expose us to significant additional risks, which could result in a material adverse impact on our operating results and financial condition.
Industry consolidation and consolidation among our customer base may lead to increased competition and may harm our operating results.
There is potential for industry consolidation in our markets. As companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry, companies could be acquired or may be unable to continue operations. Companies that are strategic alliance partners in some areas of our business may acquire or form alliances with our competitors, thereby reducing their business with us. We believe that industry consolidation may result in stronger competitors and could lead to more variability in our operating results and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Furthermore, particularly in the communications market, rapid consolidation would lead to fewer customers, with the effect that loss of a major customer could have a material impact on results not anticipated in a customer marketplace composed of more numerous participants.
Additionally, if there is consolidation among our customer base, our customers may be able to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, if, as a result of increased leverage, customer pressures require us to reduce our pricing such that our gross margins are diminished, we could decide not to sell our solutions under such less favorable terms, which would decrease our revenue. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our solutions, replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of our competitors and cancellations of orders, each of which could harm our operating results.

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Our acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures, internal reorganizations and divestitures may result in financial results that are different than expected.
In the normal course of business, we may engage in discussions with third parties relating to possible acquisitions, strategic alliances, joint ventures and divestitures. Additionally, we occasionally make changes to our internal structure to align business products, services and solutions with market demands and to obtain cost synergies and operational efficiencies. As a result of such transactions, our financial results may differ from our own or the investment community's expectations in a given fiscal quarter, or over the long term. If market conditions or other factors lead us to change our strategic direction, we may not realize the expected value from such transactions or reorganizations. Further, such third-party transactions often have post-closing arrangements, including, but not limited to, post-closing adjustments, transition services, escrows or indemnifications, the financial results of which can be difficult to predict. In addition, acquisitions and strategic alliances may require us to integrate a different company culture, management team, employees and business infrastructure into our existing operations without impacting the business operations of the newly acquired company. We may have difficulty developing, manufacturing and marketing the products of a newly acquired company in a way that enhances performance and expands the markets of the newly acquired company. The acquired company may not enhance the performance of our businesses or product lines such that we do not realize the value from expected synergies. Depending on the size and complexity of an acquisition, the successful integration of the entity depends on a variety of factors, including but not limited to:
the achievement of anticipated cost savings, synergies, business opportunities and growth prospects from combining the acquired company;
the scalability of production, manufacturing and marketing of products of a newly acquired company to broader adjacent markets;
the ability to cohesively integrate operations, product definitions, price lists, delivery, and technical support for products and solutions of a newly acquired company into our existing operations;
the compatibility of our infrastructure, operations, policies and organizations with those of the acquired company;
the retention of key employees and/or customers;
the management of facilities and employees in different geographic areas; and
the management of relationships with our strategic partners, suppliers, and customer base.
If we do not realize the expected benefits or synergies of such transactions, our consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows and stock price could be negatively impacted. Additionally, we may record significant goodwill and other assets as a result of acquisitions or investments, and we may be required to incur impairment charges, which could adversely affect our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
Any inability to complete acquisitions on acceptable terms could negatively impact our growth rate and financial performance.
Our ability to grow revenues, earnings and cash flow depends in part upon our ability to identify and successfully acquire and integrate businesses at appropriate prices and realize anticipated synergies and business performance. Appropriate targets for acquisition are difficult to identify and complete for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, limited due diligence, high valuations, business and intellectual property evaluations, other interested parties, negotiations of the definitive documentation, satisfaction of closing conditions, the need to obtain antitrust or other regulatory approvals on acceptable terms, and availability of funding. The inability to close appropriate acquisitions on acceptable terms could adversely impact our growth rate, revenue, and financial performance.
We may need additional financing in the future to meet our capital needs or to make opportunistic acquisitions, and such financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all, and may be dilutive to existing shareholders.
We may need to seek additional financing for our general corporate purposes. For example, we may need to increase our investment in R&D activities or need funds to make acquisitions. We may be unable to obtain any desired additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to fund our expansion, successfully develop or enhance solutions or respond to competitive pressures, any of which could negatively affect our business. If we finance acquisitions by issuing additional convertible debt or equity securities, our existing stockholders may experience share dilution, which could affect the market price of our stock. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity securities, our shareholders will experience dilution of their ownership interest. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt, we may be subject to further limitations on our operations and ability to pay dividends due to restrictive covenants.

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We have outstanding debt and may incur other debt in the future, which could adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations.
We currently have outstanding debt as well as availability to borrow under a revolving credit facility. We may borrow additional amounts in the future and use the proceeds from any future borrowing for general corporate purposes, future acquisitions, expansion of our business or repurchases of our outstanding shares of common stock.
Our incurrence of this debt, and increases in our aggregate levels of debt, may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition by, among other things:
requiring a portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments on this debt;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
reducing the cash flow available to fund capital expenditures and other corporate purposes and to grow our business; and
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry.
Our current revolving credit facility and term loan imposes restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to create liens on our assets and the ability of our subsidiaries to incur indebtedness, and requires us to maintain compliance with specified financial ratios. Our ability to comply with these ratios may be affected by events beyond our control. In addition, the indenture governing our senior notes contains covenants that may adversely affect our ability to incur certain liens or engage in certain types of sale and leaseback transactions. If we breach any of the covenants and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders, then, subject to applicable cure periods, our outstanding indebtedness could be declared immediately due and payable.
If currency exchange rates fluctuate substantially in the future, our financial results could be adversely affected.
 A substantial amount of our solutions are priced and paid for in U.S. Dollars, although many of our solutions are priced in local currencies and a significant amount of certain types of expenses, such as payroll, utilities, tax and marketing expenses, are paid in local currencies. Our hedging programs are designed to reduce, but not entirely eliminate, within any given 12-month period, the impact of currency exchange rate movements, including those caused by currency controls, which could impact our business, operating results and financial condition by resulting in lower revenue or increased expenses. However, for expenses beyond a 12-month period, our hedging strategy will not mitigate our exchange rate risk. In addition, our currency hedging programs involve third-party financial institutions as counterparties. The weakening or failure of these counterparties may adversely affect our hedging programs and our financial condition through, among other things, a reduction in the number of available counterparties, increasingly unfavorable terms or the failure of counterparties to perform under hedging contracts.
Third parties may claim that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expenses or be prevented from selling solutions or services.
Third parties may claim that one or more of our solutions or services infringe their intellectual property rights. We analyze and take action in response to such claims on a case-by-case basis. Any dispute or litigation regarding patents or other intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming due to the complexity of our technology and the uncertainty of intellectual property litigation and could divert our management and key personnel from business operations. A claim of intellectual property infringement could cause us to enter into a costly or restrictive license agreement (which may not be available under acceptable terms, or at all), require us to redesign certain of our solutions (which would be costly and time-consuming) and/or subject us to significant damages or an injunction against the development and sale of certain solutions or services. In certain of our businesses, we rely on third-party intellectual property licenses, and we cannot ensure that these licenses will be available to us in the future on terms favorable to us or at all.
Third parties may infringe our intellectual property rights, and we may suffer competitive injury or expend significant resources enforcing our intellectual property rights.
Our success depends in part on our proprietary technology, including technology we obtained through acquisitions. We rely on various intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as confidentiality provisions and licensing arrangements, to establish our proprietary rights. If we do not enforce our intellectual property rights successfully, our competitive position may suffer, which could harm our operating results.
Our pending patent, copyright and trademark registration applications may not be allowed or competitors may challenge the validity or scope of our patents, copyrights or trademarks. In addition, our patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property rights may not provide us with a significant competitive advantage. In preparation for the separation and distribution, we have applied for trademarks related to our new global brand name in various jurisdictions worldwide. Any successful opposition

