ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission file number 001-39248
The Oncology Institute, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
18000 Studebaker Rd, Suite 800
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants to purchase common stock
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of $5.06 per shares of the Registrant’s common stock as reported by the Nasdaq Capital Market as of June 30, 2022, was approximately $125.7 million.
The registrant had outstanding 74,551,556 shares of common stock as of March 6, 2023.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this Form 10-K incorporates by reference information from the registrant’s proxy statement for the annual meeting of stockholders expected to be held on June 15, 2023.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including "Business” in Item 1, “Risk Factors” in Item 1A, and "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7, and the documents incorporated by reference herein, The Oncology Institute, Inc. ("TOI", "we", or "our") make forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements relate to expectations for future financial performance, business strategies or expectations for our business. These statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words "may," "might," "will," "will likely result," "should," "estimate," "plan," "project," "forecast," "intend," "expect," "anticipate," "believe," "seek," "continue," "target" or similar expressions.
These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date they were made, and involve a number of risks and uncertainties which may cause them to turn out to be wrong. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws. As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward- looking statements. Some factors that could cause actual results to differ include:
•expectations and assumptions about growth rate and market opportunity of TOI;
•our public securities’ potential liquidity and trading;
•our ability to raise financing in the future;
•our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;
•the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment;
•factors relating to the business, operations and financial performance of TOI, including:
◦the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;
◦the ability of TOI to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;
◦the ability of TOI to grow market share in its existing markets or any new markets it may enter;
◦the ability of TOI to respond to general economic conditions;
◦the ability of TOI to manage its growth effectively;
◦the ability of TOI to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;
◦the ability of TOI to attract new patients;
◦continued reimbursement from third-party payors; and
◦other factors detailed under the section titled “Risk Factors” within this 10-K.
Item 1. Business
The Oncology Institute, Inc. ("TOI", the "Company", "we", or "our) is a leading value-based oncology company that manages community-based oncology practices that serve patients at 76 clinic locations across 15 markets and five states throughout the United States. Our community-based oncology practices are staffed with 112 oncologists and advanced practice providers. 62 of these clinics are staffed with 101 providers employed by our affiliated physician-owned professional corporations, referred to as the "TOI PCs", which provided care for more than 64,000 patients in 2022 and managed a population of approximately 1.7 million patients under value-based agreements as of December 31, 2022. We also provide management services to 14 clinic locations owned by independent oncology practices. Our mission is to heal and empower cancer patients through compassion, innovation, and state-of-the-art medical care.
Our managed clinics provide a range of medical oncology services, including physician services, in-house infusion and dispensary, clinical trial services, radiation, innovative programs like outpatient blood product transfusions, along with 24/7 patient support. Through TOI Clinical Research, LLC ("TCR"), the clinical research arm of the TOI PCs, we also provide and manage clinical trial services and research for the benefit of cancer patients. Many of our services, such as managing clinical trials and palliative care programs, are traditionally accessed through academic and tertiary care settings, while the TOI PCs bring these services to patients in a community setting. As scientific research progresses and more treatment options become available, cancer care is shifting from acute care episodes to chronic disease management. With this shift, it is increasingly important for high-quality, high-value cancer care to be available in a local community setting to all patients in need.
As a value-based oncology company, we seek to deliver better quality care while managing costs for patients and payors that we serve. We define value-based care as care that focuses on providing optimal health outcomes and healthcare affordability and a value-based contract as any contract that removes the incentive to drive up cost of care or overutilization, while rewarding better clinical outcomes, cost and quality. We work to accomplish this goal by reducing wasteful, inefficient or futile care that drives up costs but does not improve outcomes. We believe payors and employers are aligned with the value-based model due to its enhanced access, improved outcomes, and lower costs. Patients under our affiliated providers’ care can benefit from evidence-based and personalized care plans, gain access to sub-specialized care in convenient community locations, and lower out-of-pocket costs. We believe our affiliated providers enjoy the stability and predictability of a large multi-state practice, are not incentivized or pressured to over-treat when it may be inconsistent with a patient’s goals of care and can focus on practicing outstanding evidence-based oncology care.
In contrast to value-based care, we believe much of traditional fee-for-service, or FFS, oncology care is plagued by misaligned incentives that drive up costs and often lower the quality of care. In FFS care, oncologists are reimbursed on a “cost-plus” basis for drugs which in turn are often responsible for the majority of a practice’s revenue. This "cost-plus" model may incentivize oncologists to prescribe the most expensive treatments even if lower cost alternatives that are still medically appropriate are available, as well as to continue to utilize chemotherapy in advanced cancer patients who may no longer benefit from such treatment. In these cases, patients and payors not only bear the burden of higher cost of care, but patients may also suffer negative health outcomes including higher rates of emergency room visits and hospitalizations for supportive care needs due to the side effects associated with chemotherapy.
In 2022, we generated more than 50% of our revenue from patients who are covered by value-based contracts. Historically, our value-based contracts have predominately taken the form of capitated contracts. Our capitated contracts remove incentives to drive up costs, and they also have incentives for meeting or exceeding certain quality metrics. In some capitated contracts we are penalized if we fail to meet certain quality metrics. In other capitated contracts, we receive bonuses/rewards if we meet or exceed certain quality metrics. Our value-based contracts could also take on other forms, such as sharing with payors in the cost savings generated for specific medical oncology costs (which we refer to as 'gain-sharing' contract), along with incentives to meet certain quality metrics. These contracts, despite their modifications on how reimbursement is structured, still meet the definition of value-based care. We and our affiliated providers have contractual relationships with payors serving a variety of patients, including Medicare Advantage ("MA"), Medicaid, and commercial patients. These payors include affiliates of Anthem, CareMore Health, Heritage Provider Network and Optum Care.
In 2023, we are continuing to evolve the way we structure our value-based arrangements, particularly in areas of the country where there are limits on medical group delegation, or an increased desire from groups to incentivize TOI for cost of care that extends beyond medical oncology and includes elements such as management of acute care utilization and/or management of non-employed oncologists. We believe that these new contracting methodologies are furthering our mission to provide access to world-class oncology care in an affordable manner to underserved populations.
We believe that our position in the market and focus on elevating the state of oncology care with a value-based care model positions our affiliated providers well for future growth. Our technology platform supports this growth and enables the TOI PCs to standardize and deliver consistent value-based care at scale. We believe that our model will support growth into new markets, allow us to continue service more patients across the United States.
Our website is www.theoncologyinstitute.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this annual report.
Affiliated Physician Practices
Some states have laws that prohibit business entities with non-physician owners from practicing medicine, which are generally referred to as the corporate practice of medicine. States that have corporate practice of medicine laws require only physicians to practice medicine, exercise control over medical decisions or engage in certain arrangements with other physicians, such as fee-splitting. For example, under California's corporate practice of medicine doctrine, physicians and certain licensed professionals cannot be employed by non-professional corporations, except under limited exceptions which do not apply to us. Additionally, all clinical decisions and certain business or management decisions that result in control over a physician's practice of medicine must be made by a licensed physician and not by an unlicensed person or entity. California also prohibits professional fee-splitting arrangements, but management fees based on a percentage of gross revenue or similar arrangement that is commensurate with fair market value of services provided by the management company are generally permissible.
We have entered into a management services agreement with each of the TOI PCs, which are entirely physician owned. Under our management services agreements, we have agreed to serve, on an exclusive basis, as manager and administrator of each TOI PC’s non-medical functions and services related to healthcare services and items provided to patients by physicians and other licensed healthcare providers employed by or under contract with a TOI PC. The non-medical functions and services
we provide under the management services agreements include practice management services and non-clinical operational assistance for all TOI PC clinic locations, assistance with provider and payor contract negotiations and administration, billing and collection services, financial and accounting services, electronic medical records and practice management technology solutions, assistance in maintaining licensure, permits and other credentialing requirements for the TOI PCs, risk management services, non-clinical personnel services, provider recruitment services and other administrative services required for the day-to-day operations of the clinics and TOI PCs. Our management services agreements with the TOI PCs have 20-year terms, unless terminated upon mutual agreement of the parties or unilaterally by a party following a material breach or commencement of bankruptcy or liquidation events by the other party, or a governmental or judicial termination order against a party. Under the management services agreement, we receive a monthly management fee that is structured as direct reimbursement of all costs incurred plus a percentage of the TOI PC’s gross revenue, which is defined as the TOI PC’s total revenues payable for all healthcare services and items rendered by the TOI PC, adjusted for bad debt, discounts and payor contract adjustments. In accordance with relevant accounting guidance, each of the TOI PCs is determined to be a variable interest entity, or VIE, of the Company as the Company has the ability, through the management services agreement, to direct the activities (excluding clinical decisions) that most significantly affect the TOI PC’s economic performance.
Our business is focused on caring for adult and senior populations with medical oncology and related care needs, including members of MA plans run by private insurance companies on behalf of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, as well as traditional FFS Medicare, Medicaid, other government healthcare programs and commercial insurance populations. One of our primary focuses is on value-based contracts in which we manage the medical oncology care for a population of patients for a pre-determined, population-based capitated payment. Many of the patients that we manage under value-based arrangements are referred to as “capitated” populations, however our affiliated providers also provide care to patients outside of these arrangements under traditional FFS arrangements as well as other types of value-based contract.
As of December 31, 2022, we were active in 15 markets in five states. Across these states, there were approximately 81 million commercial, Medicaid, and MA lives. This population provides us with a substantial opportunity to capture a portion of those lives in both our legacy, existing markets, as well as in our new expansion geographies.
Our Care Model
Since our founding over 15 years ago, we have built a solid track record around our care model for value-based oncology care. Our care model is focused on delivering personalized, evidenced-based care, consistently, and at scale. We seek to deliver better patient outcomes for lower costs, and to care for more of our payors’ patient populations.
Our care model is designed to remove physicians’ incentives to over-prescribe or prescribe high-cost chemotherapy that is of limited clinical utility to patients. We invest in nurse practitioners to help with advanced care planning and palliative care discussions with patients. We give patients the education and tools to make their own decisions about when the right time is to choose palliative care or hospice.
While the TOI PCs treat patients under both value-based and FFS contracts, our affiliated providers’ approach to care focuses on achieving the best outcomes at the lowest cost, regardless of the reimbursement methodology. We have developed a High Value Cancer Care, or HVCC, program, in which patients are able to access targeted care resources that augment and support their treatment. Our treatment regimens are based on algorithms established by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (“NCCN”) and are evidence-based. NCCN is a not-for-profit alliance of 32 leading cancer centers devoted to patient care, research and education (not including TOI). NCCN focuses on improving cancer care through the input of clinical thought leaders at its member organizations. NCCN publishes guidelines developed from evidence- based medicine to ensure that all cancer patients receive preventative, diagnostic, treatment, and supportive services that are most likely to lead to optimal outcomes. The NCCN guidelines are widely recognized as the standard for clinical care in medical oncology, and the intent of the guidelines is to assist in clinical decision making. Our affiliated providers strive to ensure that clinical pathways in our electronic health records system, as well as recommendations on use of chemotherapy and supportive care medications are consistent with NCCN guidelines to ensure patients receive the best clinical care based on their individual disease and comorbidities. Moreover, the TOI PCs operate physician dispensaries that allow our affiliated providers to prescribe and dispense oral oncolytics and related medications to patients, alongside chemotherapy infusion and injections. This provides patients with holistic and convenient access to the most appropriate treatment pathways, all in a community setting. According to a study conducted by researchers at Stanford University on the TOI PCs’ patients in 2019 who were enrolled in our HVCC program, we saw improvements in several key metrics, including:
Overall, the study demonstrated greater than 25% lower median total healthcare costs from diagnosis to death. We are continuously improving and innovating our care model, using the clinical data from the HVCC program to develop evidence-based care and treatment protocols for all patients.
Our Value Proposition and Differentiated Care Model
Our managed clinics primarily serve adult and senior cancer patients in markets that have MA plans and primary care medical groups reimbursed on a capitated basis. Our affiliated providers provide these services primarily through employed providers who are responsible for patient care. We intend to leverage our long-established, strong relationships with payors to continue to build out our network and increase access to cancer patients in adjacent markets, while at the same time, decreasing oncology care costs for both patients and payors. Through the TOI PCs, we seek to provide high quality and lower cost care delivery through the following capabilities:
•recruiting process focused on selecting physicians that want to practice evidence-based medicine;
•technology-enabled care pathways ensuring adherence to evidence-based clinical protocols;
•strong clinical culture and physician oversight;
•care management to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations;
•care delivered in community clinics vs. hospital setting;
•clinically appropriate integration of palliative care and hospice aligned with patients’ goals of care;
•access to clinical trials providing cutting-edge treatment options at low or no cost to patients or payors; and
•appropriate provider training on clinical documentation to ensure proper risk adjustment and reimbursement for complex patients.
We strive to add value by consistently performing these activities effectively. The goal is a lower cost of care for the same or better clinical outcomes while providing a superior patient experience.
We believe our patient-centric focus facilitates high levels of patient satisfaction and supports our care delivery model while strengthening payor relationships. We employ a continuous feedback mechanism to ensure superior patient experience and satisfaction among our affiliated physicians and advanced practice providers.
As of a recent patient survey in 2022, 88% of our oncologists and 90% of our locations were rated 4.0 or above as measured by our survey, which we distribute to patients via text or e-mail following their clinic visit.
Growth Strategy and Opportunities
To date, revenue has grown at a roughly 30% CAGR from 2016 to 2022, driven by robust growth in capitated lives under value-based contracts.
Our footprint as of December 31, 2022 spanned five states and is growing rapidly.
Managed and Affiliated Clinics(1)
(1) 62 clinics operated under the TOI PCs, whereby we receive a percentage of revenues under our MSAs and are consolidated; and 14 independent oncology practice locations that are under MSAs for limited management and administrative services but do not bear any direct operating costs.
We anticipate adding more TOI PC clinics and other managed practices in the future across our markets through acquisitions and through de novo clinic builds, and we are in constant discussion with payors and providers to enter new markets. We continually seek to evaluate our growth strategy and may continue to modify it in the future, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully capitalize on growth strategies.
Our go-to-market strategy focuses on both payors and providers. This blend is important given the increasing penetration of non-traditional payors, such as Oscar and Bright HealthCare, and primary care risk models such as Agilon health and ChenMed LLC.
We believe that our existing payor relationships provide us leads on opportunities to enter new markets, and we often receive outreach from new management services organizations, health plans and risk bearing organizations. When evaluating a new market, we consider three primary factors:
1.the penetration and growth of Medicare Advantage and other value-based reimbursement models;
2.the presence of value-based primary care groups with whom we can partner to generate referrals and manage outcomes; and
3.how well oncology spend is currently managed in that market.
We believe that new markets we are focused on meet all of the above criteria and could provide us with significant opportunity to create value for patients, providers and payors.
We have multiple strategies we believe can achieve long term growth.
•Existing Market Contract Growth: Continue driving covered lives growth. Significant growth potential in existing markets can be achieved through expanding the scope of our services with existing partners and securing new contracts with new payors and independent practices. The addition of new de novo clinics and affiliated providers can drive additional growth. By continuing to build regional density in existing markets, we also have an opportunity to achieve efficiencies with increased scale.