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to our applications in material jurisdictions could impose material costs on us or make it more difficult to protect our brand. Different jurisdictions vary widely in the level of protection and priority they give to trademark and other intellectual property rights.
We may be required to spend significant resources monitoring our intellectual property rights, and we may or may not be able to detect infringement of such rights by third parties. Our competitive position may be harmed if we cannot detect infringement and enforce our intellectual property rights in a timely manner, or at all. In some circumstances, we may choose to not pursue enforcement due to a variety of reasons. In addition, competitors may avoid infringement by designing around our intellectual property rights or by developing non-infringing competing technologies. Intellectual property rights and our ability to enforce them may be unavailable or limited in some countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture market share and could result in lost revenues to the company. Furthermore, some of our intellectual property is licensed to others, which allows them to compete with us using that intellectual property.
If we experience a significant cybersecurity attack or disruption in our IT systems, our business, reputation, and operating results could be adversely affected.
We rely on several centralized IT systems to provide solutions and services, maintain financial records, retain sensitive data such as intellectual property, proprietary business information, and data related to customers, suppliers, and business partners, process orders, manage inventory, process shipments to customers and operate other critical functions. The ongoing maintenance and security of this information is pertinent to the success of our business operations and our strategic goals.
Despite our implementation of network security measures, our network may be vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks, computer viruses, break-ins and similar disruptions. Our network security measures include, but are not limited to, the implementation of firewalls, antivirus protection, patches, log monitors, routine backups, offsite storage, network audits, and routine updates and modifications. Despite our efforts to create these security barriers, we may not be able to keep pace as new threats emerge and it is virtually impossible for us to entirely eliminate this risk. Cybersecurity attacks are evolving and include, but are not limited to, malicious software, attempts to gain unauthorized access to data, and other electronic security breaches that could lead to disruptions in systems, unauthorized release of confidential or otherwise protected information and corruption of data. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating results and financial condition, and no assurance can be given that our efforts to reduce the risk of such attacks will be successful.
In addition, our IT systems may be susceptible to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, implementation of new operational systems or software or upgrades to existing systems and software, or catastrophes or other unforeseen events. Such events could result in the disruption of business processes, network degradation and system downtime, along with the potential that a third party will exploit our critical assets such as intellectual property, proprietary business information and data related to our customers, suppliers and business partners. Further, such events could result in loss of revenue, loss of or reduction in purchase orders, inability to report financial information, litigation, regulatory fines and penalties, and other damage that could have a material impact on our business operations. To the extent that such disruptions occur, our customers and partners may lose confidence in our solutions and we may lose business or brand reputation, resulting in a material and adverse effect on our business operating results and financial condition.
We are or will be subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the IRS and other tax authorities. An adverse outcome of any such audit or examination by the IRS or other tax authority could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We are or will be subject to ongoing tax examinations of our tax returns by the IRS and other tax authorities in various jurisdictions. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from ongoing tax examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. These assessments can require considerable estimates and judgments. Intercompany transactions associated with the sale of inventory, services, intellectual property and cost sharing arrangements are complex and affect our tax liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions. The outcomes of these tax examinations could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition. Due to the complexity of tax contingencies, the ultimate resolution of any tax matters related to operations may result in payments greater or less than amounts accrued.
Our operations may be adversely impacted by changes in our business mix or changes in the tax legislative landscape.
Our effective tax rate may be adversely impacted by, among other things, changes in the mix of our earnings among countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets, and changes in tax laws. We cannot give any assurance as to what our effective tax rate will be in the future because, among other things, there is uncertainty regarding the tax policies of the jurisdictions where we operate. Changes in tax laws, such as tax reform in the United States or changes in

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tax laws resulting from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (“OECD”) multi-jurisdictional plan of action to address “base erosion and profit shifting” and the taxation of the “Digital Economy” could impact our effective tax rate.
If tax laws or incentives change or cease to be in effect, our income taxes could increase significantly.
We are subject to federal, state, and local taxes in the United States and numerous foreign jurisdictions. We devote significant resources to evaluating our tax positions and our worldwide provision for taxes. Our financial results and tax treatment are susceptible to changes in tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, principles, and interpretations in the United States and in other jurisdictions where we do business. With the rise of economic and political policies that favor domestic interests, it is possible that more countries will enact tax laws that either increase the tax rates, or reduce or change the tax incentives available to multinational companies like ours. Upon a change in tax laws in any territory where we do significant business, such as the U.S., the European Union, or Singapore, we may not be able to maintain our current tax rate or qualify for or maintain the benefits of any tax incentives offered, to the extent such incentives are offered.
We currently benefit from tax incentives extended to certain of our foreign subsidiaries to encourage investment or employment, the most significant of which being Singapore. The Singapore tax incentives require that specific conditions be satisfied, which include achieving thresholds of employment, ownership of certain assets, as well as specific types of investment activities within Singapore. Based on the current tax environment, we believe that we will satisfy such conditions in the future as needed, but cannot guarantee that the tax environment will not change or that such conditions will be satisfied.
Our Singapore tax incentives are due for renewal in fiscal 2024, but we cannot guarantee that Singapore will not revoke the tax incentives earlier. Our taxes could increase if the existing Singapore incentives are not renewed upon revocation or expiration. We cannot guarantee that we will qualify for any new incentive regime that may exist in fiscal 2024, or that such conditions will be satisfied. If we cannot or do not wish to satisfy all or portions of the tax incentives conditions, we may lose the related tax incentives and could be required to refund the benefits that the tax incentives previously provided. As a result, our effective tax rate could be higher than it would have been had we maintained the benefits of the tax incentives and could harm our operating results.
Our business will suffer if we are not able to retain and hire key personnel.
Our future success depends partly on the continued service of our key research, engineering, sales, marketing, manufacturing, executive and administrative personnel, including personnel joining our company through acquisitions. The markets in which we operate are dynamic, and we may need to respond with reorganizations, workforce reductions and site closures from time to time. We believe our pay levels are competitive within the regions that we operate. However, there is also intense competition for certain highly technical specialties in geographic areas in which we operate, and it may become more difficult to retain key employees. If we fail to retain and hire a sufficient number of these personnel, we may not be able to meet key objectives, such as launching effective product innovations and meeting financial goals, and maintain or expand our business.
If we suffer a loss to our factories, facilities or distribution system due to a catastrophic event, our operations could be significantly harmed.
Our factories, facilities and distribution system are subject to catastrophic loss due to fire, flood, terrorism or other natural or man-made disasters. In particular, several of our facilities could be subject to a catastrophic loss caused by earthquake or other natural disasters due to their locations. For example, our production facilities, headquarters and laboratories in California and our production facilities in Japan are all located in areas with above-average seismic activity. If any of these facilities were to experience a catastrophic loss, it could disrupt our operations, delay production, shipments and revenue and result in large expenses to repair or replace the facility. If such a disruption were to occur, we could breach our agreements, our reputation could be harmed and our business and operating results could be adversely affected. In addition, since we have consolidated our manufacturing facilities, we are more likely to experience an interruption to our operations in the event of a catastrophe in any one location. Although we carry insurance for property damage and business interruption, we do not carry insurance or financial reserves for interruptions or potential losses arising from earthquakes or terrorism. Also, our third-party insurance coverage will vary from time to time in both type and amount depending on availability, cost and our decision with respect to risk retention. Economic conditions and uncertainties in global markets may adversely affect the cost and other terms upon which we are able to obtain third-party insurance. If our third-party insurance coverage is adversely affected, or to the extent we have elected to self-insure, we may be at a greater risk that our operations will be harmed by a catastrophic loss.
If we fail to maintain satisfactory compliance with certain regulations, we may be subject to substantial negative financial consequences and civil or criminal penalties.
We and our customers are subject to various significant international, federal, state and local regulations, including, but not limited to, health and safety, packaging, data privacy, product content, labor and import/export regulations. These regulations are