•New Market Contract Growth: Our replicable operating model enables quick scaling in new markets. Oncology continues to be a key focus area for payors and providers, who are highly supportive of our entry into new markets. Our high priority markets have attractive market dynamics due to the high cost of oncology care in these geographies, the prevalence of risk-bearing organizations, and the presence of national payor partners who we collaborate with in existing markets. Our initial approach to value-based contracting in new markets is likely to be in the form of gain share contracts These new contracts, which will enable us to work with payors and risk-taking providers as they continue their shift to value-based care, are likely to produce lower revenue and profitability in the initial period as compared to full capitation. Once payors and risk-bearing providers in these new markets become comfortable with our ability to generate savings and better outcomes, we believe these contracts will shift to capitation.
•M&A Opportunities: Leveraging our existing pipeline and mergers and acquisition expertise can help us facilitate growth in both existing and new markets, allowing us to rapidly establish market presence. Once on-boarded, we can transition the affiliated practice to our value-based model, as well as expand and enhance the scope of services provided to patients by the affiliated practice, such as adding dispensary operations, managing clinical trials and access to our broad purchasing contracts. Independent oncologists continue to face multitude of challenges and our acquisition model offers a path for these oncologists to continue to practice in their community without the burdens of business building or administration, while at the same time working alongside a dynamic and growing organization at the forefront of value-based care. We look for acquisition targets where the practice is philosophically aligned with us in driving the shift to value-based care.
•Service Expansion: We can broaden scope and diversify service offerings, including ancillary and adjacent services focused on patient care and innovation and providing access to new oncology treatments being investigated in clinical trials that our affiliated practices manage. We have the potential to scale significantly faster with additional capital via
new oncologist on-boarding and training, further technology investments, investments in ancillaries, and strategic acquisitions. In Q4 2021, we acquired our first radiation oncology practice, adding a new service line to our business.
At a time when many FFS healthcare organizations have been struggling due to the decrease in service volumes, our value-based capitation payments have allowed us to maintain our level of member care and prioritize member safety by incentivizing the provision of care in the most appropriate setting.
We have focused our business on capitation arrangements and other types of value-based contracts, which we believe align provider incentives with both quality and efficiency of care. Under capitation arrangements, payors pay a fixed per member per month, or PMPM, amount for every plan member within a population assigned to us for oncology care.
Our affiliated providers are responsible for managing oncology care for this population based on a scope of medical services and drugs agreed upon by both parties. The PMPM rates for our capitation arrangements are determined based on our analysis of historical patient data and agreements with contractual partners. In new markets, this may require the TOI PCs to contract with both the health insurance company and their risk-bearing provider organization in order to service these members.
In addition to capitation-based arrangements, we continue to explore several other forms of value-based arrangements. Although many of these arrangements continue to be based on a FFS-based methodology, our affiliated providers are eligible to earn additional bonuses based on their ability to achieve oncology specific clinical and other quality of care based benchmarks. While these alternative value-based arrangements may not produce as much initial revenue on a PMPM basis as capitation, we believe this flexibility in contracting models will allow us to speed our expansion into new markets while preserving the value-based economics that are critical for our business’ growth and success.
Our ability to consistently attract patients across multiple geographic markets depends on our ability to contract with payors in each market. Depending on the market, payors can be delegated medical groups who are taking risk or insurance companies themselves. By opening clinics in locations where the TOI PCs currently manage the oncology care for a large number of insured Medicare, Commercial and Medicaid members, we believe we are creating net benefits for payors, as our affiliated providers are able to reduce unnecessary costs and improve patient care and experience. This also allows us to benefit from the value-based offerings already established by payors in the market, therefore not requiring us to single-handedly drive patient growth. Some of the biggest and most respected names in healthcare contract with the TOI PCs to provide oncology care to their members, including Anthem, CareMore Health, Heritage Provider Network and Optum Care. More than half of our revenue in 2022 was generated from value-based contracts where payors have made our affiliated providers their preferred or exclusive oncology group.
While our relationships with payors are very strong, we believe we have limited concentration risk as our largest customer by revenue in 2022 represented less than 20% of our revenue.
Provider and Clinic Capacity Growth
Our primary driver for growth in provider and clinic capacity is to create network adequacy to service members from payors with whom we have capitated or other value-based arrangements. For each market we currently operate in or are considering entering, we do a detailed assessment of the existing market landscape and determine the optimal approach to create the capacity we need given our payor relationships and pipeline of contracts. We can achieve capacity growth through multiple avenues, including practice acquisitions and de novo clinics. Practice acquisitions offer an opportunity to gain scale and market presence rapidly, while de novo clinics allow us to build out our network in a highly capital efficient manner. We believe both approaches can work in tandem to achieve optimal scale, network presence and speed to market. In addition, we have an active recruitment pipeline for providers to join our network and help us both manage patient load and grow the patient base.
We believe we have built a robust and data-driven approach to acquisitions, with a dedicated team to identify, assess and integrate physician practices into our network, and a strong pipeline of targets in both existing and new markets. We have invested in resources to continually add to our pipeline.
Clinic Structure, Staffing and Network Design
We have a standard clinic design and approach to staffing that has been refined over many years. Managed clinics typically range from 2,000 to 3,000 square feet with 3-4 providers (physicians and advanced practice providers) per clinic. We have flexibility around clinic size to allow us to establish smaller clinics and part time staffing in areas where needed to ensure the
TOI PCs can meet network adequacy under existing payor contracts. We group our managed clinics in a similar geographic area into pods, with multiple pods in each market. We have operations teams managing our markets and pods allowing us to drive performance and scale efficiently.
The U.S. healthcare industry is generally highly competitive. We compete with large and medium-sized local and national providers of cancer care services, such as health system affiliated practices, for, among other things, contracts with payors, recruitment of physicians and other medical and non-medical personnel and patients. The closest competitors are traditional oncology physician practices, such as American Oncology Network, LLC, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, LLC, U.S. Oncology Network, Inc., and OneOncology, Inc. These organizations are predominantly reimbursed via FFS contracts, which we believe can often lead to over utilization of treatments that may be medically appropriate but often results in higher costs. Secondary competitors may include specialty benefit managers. These include companies such as AIM Specialty Health, eviCore Healthcare, Magellan Health, New Century Health, and OncoHealth. These benefit managers seek to change provider behavior by reviewing and authorizing treatment requests. The benefit manager model can produce incremental improvement in utilization, but the benefit managers are often unable to achieve results comparable to managed healthcare practices like ours. Furthermore, the benefit manager model frequently results in an antagonistic relationship with physicians who are operating in a traditional FFS-based practice. We distinguish ourselves from other managed oncology practices and specialty benefit managers in our ability to align incentives across the care continuum, including physicians and payors in delivering high quality care at lower costs, and we believe there are currently no other value-based oncology management companies of meaningful scale in the U.S.
We believe the principal competitive factors for serving the healthcare market for Medicare beneficiaries include: patient experience, quality of care, health outcomes, total cost of care, brand identity and trust in that brand. We believe we compete favorably on all these factors.
Regulatory Licensing, Accreditation and Certification
Many states, including California, require regulatory approval, including licensure, accreditation and certification before establishing certain types of clinics offering certain professional and ancillary services, including the services we offer. The operations of our managed clinics are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation relating to, among other things, the adequacy of medical care, equipment, personnel, operating policies and procedures, dispensing of prescription drugs, fire prevention, rate-setting and compliance with building codes and environmental protection. Our ability to operate profitably will depend in part on the ability of our managed clinics and doctors to obtain and maintain all necessary licenses, accreditation and other approvals, and maintain updates to their enrollment in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including the addition of new clinic locations, providers and other enrollment information. In addition, certain ancillary services such as the provision of diagnostic laboratory testing require additional state and federal licensure and regulatory oversight, including oversight by CMS, under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988, which requires all clinical laboratories to meet certain quality assurance, quality control and personnel standards, and comparable state laboratory licensing authorities, including for example, the California Department of Public Health. Our dispensary operations must also comply with applicable laws. Sanctions for failure to comply with applicable state and federal licensing, accreditation, certification and other regulatory requirements include suspension, revocation or limitation of the applicable authorization, significant fines and penalties and/or an inability to receive reimbursement from government healthcare programs and other third-party payors.