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complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. We may be required to incur significant expenses to comply with these regulations or to remedy violations of these regulations. Any failure by us to comply with applicable government regulations could also result in cessation of our operations or portions of our operations, high financial penalties, product recalls or impositions of fines, and restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations. If demand for our solutions is adversely affected or our costs increase, our business would suffer.
We have developed internal data handling policies and practices to comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) in the European Union and data privacy regulations similar to GDPR in other jurisdictions.  Our existing business strategy does not rely on aggregating or selling personally identifiable information, and as a general matter Keysight does not process personally identifiable information on behalf of our customers. We devote resources to keep up with the changing regulatory environment on data privacy in the jurisdictions where we do business. Despite our efforts, no assurance can be given that we will be compliant with data privacy regulations. New laws, amendments, or interpretations of regulations, industry standards, and contractual obligations relating to data privacy may require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. If we fail to comply with GDPR or other data privacy regulation, we may be subject to significant financial fines and civil or criminal penalties, and may suffer damage to our reputation or brand, which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
In addition, our products and operations are also often subject to the rules of industrial standards bodies, like the International Standards Organization, as well as regulation by other agencies such as the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. We also must comply with work safety rules. If we fail to adequately address any of these regulations, our businesses could be harmed.
Failure to comply with anti-corruption laws could adversely affect our business and result in financial penalties.
Because we have extensive international operations, we must comply with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to governmental officials, and anti-competition regulations. Although we actively maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure ongoing compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate these policies and procedures. Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, restrictions on our business conduct and on our ability to offer our solutions in one or more countries, and could also materially affect our brand, ability to attract and retain employees, international operations, business and operating results.
Our business and financial results may be adversely affected by various legal and regulatory proceedings.
We are subject to legal proceedings, lawsuits and other claims in the normal course of business and could become subject to additional claims in the future, some of which could be material. The outcome of existing proceedings, lawsuits and claims may differ from our expectations because the outcomes of litigation are often difficult to reliably predict. Various factors or developments can lead us to change current estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables where applicable, or permit us to make such estimates for matters previously not susceptible to reasonable estimates, such as a significant judicial ruling or judgment, a significant settlement, significant regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in charges that could adversely affect our business, operating results or financial condition.
Our internal controls may be determined to be ineffective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company, the value of our stock, and our access to capital.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires us to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, among other things. We are devoting significant resources and time to comply with such internal control over financial reporting requirements. However, we cannot be certain that these measures will ensure that we design, implement and maintain adequate control over our financial processes and reporting in the future, especially in the context of acquisitions of other businesses. Any difficulties in the assimilation of acquired businesses into our control system could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our stock or on our access to capital, or cause us to be subject to investigation or sanctions by the SEC.
Adverse conditions in the global banking industry and credit markets may adversely impact the value of our cash investments or impair our liquidity.
Our cash and cash equivalents are invested or held in a mix of money market funds, time deposit accounts and bank demand deposit accounts. Disruptions in the financial markets may, in some cases, result in an inability to access assets such as money market funds that traditionally have been viewed as highly liquid. Any failure of our counterparty financial institutions or funds in which we have invested may adversely impact our cash and cash equivalent positions and, in turn, our results and financial condition.

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Future investment returns on pension assets may be lower than expected or interest rates may decline, requiring us to make significant additional cash contributions to our future plans.
We sponsor several defined benefit pension plans that cover many of our salaried and hourly employees. The Federal Pension Protection Act of 2006 requires that certain capitalization levels be maintained in each of the U.S. plans, and there may be similar funding requirements in the plans outside the United States. Because it is unknown what the investment return on and the fair value of our pension assets will be in future years or what interest rates and discount rates may be at any point in time, no assurances can be given that applicable law will not require us to make future material plan contributions. Any such contributions could adversely affect our financial condition.
Environmental contamination from past operations could subject us to unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties involved, and environmental contamination caused by ongoing operations could subject us to substantial liabilities in the future.
Some of our properties are undergoing remediation by HP Inc. ("HP") for subsurface contaminations that were known at the time of Agilent's separation from HP in 1999. In connection with Agilent's separation from HP, HP and Agilent entered into an agreement pursuant to which HP agreed to retain the liability for this subsurface contamination, perform the required remediation and indemnify Agilent with respect to claims arising out of that contamination. Agilent has assigned its rights and obligations under this agreement to Keysight in respect of facilities transferred to us in the separation. As a result, HP will have access to a limited number of our properties to perform remediation. Although HP agreed to minimize interference with on-site operations at such properties, remediation activities and subsurface contamination may require us to incur unreimbursed costs and could harm on-site operations and the future use and value of the properties. In connection with the separation, Agilent will indemnify us directly for any liabilities related thereto. We cannot be sure that HP will continue to fulfill its remediation obligations or that Agilent will continue to fulfill its indemnification obligations.
In connection with the separation from Agilent, Agilent also agreed to indemnify us for any liability associated with contamination from past operations at all properties transferred from Agilent to Keysight. We cannot be sure that Agilent will fulfill its indemnification obligations.
Our current manufacturing processes involve the use of substances regulated under various international, federal, state and local laws governing the environment. As a result, we may become subject to liabilities for environmental contamination, and these liabilities may be substantial. Although our policy is to apply strict standards for environmental protection at our sites inside and outside the United States, even if the sites outside the United States are not subject to regulations imposed by foreign governments, we may not be aware of all conditions that could subject us to liability.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
Our share price may fluctuate significantly.
Our common stock is listed on NYSE under the ticker symbol “KEYS.” The market price of our common stock may fluctuate widely, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including but not limited to:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results due to factors related to our business;
success or failure of our business strategy;
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;
our ability to obtain third-party financing as needed;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions or dispositions;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock;
changes in earnings estimates by securities analysts or our ability to meet those estimates;
the operating and share price performance of other comparable companies;
investor perception of our company;
natural or other disasters that investors believe may affect us;

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overall market fluctuations;
results from any material litigation or government investigations;
changes in laws or regulations affecting our business; and
general economic conditions and other external factors.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
In addition, when the market price of a company’s shares drops significantly, shareholders often institute securities class action lawsuits against the company. A lawsuit against us could cause us to incur substantial costs and could divert the time and attention of management and other resources.
We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock.
We do not currently pay dividends on our common stock. The payment of any dividends in the future, and the timing and amount thereof, to our stockholders fall within the discretion of our board of directors. The board's decisions regarding the payment of dividends will depend on many factors, such as our financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, debt service obligations, restrictive covenants in our debt, industry practice, legal requirements, regulatory constraints and other factors that the board deems relevant. We cannot guarantee that we will pay a dividend in the future or continue to pay any dividends if we commence paying dividends.
Certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and of Delaware law, may prevent or delay an acquisition of the company, which could decrease the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain, and Delaware law contains, provisions that are intended to deter coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids by making such practices or bids unacceptably expensive to the bidder and to encourage prospective acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors rather than to attempt a hostile takeover. These provisions include but are not limited to:
the inability of our shareholders to call a special meeting;
the inability of our shareholders to act without a meeting of shareholders;
rules regarding how shareholders may present proposals or nominate directors for election at shareholder meetings;
the right of our board to issue preferred stock without shareholder approval;
the division of our board of directors into three classes of directors, with each class serving a staggered three-year term, and this classified board provision could have the effect of making the replacement of incumbent directors more time consuming and difficult;
a provision that shareholders may only remove directors with cause;
the ability of our directors, and not shareholders, to fill vacancies on our board of directors; and
the requirement that the affirmative vote of shareholders holding at least 80 percent of our voting stock is required to amend certain provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation (relating to the number, term and removal of our directors, the filling of our board vacancies, the advance notice to be given for nominations for elections of directors, the calling of special meetings of shareholders, shareholder action by written consent, the ability of the board of directors to amend the bylaws, elimination of liability of directors to the extent permitted by Delaware law, exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders and amendments of the certificate of incorporation) and certain provisions in our amended and restated bylaws (relating to the calling of special meetings of shareholders, the business that may be conducted or considered at annual or special meetings, the advance notice of shareholder business and nominations, shareholder action by written consent, the number, tenure, qualifications and removal of our directors, the filling of our board vacancies, director and officer indemnification and amendments of the bylaws).
In addition, because we have not chosen to be exempt from Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "DGCL"), this provision could also delay or prevent a change of control that some shareholders may favor. Section 203 provides that, subject to limited exceptions, persons that acquire, or are affiliated with a person that acquires, more than 15 percent of the outstanding voting stock of a Delaware corporation (an "interested stockholder") shall not engage in any business combination

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with that corporation, including by merger, consolidation or acquisitions of additional shares, for a three-year period following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder, unless (i) prior to such time, the board of directors of such corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder; (ii) upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85 percent of the voting stock of such corporation at the time the transaction commenced (excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) the voting stock owned by directors who are also officers or held in employee benefit plans in which the employees do not have a confidential right to tender or vote stock held by the plan); or (iii) on or subsequent to such time the business combination is approved by the board of directors of such corporation and authorized at a meeting of shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock of such corporation not owned by the interested stockholder.
We believe these provisions will protect our shareholders from coercive or otherwise unfair takeover tactics by requiring potential acquirers to negotiate with our board of directors and by providing our board of directors with more time to assess any acquisition proposal. These provisions are not intended to make us immune from takeovers. However, these provisions will apply even if the offer may be considered beneficial by some shareholders and could delay or prevent an acquisition that our board of directors determines is not in the best interests of the company and our shareholders. These provisions may also prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates that the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could discourage lawsuits against the company and our directors and officers.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provide that unless the board of directors otherwise determines, the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, will be the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors or officers to the company or our shareholders, any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or Keysight's amended and restated certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors or officers governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This exclusive forum provision may limit the ability of our shareholders to bring a claim in a judicial forum that such shareholders find favorable for disputes with us or our directors or officers, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors and officers.
Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our executive offices are located in the United States in an owned facility in Santa Rosa, California. We own or lease a total of approximately 134 operating facilities located throughout the world that handle manufacturing production, research and development, administration, assembly, sales, quality, assurance testing, distribution and packaging of our products. These facilities are primarily located in the following countries: United States, Malaysia, Japan, China, Germany, India, United Kingdom, Taiwan, Romania, Spain and Singapore. As of October 31, 2019, we own or lease approximately 6.2 million square feet of space worldwide, of which we own approximately 4.1 million square feet and lease 2.1 million square feet. Our sales facilities occupy a total of approximately 0.3 million square feet. Our manufacturing plants, R&D facilities and warehouse and administrative facilities occupy approximately 5.9 million square feet. All of these facilities are well maintained and suitable for the operations conducted in them.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are involved in lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, including, but not limited to, patent, commercial and environmental matters, which arise in the ordinary course of business. There are no matters pending that we currently believe are reasonably possible of having a material impact to our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") with the ticker symbol "KEYS.’’
There were 19,924 shareholders of record of Keysight common stock as of December 16, 2019.
We have not paid any dividends, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. All decisions regarding the declaration and payment of dividends and stock repurchases are at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be evaluated regularly in light of our financial condition, earnings, growth prospects, funding requirements, applicable law, and any other factors that our Board deems relevant.
The information required by this item with respect to equity compensation plans will be included under the caption Equity Compensation Plans in our proxy statement for the 2020 annual meeting of stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A, and is incorporated herein by reference.
ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

The table below summarizes information about the company’s purchases, based on trade date; of its equity securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the quarterly period ended October 31, 2019. The total number of shares of common stock purchased by the company during the fiscal year ended October 31, 2019 is 2,093,570 shares.
 Period
 
Total Number of Shares of Common Stock Purchased (1)
 
Weighted Average Price Paid per Share of Common Stock (2)
 
Total Number of Shares of Common Stock Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
 
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares of Common Stock that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
August 1, 2019 through August 31, 2019
 