State Corporate Practice of Medicine and Fee-Splitting Laws
Our arrangements with the TOI PCs are subject to various state laws, including California, commonly referred to as corporate practice of medicine and fee-splitting laws, which are intended to prevent unlicensed persons from interfering with or influencing the physician’s professional judgment, and prohibiting the sharing of professional service fees with non-professional or business interests. These laws vary from state to state and are subject to broad interpretation and enforcement by state regulators. A determination of non-compliance against us and/or the TOI PCs could lead to adverse judicial or administrative action, civil or criminal penalties, receipt of cease and desist orders from state regulators, loss of provider licenses, and/or restructuring of these arrangements.
Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws
We are subject to a number of federal and state healthcare regulatory laws that restrict certain business practices in the healthcare industry. These laws include, but are not limited to, federal and state anti- kickback, false claims, self-referral and other healthcare fraud and abuse laws.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute, or AKS, prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. The AKS includes statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors that protect certain arrangements. The AKS safe harbors for value-based arrangements require, among other things, that the arrangement does not induce a person or entity to reduce or limit medically necessary items or services furnished to any patient. Failure to meet the requirements of the safe harbor, however, does not render an arrangement illegal. Rather, the government may evaluate such arrangements on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all facts and circumstances, including the parties’ intent and the arrangement’s potential for abuse, and may be subject to greater scrutiny by enforcement agencies.
The Stark Law prohibits a physician who has a financial relationship, or who has an immediate family member who has a financial relationship, with entities providing designated health services, or DHS, from referring Medicare and Medicaid patients to such entities for the furnishing of DHS, unless an exception applies. The Stark Law also prohibits the entity from billing for any such prohibited referral. Unlike the AKS, the Stark Law is violated if the financial arrangement does not meet an applicable exception, regardless of any intent by the parties to induce or reward referrals or the reasons for the financial relationship and the referral.
The Federal False Claims Act, or FCA, prohibits a person from knowingly presenting, or caused to be presented, a false or fraudulent request for payment from the federal government, or from making a false statement or using a false record to have a claim approved. The FCA further provides that a lawsuit thereunder may be initiated in the name of the United States by an individual, a “whistleblower,” who is an original source of the allegations. Moreover, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the AKS or the Stark Law constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil False Claims Act. Penalties for a violation of the FCA include fines for each false claim, plus up to three times the amount of damages caused by each false claim.
Further, the Civil Monetary Penalties Statute authorizes the imposition of civil monetary penalties, assessments and exclusion against an individual or entity based on a variety of prohibited conduct, including, but not limited to offering remuneration to a federal health care program beneficiary that the individual or entity knows or should know is likely to influence the beneficiary to order or receive health care items or services from a particular provider.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") also established federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the AKS, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.
Several states in which we operate have also adopted similar fraud and abuse laws as described above. The scope of these laws and the interpretations of them vary from state to state and are enforced by state courts and regulatory authorities, each with broad discretion. Some state fraud and abuse laws apply to items or services reimbursed by any payor, including patients and commercial insurers, not just those reimbursed by a federally funded healthcare program, including California's anti-kickback statutes and the Physician Ownership and Referral Act of 1993.
Violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that apply may result in significant penalties, including, without limitation, administrative civil and criminal penalties, damages, disgorgement, fines, additional reporting requirements and compliance oversight obligations, contractual damages, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, exclusion from participation in governmental healthcare programs and/ or imprisonment.
In the United States, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system, many of which are intended to contain or reduce healthcare costs. By way of example, in the United States, the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”), substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court’s decision, President Biden issued an executive order initiating a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare. It is unclear how other
healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration or other efforts, if any, to challenge, repeal or replace the ACA will impact the ACA or our business.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022 and a 1% payment reduction from April 1, 2022 to June 30, 2022, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In addition, on January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
CMS, through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, or CMMI, has implemented or has announced plans to implement numerous demonstration models designed to test value-based reimbursement models, some of which are specifically focused on oncology services. For example, in 2016, CMS initiated the Oncology Care Model demonstration, which continues into 2022 and provides participating physician practices, including the TOI PCs that participate in this program, with performance-based financial incentives that aim to manage or reduce Medicare costs without negatively affecting the efficacy of care. In late 2019, CMS issued a request for information on the Oncology Care First model, a new voluntary model that, if implemented, would build on the Oncology Care Model. More recently, CMMI has announced plans to implement the Radiation Oncology Model, which would require radiotherapy providers in certain regions to participate in a prospective, episode-based payments model where payment is based on a patient’s diagnosis as opposed to the traditional volume-based FFS payment model. Although the Radiation Oncology Model was originally intended to begin on January 1, 2022, recent legislation delayed its implementation until January 1, 2023. There likely will continue to be regulatory proposals directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue or attain growth, any of which could have a material impact on our business.
Further, healthcare providers and industry participants are also subject to a growing number of requirements intended to promote the interoperability and exchange of patient health information. For example, on April 5, 2021, healthcare providers and certain other entities became subject to information blocking restrictions pursuant to the Cures Act that prohibit practices that are likely to interfere with the access, exchange or use of electronic health information ("EHI"), except as required by law or specified by HHS as a reasonable and necessary activity.
Violations may result in penalties or other disincentives. It is unclear at this time what the costs of compliance with the new rules will be, and what additional risks there may be to our business.
Federal and State Insurance and Managed Care Laws
Regulation of downstream risk-sharing arrangements, including, but not limited to, global risk and other value-based arrangements, varies significantly from state to state. Some states require downstream entities and risk bearing organization ("RBOs") to obtain an insurance license, a certificate of authority, or an equivalent authorization, in order to participate in downstream risk-sharing arrangements with payors. In some states, statutes, regulations and/or formal guidance explicitly address whether and in what manner the state regulates the transfer of risk by a payor to a downstream entity. However, the majority of states do not explicitly address the issue, and in such states, regulators may nonetheless interpret statutes and regulations to regulate such activity. If downstream risk-sharing arrangements are not regulated directly in a particular state, the state regulatory agency may nonetheless require oversight by the licensed payor as the party to such a downstream risk-sharing arrangement. Such oversight is accomplished via contract and may include the imposition of reserve requirements, as well as reporting obligations. Further, state regulatory stances regarding downstream risk-sharing arrangements can change rapidly and codified provisions may not keep pace with evolving risk-sharing mechanisms and other new value-based reimbursement models. Certain of the states where we currently operate or may choose to operate in the future regulate the operations and financial condition of RBOs like the us and our affiliated providers. These regulations can include capital requirements, licensing or certification, governance controls and other similar matters. While these regulations have not had a material impact on our business to date, as we continue to expand, these rules may require additional resources and capitalization and add complexity to our business.
Privacy and Security
Numerous state, federal and foreign laws, including consumer protection laws and regulations, govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to, confidentiality and security of personal information, including health-related information. In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including data breach notification laws, health information privacy and security laws, including HIPAA, and federal and state consumer protection laws and regulations (e.g., Section 5 of
the Federal Trade Commission ["FTC"] Act), that govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information could apply to our operations or the operations of the TOI PCs.
In addition, certain state laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA and the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020, or the CPRA, govern the privacy and security of personal information, including health-related information in certain circumstances, some of which are more stringent than HIPAA and many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. Failure to comply with these laws, where applicable, can result in the imposition of significant civil and/or criminal penalties and private litigation. Privacy and security laws, regulations, and other obligations are constantly evolving, may conflict with each other to complicate compliance efforts, and can result in investigations, proceedings, or actions that lead to significant civil and/or criminal penalties and restrictions on data processing.