51,900

 
$95.67
 
51,900

 
$
435,049,814

September 1, 2019 through September 30, 2019
 
151,000

 
$98.83
 
151,000

 
$
420,126,205

October 1, 2019 through October 31, 2019
 
100,250

 
$98.79
 
100,250

 
$
410,222,249

Total
 
303,150

 
 
 
303,150

 
 
(1)
On May 29, 2019, the Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program authorizing the purchase of up to $500 million of the company’s common stock, replacing a previously approved 2018 program authorizing the purchase of up to $350 million of the company’s common stock, of which $160 million remained. Under the new program, shares may be purchased from time to time, subject to general business and market conditions and other investment opportunities, through open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions or other means. All such shares and related costs are held as treasury stock and accounted for at trade date using the cost method.
(2)
The weighted average price paid per share of common stock does not include the cost of commissions.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data (Unaudited)
The following table presents the selected consolidated financial data, which should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We derived the selected financial data as of October 31, 2019 and for each of the fiscal years in the three-year period ended October 31, 2019 from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. We derived the selected financial data as of October 31, 2016 and October 31, 2015 from audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this Form 10-K.
 
Years Ended October 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in millions, except per share data)
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data:(a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
$
4,303

 
$
3,878

 
$
3,189

 
$
2,918

 
$
2,856

Income (loss) before taxes
$
715

 
$
(411
)
 
$
179

 
$
366

 
$
388

Net income
$
621

 
$
165

 
$
102

 
$
335

 
$
513

Net income per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
3.31

 
$
0.88

 
$
0.57

 
$
1.97

 
$
3.04

Diluted
$
3.25

 
$
0.86

 
$
0.56

 
$
1.95

 
$
3.00

Weighted average shares used in computing net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
188

 
187

 
180

 
170

 
169

Diluted
191

 
191

 
182

 
172

 
171

(a) Fiscal years 2019, 2018 and 2017 financial data includes our acquisition of Ixia on April 18, 2017.
 
October 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in millions)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:(a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,598

 
$
913

 
$
818

 
$
783

 
$
483

Working capital
$
2,212

 
$
916

 
$
1,358

 
$
1,210

 
$
893

Total assets
$
6,623

 
$
5,824

 
$
5,933

 
$
3,796

 
$
3,501

Long-term debt
$
1,788

 
$
1,291

 
$
2,038

 
$
1,093

 
$
1,092

Stockholders' equity
$
3,004

 
$
2,433

 
$
2,310

 
$
1,513

 
$
1,302

(a) Fiscal years 2019, 2018 and 2017 financial data reflect the impact of our acquisition of Ixia on April 18, 2017.

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This report contains forward-looking statements including, without limitation, statements regarding trends, seasonality, cyclicality and growth in, and drivers of, the markets we sell into, our strategic direction, our future effective tax rate and tax valuation allowance, earnings from our foreign subsidiaries, remediation activities, new solution and service introductions, the ability of our solutions to meet market needs, changes to our manufacturing processes, the use of contract manufacturers, the impact of local government regulations on our ability to pay vendors or conduct operations, our liquidity position, our ability to generate cash from operations, growth in our businesses, our investments, the potential impact of adopting new accounting pronouncements, our financial results, our purchase commitments, our contributions to our pension plans, the selection of discount rates and recognition of any gains or losses for our benefit plans, our cost-control activities, savings and headcount reduction recognized from our restructuring programs and other cost saving initiatives, and other regulatory approvals, the integration of our completed acquisitions and other transactions, our transition to lower-cost regions, the existence of political or economic instability, and our and the combined group's estimated or anticipated future results of operations, that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from the results contemplated by these forward-looking statements due to various factors, including but not limited to those risks and uncertainties discussed in Part II Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview and Executive Summary
Keysight Technologies, Inc. ("we," "us," "Keysight" or the "company"), incorporated in Delaware on December 6, 2013, is a technology company that helps enterprises, service providers and governments accelerate innovation to connect and secure the world by providing electronic design and test solutions that are used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacture, installation, optimization and secure operation of electronics systems in the communications, networking and electronics industries. We also offer customization, consulting and optimization services throughout the customer's product lifecycle, including start-up assistance, asset management, up-time services, application services and instrument calibration and repair.
In 2019 we completed an organizational change to align our services business with our customer-solutions-oriented, go-to-market strategy as reflected by our Keysight Leadership Model ("KLM"). This change enables us to provide our customers with complete solutions that incorporate both leading product capabilities and the appropriate services and support. Our services delivery is now fully reflected within the markets served, which is a further catalyst of the growth of our services solutions portfolio. Prior period segment results were revised to conform to the presentation. As a result, Keysight has three segments: Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Ixia Solutions Group. The organizational structure continues to include centralized enterprise functions that provide support across the groups.
To more effectively and efficiently address customer solution needs across the communications ecosystem as the network transforms, in the first quarter of fiscal 2020, we completed an organizational change to manage our Ixia Solutions Group within our Communications Solutions Group. We believe this realignment will create improved go-to-market and product development alignment, as well as accelerate solution synergies in 5G as this new technology is deployed globally. As a result, beginning with our first quarter of fiscal 2020, we will have two reportable operating segments, Communications Solutions Group (“CSG”) and Electronic Industrial Solutions Group (“EISG”).
Years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017
Total orders for the year ended October 31, 2019 were $4,441 million, an increase of 9 percent when compared to 2018. Foreign currency movements had an unfavorable impact of 1 percentage point on the year-over-year comparison. Orders associated with acquisitions and divestitures had a net neutral impact on the order growth for the year ended October 31, 2019 when compared to 2018. Order growth in Asia Pacific and the Americas was partially offset by a decline in Europe. Total orders for the year ended October 31, 2018 were $4,082 million, an increase of 20 percent when compared to 2017. Foreign currency movements had a favorable impact of 1 percentage point on the year-over-year comparison. Orders associated with acquisitions accounted for 7 percentage points of order growth for the year ended October 31, 2018 when compared to 2017. Orders grew across all regions.
Net revenue of $4,303 million for the year ended October 31, 2019 increased 11 percent when compared to 2018. Foreign currency movements had an unfavorable impact of 1 percentage point on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions and divestitures had a net neutral impact on the revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2019 when compared to 2018. The Communications Solutions Group led overall revenue growth with strong growth in the commercial communications market, complemented by growth in the Ixia Solutions Group and the Electronic Industrial Solutions Group. Revenue from the Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Ixia Solutions Group represented approximately 63 percent, 26 percent and 11 percent respectively, of the total revenue for the year ended October 31, 2019. Net revenue of $3,878 million for the year ended October 31, 2018 increased 22 percent when compared to 2017. Foreign currency movements

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had a favorable impact of 2 percentage points on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 6 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2018 when compared to 2017. For the same period, revenue excluding acquisitions and foreign currency movements grew 14% year over year, with growth in all our operating segments and across all our markets. Revenue from the Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Ixia Solutions Group represented approximately 62 percent, 27 percent and 11 percent, respectively, of the total revenue for the year ended October 31, 2018 and approximately 65 percent, 29 percent and 6 percent, respectively, of the total revenue for the year ended October 31, 2017. Ixia Solutions Group revenue for 2017 included activity from the date of acquisition, April 18, 2017, through October 31, 2017.
Net income was $621 million in 2019 compared to net income of $165 million and $102 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively. The increase in net income for the year ended October 31, 2019 when compared to 2018 was driven by a significant non-recurring goodwill impairment charge in 2018, higher revenue volume, highly differentiated solutions, favorable mix, and lower acquisition and integration costs, partially offset by a favorable income tax benefit in the prior period from new U.S. tax legislation and higher research and development investments in leading-edge technologies and key growth opportunities in our end markets. The increase in net income for the year ended October 31, 2018 when compared to 2017 was driven by higher revenue volume and a favorable tax impact from the new U.S. tax legislation and Singapore tax incentives, partially offset by an unfavorable impact from a goodwill impairment charge and increases in variable people-related costs. In 2019, 2018 and 2017, we generated operating cash flows of $998 million, $555 million and $328 million, respectively.
Impact of Northern California Wildfires
During the week of October 8, 2017, wildfires in northern California adversely impacted the Keysight corporate headquarters site in Santa Rosa, CA. While direct damage to our core facilities was limited, our buildings did experience some smoke and other fire-related impacts. Keysight is insured for the damage caused by the fire.
In 2019, 2018 and 2017, we recognized operating expenses of $3 million, $97 million and $18 million, respectively, offset by income of $3 million, $90 million and $2 million, respectively, for expected insurance recoveries. Expenses were primarily for cleaning and restoration activities, write-off of damaged fixed assets and other direct costs related to recovery from this event.
In 2019 and 2018, we received insurance proceeds of $22 million and $68 million, respectively, which has substantially covered our total fire-related expenses in excess of our $10 million self-insured retention amount. At October 31, 2019, we had a receivable of $5 million for losses and expenses for which insurance reimbursement is probable. The receivable is included in other current assets in the consolidated balance sheet.
In addition, in 2019 and 2018, we made investments in property, plant and equipment related to fire recovery of $7 million and $27 million, respectively, that are expected to be covered by insurance.
Subsequent to October 31, 2019, we received $37 million of insurance proceeds primarily related to replacement of capital and recovery of fire-related expenses. These proceeds will result in an other operating gain of approximately $32 million in the first quarter of fiscal 2020. No additional insurance proceeds or material expenses related to the 2017 northern California wildfires are expected.
Outlook
Our strategy of bringing solutions to market that help customers develop new technologies and accelerate innovation provides a platform for long-term growth. We expect to continue to see our customers make R&D investments in certain next-generation technologies. We are still in the early market stages for these emerging technologies, such as 5G, next-generation automotive, internet of things ("IoT") and defense modernization and expect technology investments to continue. Internally, we are working to improve operational efficiency across all functions. We continue to closely monitor the current macro environment related to trade, tariffs, monetary and fiscal policies. We have complied and will continue to comply with recent U.S. Department of Commerce export control regulations regarding China. While short-term uncertainties exist, we remain confident in our strategy and believe we are well-positioned to capture future growth opportunities.

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Currency Exchange Rate Exposure
Our revenues, expenses, and monetary assets and liabilities are exposed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates as a result of our global operating and financing activities. We hedge revenues, expenses and balance sheet exposures that are not denominated in the functional currencies of our subsidiaries on a short-term and anticipated basis. The result of the hedging has been included in our consolidated statement of operations. We experience some fluctuations within individual lines of the consolidated balance sheet and consolidated statement of operations because our hedging program is not designed to offset the currency movements in each category of revenues, expenses, monetary assets and liabilities. Our hedging program is designed to hedge currency movements on a relatively short-term basis of up to twelve months in advance. Therefore, we are exposed to currency fluctuations over the longer term. To the extent that we are required to pay for all, or portions, of an acquisition price in foreign currencies, we may enter into foreign exchange contracts to reduce the risk that currency movements will impact the U.S. dollar cost of the transaction.
Results from Operations - Years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017
Net Revenue
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of the promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. Cancellations are recorded in the period received from the customer and historically have not been material.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Products
$
3,554

 
$
3,229

 
$
2,664

 
10%
 
21%
Services and other
749

 
649

 
525

 
15%
 
24%
Total net revenue
$
4,303

 
$
3,878

 
$
3,189

 
11%
 
22%
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
% of total net revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Products
83
%
 
83
%
 
84
%
 
 
(1) ppt
Services and other
17
%
 
17
%
 
16
%
 
 
1 ppt
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
 
 
 
The following table provides the percent change in revenue for the years ended October 31, 2019 and 2018 by geographic region, including and excluding the impact of foreign currency movements, as compared to the respective prior year.
 
Year over Year % Change
 
2019 over 2018
 
2018 over 2017
Geographic Region
actual
 
currency adjusted
 
actual
 
currency adjusted
Americas
12
 %
 
12
%
 
28
%
 
28
%
Europe
(2
)%
 
1
%
 
29
%
 
25
%
Asia Pacific
16
 %
 
17
%
 
13
%
 
12
%
Total revenue
11
 %
 
12
%
 
22
%
 
20
%
Net revenue for the year ended October 31, 2019 was $4,303 million, an increase of 11 percent when compared to 2018. Foreign currency movements had an unfavorable impact of 1 percentage point on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions and divestitures had a net neutral impact on revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2019 when compared to 2018. Currency had an unfavorable impact of 3 percentage points and 1 percentage point on revenue growth in Europe and Asia Pacific, respectively, for the year ended October 31, 2019.
Net revenue for the year ended October 31, 2018 was $3,878 million, an increase of 22 percent when compared to 2017. Foreign currency movements had a favorable impact of 2 percentage points on the year-over-year comparison. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 6 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2018 when compared to

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2017. Currency had a favorable impact of 4 percentage points and 1 percentage point on revenue growth in Europe and Asia Pacific, respectively, for the year ended October 31, 2018.
Backlog
Backlog represents the amount of revenue expected from orders that have already been booked, including orders for goods and services that have not been delivered to customers, orders invoiced but not yet recognized as revenue, and orders for goods that were shipped but not invoiced, awaiting acceptance by customers and/or completion of a commitment to a customer.
At October 31, 2019, our unfilled backlog was approximately $1,380 million as compared to approximately $1,311 million at October 31, 2018. Our unfilled backlog as of October 31, 2019 reflects the impact of the deferred revenue adjustment related to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2014-09, Revenue From Contracts With Customers ("ASC 606"). See Note 2, "New Accounting Pronouncements," for additional information. Consistent with our strategy, we are seeing an increase in solution sales, which have a longer order-to-revenue conversion cycle; however, we expect that the majority of unfilled backlog will be recognized as revenue within six months. While backlog on any particular date can be an indicator of short-term revenue performance, it is not necessarily a reliable indicator of medium or long-term revenue performance.
Costs and Expenses
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018
% Change
 