At present, we own no material intellectual property.
From time to time, we may be involved in various legal proceedings and subject to claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims are inherently unpredictable and uncertain, we are not currently a party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, are believed to, either individually or taken together, have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows or financial condition. Regardless of the outcome, litigation has the potential to have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.
We maintain insurance, excess coverage, or reinsurance for property and general liability, professional liability, directors’ and officers’ liability, workers’ compensation, cybersecurity and other coverage in amounts and on terms deemed adequate by management, based on our actual claims experience and expectations for future claims. Future claims could, however, exceed our applicable insurance coverage.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2022, we and TOI PCs collectively had approximately 750 employees, including approximately 101 oncologists and advanced practice providers. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or party to a collective bargaining agreement.
Our goal is to provide top quality oncology care to our patients, and we view our human capital-related initiatives as essential to continuing to reach that goal. Such initiatives include: (i) implementing a robust talent acquisition approach, including through competitive pay and benefits, (ii) implementing programs to promote diversity and foster a sense of connection and community throughout our company, (iii) offering an array of opportunities for learning and development opportunities, and (iv) conducting annual employee engagement surveys and developing action plans based on the survey outcomes.
Our principal executive offices are located in Cerritos, California where we occupy a suite under a lease that expires in 2026. We use this facility for administration, billing and collections, technology and development and professional services.
We intend to procure additional space as we add team members and expand geographically. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future, and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate any such expansion of our operations. As of December 31, 2022, we have leases for 62 clinics located in California, Arizona, Nevada, Florida and Texas. Generally, our leases are “net” leases, which require us to pay all of the cost of insurance, taxes, maintenance and utilities. We generally cannot cancel these leases at our option.
Availability of Information
We were originally incorporated in Delaware on November 19, 2019 as a special purpose acquisition company (f/k/a DFP Healthcare Acquisition Corp.). In November 2021, we consummated our business combination with TOI Parent, Inc. (the “Business Combination”). In connection with the closing of the Business Combination, TOI Parent, Inc. became our wholly owned subsidiary and we changed our name to The Oncology Institute, Inc. We file or furnish annual, quarterly and current
reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (as amended, the "Exchange Act"). The SEC maintains an internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC.
We also make available free of charge through our website, https://investors.theoncologyinstitute.com/, electronic copies of certain documents that we file with the SEC, including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Information on our website or any other website is not incorporated by reference into, and does not constitute a part of, this Annual Report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
We operate in a rapidly changing environment that involves a number of risks. Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties including those described below. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, in addition to other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, as well as our other public filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks or others not specified below materialize, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
SUMMARY RISK FACTORS
The following is a summary of select risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect The Oncology Institute, Inc. ("TOI", "we", or "our") and its business, financial condition and results of operations. You should read this summary together with the full and complete discussion of risk factors contained below:
•Our growth strategy depends on our ability to build or acquire clinics to service our contracts and treat our patients.
•We have experienced, and may continue to experience, rapid growth and organizational change, which has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources.
•We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that, if not properly corrected, could materially adversely affect our operations and result in material misstatements in our financial statements.
•We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
•A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our business.
•Our services are concentrated in certain geographic areas and populations exposing us to unfavorable changes in local benefit costs, reimbursement rates, competition and economic conditions.
•If we are unable to attract new patients, our revenue growth will be adversely affected.
•We primarily depend on reimbursement from third-party payors, as well as payments by individuals, which could lead to delays, denials, or uncertainties in the reimbursement process.
•With many of our value-based agreements, our consolidating professional corporations ("TOI PCs") assume the risk that the cost of providing services will exceed our compensation. As oncology costs rise, if we do not accurately predict the cost to deliver care, some of the TOI PCs’ value-based agreements could become less profitable, or unprofitable.
•There are significant risks associated with estimating the amount of revenue that is recognized under TOI PCs’ risk agreements with health plans, and if our estimates of revenue are materially inaccurate, it could impact the timing and the amount of our revenue recognition or have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•A significant portion of our consolidated Patient Services revenue is derived from a limited number of health insurance, Independent Practice Associations, or IPAs and medical group companies. Those payors could take action to remove, exclude, delay, or otherwise prevent the inclusion of the TOI PCs in their provider networks.
•A significant portion of sales are from prescription drug sales reimbursed by a limited number of pharmacy benefit management companies with which TOI PCs contract. Those pharmacy benefit management companies could take action to remove, exclude, delay or otherwise prevent the inclusion of the TOI PCs in their provider networks.
•Reductions in Medicare reimbursement rates or changes in the rules governing the Medicare program could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
•We cannot predict the effect that health care reform and other changes in government programs may have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
•The transition from volume to value-based reimbursement models may have a material adverse effect on our operations.
•Changes in the payor mix of patients and potential decreases in reimbursement rates as a result of consolidation among our customers could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
•We face significant competition from other healthcare services providers. Our failure to adequately compete could adversely affect our business.
•Competition for physicians and clinical personnel, including nurses, shortages of qualified personnel or other factors could increase our labor costs and adversely affect our revenue, growth rate, profitability and cash flows.
•Because competition for qualified personnel is intense, we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees we need to execute our business strategies and growth plans.
•If we are unable to provide consistently high quality of care, our business will be adversely impacted.
•If certain of our suppliers do not meet our needs, if there are material price increases on supplies, if we are not reimbursed or adequately reimbursed for drugs we purchase or if we are unable to effectively access new technology or superior products, it could negatively impact our ability to effectively provide the services we offer and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•We depend on our information technology systems, and those of our third-party vendors, contractors and consultants, and any failure or significant disruptions of these systems, security breaches or loss of data could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
•We may be subject to legal proceedings and litigation, including intellectual property and privacy disputes, which are costly to defend and could materially harm our business and results of operations.
•Some jurisdictions preclude the TOI PCs from entering into non-compete agreements with our physicians, and other non-compete agreements and restrictive covenants applicable to certain physicians and other clinical employees may not be enforceable.
•Current and future acquisitions may use significant resources, may be unsuccessful, and could expose us to unforeseen liabilities.
•We conduct some clinical trials in contract with TOI Clinical Research, LLC ("TCR"). If we fail to perform our clinical trial services in accordance with contractual requirements, government regulations and ethical considerations, we could be subject to significant costs or liability and our reputation could be adversely affected.
•We are dependent on our relationships with the TOI PCs, which are affiliated professional entities that we do not own, to provide healthcare services, and our business would be harmed if those relationships were disrupted or if our arrangements with the TOI PCs become subject to legal challenges.
•Our managed clinics and the TOI PCs providing professional services at such clinics may become subject to medical liability claims, which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
•If there is a change in accounting standards by the Financial Accounting Standards Board or the interpretation thereof affecting consolidation of entities, it could have a material adverse effect on our consolidation of total revenues derived from the TOI PCs.
•Our managed clinics and the TOI PCs may be subject to third-party payor audits, which, if adversely determined against us or the TOI PCs, may have a material effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
•We are subject to extensive fraud, waste, and abuse laws that may give rise to federal and state audits, investigations, lawsuits and claims against us, the outcome of which may have a material adverse effect on our business.
•If any of our managed clinics or TOI PCs lose their regulatory licenses, permits and/or accreditation status, or become ineligible to receive reimbursement under Medicare or Medicaid or other third-party payors, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, cash flows or results of operations.
•If we or the TOI PCs fail to comply with applicable data interoperability and information blocking rules, our consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected.
•Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable data protection, privacy and security, advertising and consumer protection laws, regulations, standards and other requirements could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
•We and our TOI PCs are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations that govern our business.
•We may not be able to utilize a portion of our net operating loss carry forwards (“NOLs”) to offset future taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could adversely affect our net income and cash flows.
•Future changes to applicable tax laws and regulations and/or their interpretations may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Tax rules and regulations are subject to interpretation and require judgment by us that may be successfully challenged by the applicable taxation authorities upon audit, which could result in additional tax liabilities.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our growth strategy depends on our ability to build or acquire new TOI PC clinics to service our contracts and treat our patients.
Our business strategy is to grow rapidly by expanding our network of oncology care clinics and is significantly dependent our ability to open new TOI PC clinics in our existing markets, expand into new geographical locations through existing TOI PCs or affiliating with new professional entities that would become a TOI PC, recruit new patients and partner or contract with payors, existing medical practices or other healthcare providers to provide oncology care services. We seek growth opportunities both organically and through TOI PCs’ agreements with payors or other oncology care providers. Our ability to grow organically depends upon a number of factors, including our affiliated providers obtaining referrals for cancer patient care services, the TOI PCs entering into contracts with additional payors, identifying appropriate facilities, obtaining leases, completing internal build-outs of new facilities within proposed timelines and budgets and hiring care teams and other employees. We cannot guarantee that we will be successful in pursuing our growth strategy. If we fail to evaluate and execute new business opportunities properly, we may not achieve anticipated benefits and may incur increased costs.
Our growth strategy involves a number of risks and uncertainties, including that:
•the TOI PCs may not be able to successfully enter into contracts with local payors on terms favorable to us or at all. In addition, the TOI PCs compete for payor relationships with other healthcare organizations, some of whom may have greater resources than we do. This competition may intensify due to the ongoing consolidation in the healthcare industry, which may increase our costs to pursue such opportunities;
•through the TOI PCs, we may not be able to recruit or retain a sufficient number of new patients to execute our growth strategy, and we may incur substantial costs to recruit new patients and we may be unable to recruit a sufficient number of new patients to offset those costs;
•the TOI PCs may not be able to hire sufficient numbers of physicians and other staff and may fail to integrate our employees, particularly our medical personnel, into our care model;
•future value-based contracts may not be as favorable as current capitation contracts;
•when expanding our business into new states, we may be required to comply with laws and regulations that may differ from states in which we currently operate; and
•depending upon the nature of the local market, we may not be able to implement our business model in every local market that we enter, which could negatively impact our revenues and financial condition.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully capitalize on growth opportunities, which may negatively impact our business model, revenues, results of operations and financial condition.
We have experienced, and may continue to experience, rapid growth and organizational change, which has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management and our operational and financial resources.
Our organizational structure may become more complex as we improve our operational, financial and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures. We may require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management resources to grow and change in these areas. We must effectively increase our headcount and continue to effectively train and manage our employees. We will be unable to manage our business effectively if we are unable to alleviate the strain on resources caused by growth in a timely and successful manner. If we fail to effectively manage our anticipated growth and change, the quality of our services may suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and reputation and harm our ability to attract and retain patients and employees.
In addition, as we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of patient service and satisfaction. As our patient base continues to grow, through the TOI PCs, we will need to expand our medical, patient services and other personnel, and our network of partners, to provide personalized patient service. If we are not able to continue to provide high quality medical care with high levels of patient satisfaction, our reputation, as well as our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
We have a history of net losses, we anticipate increasing expenses in the future, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We incurred a net loss of $10,927 in 2021, and a loss from operations in 2022. We expect our losses will continue as we expect to invest heavily in increasing our patient base, expanding our operations, and operating as a public company. These efforts may prove more expensive than we currently anticipate, and we may not succeed in increasing our revenue sufficiently to offset these higher expenses. To date, we have financed our operations principally from the sale of our equity, revenue from our patient services and the incurrence of indebtedness. We may not generate positive cash flow from operations or profitability in any given period, and our limited operating history may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and our future prospects.
We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including increasing expenses as we continue to grow our business. We expect our operating expenses to increase significantly over the next several years as we continue to hire additional personnel, expand our operations and infrastructure, and continue to expand to reach more patients. In addition to the expected costs to grow our business, we also expect to incur additional legal, accounting and other expenses as a newly public company. These investments may be more costly than we expect, and if we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the realization of these benefits is delayed, they may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. If our growth rate were to decline significantly or become negative, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. If we are not able to achieve or maintain positive cash flow in the long term, we may require additional financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all and/or which would be dilutive to our stockholders. If we are unable to successfully address these risks and challenges as we encounter them, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected. Our failure to achieve or maintain profitability could negatively impact the value of our Common Stock.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease in the United States or worldwide, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, could adversely affect our business.
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, that occurs in the United States or worldwide, may adversely affect our business.
Adverse market conditions resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could materially adversely affect our business and the value of our Common Stock. Preventative measures taken to alleviate any public health crises, such as “shelter-in-place” orders, quarantines, executive orders and similar government orders may result in largely remote operations at our headquarters, work stoppages among some vendors and suppliers, slowdowns and delays, travel restrictions and cancellation of events, among other effects, thereby significantly and negatively impacting our operations. Other disruptions or potential disruptions include restrictions on the ability of our personnel to travel; restrictions on our business development activities due to potential payors or other entities we and the TOI PCs engage with limiting their corresponding business development efforts; inability of our suppliers to manufacture goods and to deliver these to us on a timely basis, or at all; inventory shortages or obsolescence; delays in actions of regulatory bodies; diversion of or limitations on employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the operations of our business, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with groups of people; business adjustments or disruptions of certain third parties; and additional government requirements or other incremental mitigation efforts. The extent to which a pandemic impacts our business will depend on developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including information that may emerge concerning the severity and spread of the pandemic and the actions to contain it or treat its impact, among others.
Because of our business model, the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial condition until future periods. It is not currently possible to reliably project the direct impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operating revenues and expenses. Key factors include the duration and extent of the outbreak in our service areas as well as societal and governmental responses. Patients may continue to be reluctant to seek necessary care given the risks of the COVID-19 pandemic. This could have the effect of deterring healthcare costs that we will need to incur to later periods and may also affect the health of patients who defer treatment, which may cause our costs to increase in the future. Further, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may experience slowed growth or a decline in new patient demand. We also may experience increased internal and third-party medical costs as the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers provide care for patients suffering from COVID-19. This increase in costs may be particularly significant given the number of patients who are under capitation agreements. Further, we may face increased competition due to changes to our competitors’ products and services, including modifications to their terms, conditions, and pricing that could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations, and overall financial condition in future periods.
The COVID-19 pandemic could also cause our third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud computing platform providers, which are critical to our infrastructure, to shut down their business, experience security incidents that impact our business, delay or disrupt performance or delivery of services, or experience interference with the supply chain of hardware required by their systems and services, any of which could materially adversely affect our business. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in our employees and those of many of our vendors working from home and conducting work via the internet, and if the network and infrastructure of internet providers becomes overburdened by increased usage or is otherwise unreliable or unavailable, our employees’, and our customers’ and vendors’ employees’, access to the internet to conduct business could be negatively impacted. Limitations on access or disruptions to services or goods provided by or to some of our suppliers and vendors upon which our platform and business operations relies, could interrupt our ability to provide our platform, decrease the productivity of our workforce, and significantly harm our business operations, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our platform and the other systems or networks used in our business may experience an increase in attempted cyberattacks, targeted intrusion, ransomware, and phishing campaigns seeking to take advantage of shifts to employees working remotely using their household or personal internet networks and to leverage fears promulgated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The success of any of these unauthorized attempts could substantially impact our platform, the proprietary and other confidential data contained therein or otherwise stored or processed in our operations, and ultimately our business. Any actual or perceived security incident also may cause us to incur increased expenses to improve our security controls and to remediate security vulnerabilities.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic, or another pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease occurs in the United States or worldwide, adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to those relating to cyberattacks and security vulnerabilities, interruptions or delays due to third-parties, or our ability to raise additional capital or generate sufficient cash flows necessary to fulfill our obligations under our existing indebtedness or to expand our operations.