2018 over 2017
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
Gross margin on products
59.5
%
 
55.1
 %
 
54.6
%
 
4 ppts
 
Gross margin on services and other
56.0
%
 
51.1
 %
 
46.3
%
 
5 ppts
 
5 ppts
Total gross margin
58.9
%
 
54.4
 %
 
53.2
%
 
5 ppts
 
1 ppt
Operating margin
16.5
%
 
(10.2
)%
 
4.6
%
 
27 ppts
 
(15) ppts
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
688

 
$
624

 
$
507

 
10%
 
23%
Selling, general and administrative
$
1,155

 
$
1,205

 
$
1,058

 
(4)%
 
14%
Goodwill impairment
$

 
$
709

 
$

 
 
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(20
)
 
$
(33
)
 
$
(16
)
 
(40)%
 
105%
Gross margin increased 5 percentage points in 2019 compared to 2018, primarily driven by higher revenue volume, highly differentiated solutions, favorable mix and a decline in warranty costs. Gross margin increased 1 percentage point in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily driven by gains related to revenue volume and favorable mix, partially offset by increases in variable people-related costs and amortization of acquisition-related balances.
Excess and obsolete inventory charges were $27 million in 2019, $25 million in 2018 and $16 million in 2017. Sales of previously written-down inventory were $2 million in 2019, $2 million in 2018 and $1 million in 2017.
Research and development expense increased 10 percent in 2019 compared to 2018, primarily driven by greater investment in key growth opportunities in our end markets, leading-edge technologies, people and infrastructure. Research and development expense increased 23 percent in 2018 compared to 2017, primarily driven by the addition of acquired companies to our cost structure, an increase in variable people-related costs and our continued investment in research and development programs, partially offset by non-recurring acquisition-related compensation expense in 2017. Research and development expenses as a percent of total revenue were 16 percent in each of the three years 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased 4 percent in 2019 compared to 2018, primarily driven by a decline in litigation and restructuring costs and acquisition and integration costs, partially offset by an increase in people- related costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 14 percent for 2018 compared to 2017, primarily driven by the addition of acquired companies to our cost structure and increases in variable people-related, litigation and restructuring costs, partially offset by the elimination of non-recurring acquisition-related compensation expense, separation and related costs, acquisition and integration costs and the unfavorable impact from northern California wildfire-related costs.
In 2018 we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $709 million for the Ixia Solutions Group based on the results of our annual impairment test of goodwill. See Note 11, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets," to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.

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Other operating expense (income), net primarily includes property rental income and was income of $20 million, $33 million and $16 million for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Other operating expense (income), net for 2018 also includes income from business divestitures.
Operating margin increased 27 percentage points in 2019 when compared to 2018, primarily driven by a non-recurring goodwill impairment charge in 2018, higher revenue volume, highly differentiated solutions, favorable mix, lower acquisition and integration costs, and lower litigation and restructuring-related costs, partially offset by an increase in people-related costs. Operating margin decreased 15 percentage points in 2018 when compared to 2017, primarily driven by goodwill impairment and an increase in variable people-related costs, partially offset by gains related to revenue volume and favorable mix.
Our headcount was approximately 13,600 at October 31, 2019 compared to 12,900 at October 31, 2018.
Interest Income and Expense
Interest income for the years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was $23 million, $12 million and $7 million, respectively, and primarily relates to interest earned on our cash balances. Interest expense for the years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was $80 million, $83 million and $80 million, respectively, and primarily relates to interest on our senior notes.
Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense), net for the years ended October 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was income of $61 million, $54 million and $104 million, respectively, and primarily includes income related to our defined benefit and post-retirement benefit plans (interest cost, expected return on assets and amortization of net actuarial loss and prior service credits) and the change in fair value of our equity investments. Other income for 2017 also includes a $68 million gain from a settlement related to our Japan pension fund.
Income Taxes
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
(in millions)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
$
94

 
$
(576
)
 
$
77

For 2019, the effective tax rate was 13 percent, which is lower than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to a higher percentage of earnings in the non-U.S. jurisdictions taxed at lower statutory tax rates.
For 2018, the effective tax rate was 140 percent, which is higher than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to the net impact of U.S. tax law changes, the Singapore restructuring and tax incentive modifications completed in 2018 in response to Singapore tax law changes, and the tax impact of goodwill impairment.
For 2017, the effective tax rate was 43 percent, which is higher than the U.S. statutory rate primarily due to the payment of a prior year Malaysia tax assessment of $68 million, including tax and penalties, which we are currently in the process of appealing to the Special Commissioners of Income Tax (“SCIT”) in Malaysia.
We benefit from tax incentives in several different jurisdictions, most significantly in Singapore, that have granted tax incentives that require renewal at various times in the future. The tax incentives provide lower rates of taxation on certain classes of income and require various thresholds of investment and employment or specific types of income in those jurisdictions. The tax incentives are due for renewal between 2024 and 2025. The impact of the tax incentives decreased income taxes by $47 million, $567 million and $49 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease in the tax benefit from 2018 to 2019 is primarily due to the one-time impacts of the Singapore restructuring and tax incentive modifications that were completed in 2018 in response to Singapore tax law changes.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves uncertainties in the application of complex tax law and regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions. Although the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes the use of a recognition and measurement model, the determination of whether an uncertain tax position has met those thresholds will continue to require significant judgment by management. In accordance with the guidance on the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, for all U.S. and other tax jurisdictions, we recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes and interest will be due. The ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties may differ from what is currently estimated, which could result in a material impact on income tax expense. If our estimate of income tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would be required. If the payment of these additional