Our services are concentrated in certain geographic areas and populations exposing us to unfavorable changes in local benefit costs, reimbursement rates, competition and economic conditions.
The TOI PCs’ membership remains concentrated in certain geographic areas in the United States. We have clinic locations in five states. As of December 31, 2022, the vast majority of the TOI PC members under capitation agreements were residents of California. In addition, during 2022, approximately 85% of our revenues were generated in California. Unfavorable changes in health care or other benefit costs or reimbursement rates or increased competition in the states in which we operate or any other geographic area where the TOI PCs’ membership becomes concentrated in the future could therefore have a disproportionately adverse effect on our operating results. Additionally, the geographic concentration of a significant portion of the TOI PCs’ membership may make them more vulnerable to events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
If we are unable to attract new patients, our revenue growth will be adversely affected.
To increase our revenue, our business strategy is to expand the number of payor contracts entered into by the TOI PCs and clinic locations in our network. In order to support such growth, the TOI PCs must continue to win new contracts and retain or grow existing contracts with payors. We face competition from other oncology providers in the recruitment of potential patients. If the TOI PCs are unable to convince potential payors and patients of the benefits of our value-based system, or if potential or existing payors and patients prefer the care provider model of one of our competitors, we may not be able to effectively implement our growth strategy, which depends on our ability to grow organically and attract new patient referrals and payors for the TOI PCs. In addition, our growth strategy is dependent on payors electing to enter into capitation or other value-based arrangements and selecting the TOI PCs as their oncology provider. The TOI PCs’ inability to obtain new payor agreements and patient referrals and retain existing payors and patients, particularly those under capitation arrangements, would harm our ability to execute our growth strategy and may have a material adverse effect on our business operations and financial position.
We primarily depend on reimbursement by third-party payors, as well as payments by individuals, which could lead to delays and uncertainties in the reimbursement process.
The reimbursement process is complex and can involve lengthy delays. Although we recognize revenue when the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers provide services to patients, we may from time to time experience delays in receiving the associated capitation payments or, for patients on fee-for-service arrangements, the reimbursement for the service provided. In addition, third-party payors may disallow, in whole or in part, requests for reimbursement based on determinations that the patient is not eligible for coverage, certain amounts are not reimbursable under plan coverage or the services provided that were not medically necessary or additional supporting documentation is necessary. Retroactive adjustments may change amounts
realized from third-party payors. As described below, the TOI PCs are subject to audits by such payors, including governmental audits of our Medicare claims, and may be required to repay these payors if a finding is made that we were incorrectly reimbursed. Delays and uncertainties in the reimbursement process may adversely affect accounts receivable, increase the overall costs of collection and cause us to incur additional costs associated with raising capital. Third-party payors are also increasingly focused on controlling healthcare costs, and such efforts, including any revisions to reimbursement policies, may further complicate and delay the TOI PCs’ reimbursement claims.
In addition, certain of our patients are covered under health plans that require the patient to cover a portion of their own healthcare expenses through the payment of copayments or deductibles. The TOI PCs may not be able to collect the full amounts due with respect to these payments that are the patient’s financial responsibility, or in those instances where physicians provide services to uninsured individuals. To the extent permitted by law, amounts not covered by third-party payors are the obligations of individual patients for which the TOI PCs may not receive whole or partial payment. Any increase in cost shifting from third-party payors to individual patients, including as a result of high deductible plans for patients, increases our collection costs and reduces overall collections, which we may not be able to offset such additional costs with sufficient revenue.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, the federal agency responsible for administering the Medicare program, made several changes in the manner in which Medicare will pay for telehealth visits, many of which relax previous requirements, including site requirements for both the providers and patients, telehealth modality requirements and others. The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2023 extended many of the COVID-19 public health emergency provisions related to telehealth until December 31, 2024. State law applicable to telehealth, particularly licensure requirements, has also been relaxed in many jurisdictions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear which, if any, of these changes will remain in place permanently and which will be rolled-back following the COVID-19 pandemic. If regulations change to restrict the TOI PCs’ or our affiliated providers ability to deliver care through telehealth modalities, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
With many of our value-based agreements, the TOI PCs assume some or all of the risk that the cost of providing services will exceed compensation. If we do not accurately predict the cost to deliver care, some of the TOI PCs’ value-based agreements could become less profitable, or unprofitable.
Approximately 24% of our revenue for 2022 was derived from fixed fees paid by payors under capitation agreements with the TOI PCs. While there are variations specific to each agreement, the TOI PCs generally contract with payors to receive a fixed fee per month for professional services and assume the financial responsibility for the specified medical oncology and related expenses of our patients. This type of contract is referred to as a “capitation” contract. To the extent that patients require more care than is anticipated and/or the cost of care increases, aggregate fixed compensation amounts, or capitation payments, may be insufficient to cover the costs associated with treatment. If medical costs and expenses exceed estimates, except in very limited circumstances, the TOI PCs will not be able to increase the fee received under these risk agreements during their then-current terms and we could suffer losses with respect to such agreements.
Changes in our anticipated ratio of medical expense to revenue can significantly impact our financial results. Accordingly, the failure to adequately predict and control medical costs and expenses could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the Medicare expenses of our patients may be outside of the TOI PCs control in the event that patients take certain actions that increase such expenses, such as unnecessary hospital visits.
Historically, the TOI PCs’ medical costs and expenses as a percentage of revenue have fluctuated. Factors that may cause medical expenses to exceed estimates include:
•the health status of patients;
•changes to oncology treatment guidelines which our affiliated providers follow;
•higher than expected utilization of new or existing healthcare services, drugs or technologies;
•an increase in the cost of healthcare services and supplies, whether as a result of inflation or otherwise;
•changes to mandated benefits or other changes in healthcare laws, regulations and practices;
•increased costs attributable to provider and support staff compensation or providers with which the TOI PCs contract to provide care to patients;
•changes in the demographics of our patients and medical trends;
•contractual or claims disputes with providers, hospitals or other service providers within and outside a health plan’s network; and
•the occurrence of catastrophes, major epidemics or acts of terrorism.
In addition, we are reliant on our customers under value-based contracts to provide us with data related to the population of patients for which we are at risk. This data, in particular, which relates to membership eligibility, is subject to frequent changes, omissions and errors which we cannot control. We work closely with our customers to reconcile this data, but we cannot be certain of the accuracy of this data. If we underestimate or do not correctly predict the cost of the oncology care the TOI PCs provide to patients, the TOI PCs might be underpaid for the care that must be provided to our patients, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
There are significant risks associated with estimating the amount of revenue that is recognized under TOI PCs’ risk agreements with health plans, and if our estimates of revenue are materially inaccurate, it could impact the timing and the amount of our revenue recognition or have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
There are significant risks associated with estimating the amount of revenues that is recognize under the TOI PCs’ risk agreements with health plans in a reporting period. The billing and collection process is complex due to ongoing insurance coverage changes, geographic coverage differences, differing interpretations of contract coverage and other payor issues, such as ensuring appropriate documentation. Determining applicable primary and secondary coverage for our patients, together with the changes in patient coverage that occur each month, requires complex, resource-intensive processes. Errors in determining the correct coordination of benefits may result in refunds to payors. Revenues associated with Medicare and Medicaid programs are also subject to estimating risk related to the amounts not paid by the primary government payor that will ultimately be collectible from other government programs paying secondary coverage, the patient’s commercial health plan secondary coverage or the patient. Collections, refunds and payor recoupments typically continue to occur for up to three years and longer after services are provided. If our estimates of revenues are materially inaccurate, it could impact the timing and the amount of our revenues recognition and have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
A significant portion of our consolidated Patient Services revenue is derived from a limited number of health insurance, Independent Practice Associations ("IPAs"), and medical group companies. Those payors could take action to remove, exclude, delay, or otherwise prevent the inclusion of the TOI PCs in their provider networks.