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amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. We include interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits within the provision for income taxes in the consolidated statements of operations. Accrued interest and penalties are included on the related tax liability line in the consolidated balance sheet.
The open tax years for the IRS and most states are from November 1, 2015 through the current tax year. For the majority of our foreign entities, the open tax years are from November 1, 2014 through the current tax year. For certain foreign entities, the tax years remain open, at most, back to 2008. Given the number of years and numerous matters that remain subject to examination in various tax jurisdictions, we are unable to estimate the range of possible changes to the balance of our unrecognized tax benefits.
The company is being audited in Malaysia for the 2008 tax year. Although this tax year pre-dates our separation from Agilent, pursuant to the agreement between Agilent and Keysight pertaining to tax matters, as finalized at the time of separation, for certain entities, including Malaysia, any historical tax liability is the responsibility of Keysight. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, Keysight paid income taxes and penalties of $68 million on gains related to intellectual property rights, although we are currently in the process of appealing to the SCIT in Malaysia. The company believes there are numerous defenses to the current assessment; the statute of limitations for the 2008 tax year in Malaysia was closed, and the income in question is exempt from tax in Malaysia. The company is disputing this assessment and pursuing all avenues to resolve this issue favorably for the company.
Segment Overview
In 2019 we completed an organizational change to align our services business with our customer-solutions-oriented, go-to-market strategy as reflected by our Keysight Leadership Model ("KLM"). This change was made to fully reflect our services delivery within the markets served and further enable the growth of our services solutions portfolio. Prior period segment results were revised to conform to the presentation. As a result, Keysight has three segments: Communications Solutions Group, Electronic Industrial Solutions Group and Ixia Solutions Group. The organizational structure continues to include centralized enterprise functions that provide support across the groups. The Communications Solutions Group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, systems, services and solutions that span both the global commercial communications and aerospace, defense and government end markets. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, systems, services and solutions across a broad range of electronic industrial end markets, which include automotive and energy, semiconductor, general electronics and education markets. The Ixia Solutions Group provides network testing, visibility and security solutions, strengthening applications across physical and virtual networks for enterprises, service providers, network equipment manufacturers and governments.
The profitability of each of the segments is measured after excluding share-based compensation expense, restructuring and related costs, amortization of acquisition-related balances, acquisition and integration costs, acquisition-related compensation expense, separation and related costs, pension curtailment and settlement loss (gain), northern California wildfire-related costs, goodwill impairment, legal settlement, gain on divestitures, interest income, interest expense and other items.
Communications Solutions Group
The Communications Solutions Group serves customers spanning the worldwide commercial communications and aerospace, defense and government end markets. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments, systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment.
Net Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Total net revenue
$
2,688

 
$
2,392

 
$
2,064

 
12%
 
16%
The Communications Solutions Group's revenue in 2019 increased 12 percent when compared to 2018, primarily driven by strong growth in the commercial communications market, while the aerospace, defense and government market was flat. Revenue growth in the Asia Pacific and the Americas was partially offset by a decline in Europe. The Communications Solutions Group's revenue in 2018 increased 16 percent when compared to 2017, primarily driven by strong growth in the commercial communications and the aerospace, defense and government markets. Revenue grew across all geographies and all markets.
Revenue from the commercial communications market represented approximately 64 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2019 and increased 21 percent year over year, with growth across all geographies. This revenue growth was primarily driven by increased 5G investment across the wireless ecosystem and growth in data-center-related next-generation 400 gigabit Ethernet and higher digital test. Revenue from the commercial communications market represented approximately 59

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percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2018 and increased 17 percent compared to 2017, growing across all geographies. In 2018 the revenue growth was primarily driven by growth in our 5G-related solutions across the wireless ecosystem, with strong demand for network access applications and steady investments in the network and data center markets.
Revenue from the aerospace, defense and government market represented approximately 36 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2019 and was flat when compared to 2018. In 2019 revenue grew in the Americas and Asia Pacific, partially offset by a decline in Europe. Revenue from the aerospace, defense and government market represented approximately 41 percent of total Communications Solutions Group revenue in 2018 and increased 15 percent compared to 2017, growing across all geographies. The growth was primarily driven by higher global defense spending and overall improvement in the global economy.
Gross Margin and Operating Margin
The following table provides Communications Solutions Group margins, expenses and income from operations for 2019 versus 2018, and 2018 versus 2017.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
Total gross margin
62.6
%
 
58.5
%
 
58.1
%
 
4 ppts
 
Operating margin
26.6
%
 
19.8
%
 
16.8
%
 
7 ppts
 
3 ppts
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
385

 
$
345

 
$
310

 
12%
 
11%
Selling, general and administrative
$
592

 
$
590

 
$
551

 
 
7%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(9
)
 
$
(9
)
 
$
(9
)
 
(3)%
 
5%
Income from operations
$
714

 
$
474

 
$
347

 
51%
 
36%
Gross margin for the Communications Solutions Group in 2019 increased 4 percentage points compared to 2018, primarily driven by higher revenue volume, highly differentiated solutions, favorable mix, and lower warranty costs. Gross margin for the Communications Solutions Group in 2018 was flat compared to 2017, as gains from higher revenue volume were offset by an increase in people-related costs.
Research and development expense in 2019 and 2018 increased 12 percent and 11 percent, respectively when compared to 2018 and 2017, primarily driven by greater investment in key growth opportunities in our end markets, leading-edge technologies, people and infrastructure.
Selling, general and administrative expense in 2019 was flat when compared to 2018, as higher marketing-related investments were offset by declines in selling costs and infrastructure-related costs. Selling, general and administrative expense in 2018 increased 7 percent when compared to 2017, primarily driven by higher infrastructure-related costs, variable people-related costs and investment in sales resources.
Other operating expense (income), net primarily includes property rental income and was income of $9 million in 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Income from Operations
Income from operations for 2019 increased $240 million on corresponding revenue growth of $296 million. Income from operations for 2018 increased $127 million on corresponding revenue growth of $328 million.
Operating margin in 2019 increased 7 percentage points when compared to 2018 driven by higher revenue volume, highly differentiated solutions and favorable mix, while selling, general and administrative expense was flat. Operating margin in 2018 increased 3 percentage points when compared to 2017 as gains from revenue growth were partially offset by increases in variable people-related costs, infrastructure-related costs and investments in sales resources.
Electronic Industrial Solutions Group
The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group provides test and measurement solutions and related services across a broad set of electronic industrial end markets, focusing on high-value applications in the automotive and energy industry and measurement solutions for consumer electronics, education, general electronics design and manufacturing, and semiconductor design and manufacturing. The group provides electronic design and test software, instruments and systems and related services used in the simulation, design, validation, manufacturing, installation and optimization of electronic equipment.

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Net Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
Total net revenue
$
1,135

 
$
1,071

 
$
929

 
6%
 
15%
The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group's revenue in 2019 increased 6 percent when compared to 2018, driven by strong growth in general electronics solutions and automotive and energy, while semiconductor measurement solutions remained flat when compared to 2018. Revenue grew across all regions. The Electronic Industrial Solutions Group's revenue in 2018 increased 15 percent when compared to 2017, driven by strong growth in general electronics, automotive and energy and semiconductor solutions. Revenue associated with acquisitions accounted for 3 percentage points of revenue growth for the year ended October 31, 2018 when compared to 2017. Revenue grew across all regions.
Gross Margin and Operating Margin
The following table provides Electronic Industrial Solutions Group margins, expenses and income from operations for 2019 versus 2018, and 2018 versus 2017.
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
2019 over 2018 % Change
 
2018 over 2017 % Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
Total gross margin
61.1
%
 
58.9
%
 
59.0
%
 
2 ppts
 
Operating margin
25.9
%
 
22.9
%
 
22.5
%
 
3 ppts
 
(in millions)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
$
159

 
$
145

 
$
123

 
10%
 
17%
Selling, general and administrative
$
244

 
$
245

 
$
219

 
 
11%
Other operating expense (income), net
$
(4
)
 
$
(4
)
 
$
(4
)
 
(11)%
 
5%
Income from operations
$
294

 
$
245