Our operations are dependent on a concentrated number of payors with whom the TOI PCs contract to provide services to patients. We generally manage the TOI PCs’ payor contracts on a state by state basis, entering into a separate contract in each state with the local affiliate of the relevant payor such that no one local payor contract accounts for a majority of our collective revenue. Regal Medical Group accounted for a total of approximately 13% of the Patient Services revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. No other non-government payor accounted for more than 10% of the Patient Services revenue in 2022. We believe that a majority of the TOI PCs’ revenues will continue to be derived from a limited number of key payors, which may terminate their contracts with the TOI PC or the individual TOI PC physicians credentialed by them upon the occurrence of certain events. The sudden loss of any of the TOI PCs’ payor partners, or the renegotiation of any of the TOI PCs’ payor contracts, could adversely affect our operating results. In the ordinary course of business we engage in active discussions and renegotiations with payors in respect of the services the TOI PCs provide and the terms of the TOI PCs’ payor agreements. As the payors’ businesses respond to market dynamics and financial pressures, and as payors make strategic business decisions in respect of the lines of business they pursue and programs in which they participate, certain of the payors may seek to renegotiate or terminate their agreements with the TOI PCs. These discussions could result in reductions to the fees and changes to the scope of services contemplated by the original payor contracts and consequently could negatively impact our revenues, business and prospects.
Because we rely on a limited number of payors for a significant portion of the TOI PCs’ revenues, we depend on the creditworthiness of these payors. The payors are subject to a number of risks including reductions in payment rates from governmental programs, higher than expected health care costs and lack of predictability of financial results when entering new lines of business, particularly with high-risk populations. If the financial condition of the TOI PCs’ payor partners declines, our financial results could be impacted. Should one or more of the TOI PCs’ significant payor partners declare bankruptcy, be declared insolvent or otherwise be restricted by state or federal laws or regulation from continuing in some or all of their operations, this could adversely affect our ongoing revenues, the collectability of our accounts receivable, our bad debt reserves and our net income.
Although the TOI PCs have long-term contracts with many payors, these contracts may be terminated before their term expires for various reasons, such as changes in the regulatory landscape and poor performance by the TOI PCs and our
affiliated providers, subject to certain conditions. Certain of the payor contracts are terminable immediately upon the occurrence of certain events. Certain of the payor contracts may be terminated immediately by the partner if the TOI PCs lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose its liability insurance or receive an exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities. Additionally, if a payor were to lose applicable licenses, go bankrupt, lose liability insurance, become insolvent, file for bankruptcy or become subject to exclusion, suspension or debarment from state or federal government authorities, the TOI PC’s contract with such payor could in effect be terminated. In addition, certain of the payor contracts may be terminated immediately if a TOI PC becomes insolvent or file for bankruptcy. If any of the contracts with the TOI PCs’ payors is terminated, the TOI PCs may not be able to recover all fees due under the terminated contract, which may adversely affect our operating results.
A significant portion of sales are from prescription drug sales reimbursed by a limited number of pharmacy benefit management companies with which TOI PCs contract. Those pharmacy benefit management companies could take action to remove, exclude, delay or otherwise prevent the inclusion of the TOI PCs in their provider networks.
There is currently significant concentration in the U.S. healthcare industry, and in particular there are a limited number of pharmacy benefit managers, or PBMs, and a limited number of national pharmacy chains. CVS Caremark, OptumRx and Express Scripts together accounted for approximately 85% of our dispensary revenue in 2022. If the TOI PCs are unable to retain favorable contractual arrangements with PBMs, including any successor PBMs should there be further consolidation of PBMs, the negotiated rates provided by such PBMs may become less competitive, which could have an adverse impact on the TOI PCs’ ability to provide prescription drugs at the capitated rates negotiated with the payors with whom the TOI PCs contract to provide such drugs to patients. This could be exacerbated by further consolidation of PBMs or pharmacy chains. Specifically, PBMs have instituted Direct and Indirect Remuneration, or DIR, fees, which reduce the reimbursement for drugs dispensed by the TOI PCs. The impact of these fees in future is uncertain, and our ability to negotiate with PBMs on DIR fees is limited. In addition, PBMs could at any time change their contracting and/or credentialing requirements, the effect of which could prohibit the TOI PCs from billing for prescription drugs dispensed by the TOI PCs. If such changes, individually or in the aggregate, are material, they would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Reductions in government reimbursement rates or changes in the rules governing government healthcare programs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The TOI PCs receive a significant portion of revenue directly from Medicare, which accounted for approximately 16% of our Patient Services revenue in 2022. In addition, many private payors base their reimbursement rates on the published Medicare rates or, in the case of Medicare Advantage, are themselves reimbursed by Medicare for the services the TOI PCs provide. As a result, our results of operations are, in part, dependent on government funding levels for Medicare programs, particularly Medicare Advantage programs. Any changes that limit or reduce Medicare Advantage or general Medicare reimbursement levels, such as reductions in or limitations of reimbursement amounts or rates under programs, reductions in funding of programs, expansion of benefits without adequate funding, elimination of coverage for certain benefits, or elimination of coverage for certain individuals or treatments under programs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The Medicare program and its reimbursement rates and rules are subject to frequent change. These include statutory and regulatory changes, rate adjustments (including retroactive adjustments), administrative or executive orders and government funding restrictions, all of which may materially adversely affect the rates at which Medicare reimburses the TOI PCs for patient care services. Budget pressures often lead the federal government to reduce or place limits on reimbursement rates under Medicare. Implementation of these and other types of measures has in the past and could in the future result in substantial reductions in our revenue and operating margins.
In addition, CMS often changes the rules governing the Medicare program, including those governing reimbursement. Changes that could adversely affect our business include:
•administrative or legislative changes to rates or the bases of payment;
•limits on the services or types of providers for which Medicare will provide reimbursement;
•changes in methodology for patient assessment and/or determination of payment levels;
•the reduction or elimination of annual rate increases; or
•an increase in co-payments or deductibles payable by beneficiaries.
There is also uncertainty regarding both Medicare Advantage payment rates and beneficiary enrollment, which, if reduced, would reduce our overall revenues and net income, as well as future growth opportunities. For example, although the
Congressional Budget Office (“CBO”) predicted in 2010 that Medicare Advantage participation would drop substantially by 2020, the CBO has more recently predicted, without taking into account potential future reforms, that enrollment in Medicare Advantage (and other contracts covering Medicare Parts A and B) could reach 36 million by 2027. Although Medicare Advantage enrollment has increased significantly over the past decade, there can be no assurance that this trend will continue. Further, fluctuation in Medicare Advantage payment rates are evidenced by CMS’s annual announcement of the expected average change in revenue from the prior year: for 2021, CMS announced an average increase of 1.66%; and for 2022, 4.08%. Uncertainty over Medicare Advantage enrollment and payment rates present a continuing risk to our business.
According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, or KFF, Medicare Advantage enrollment continues to be highly concentrated among a few payors, both nationally and in local regions. In 2022, the KFF reported that two payors together accounted for nearly half of Medicare Advantage enrollment and seven firms accounted for nearly 85% of covered lives. Consolidation among Medicare Advantage plans in certain regions, or the Medicare program’s failure to attract additional plans to participate in the Medicare Advantage program, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Moreover, the Medicaid program and its reimbursement rates and policies are subject to frequent change. By way of example, Medi-Cal recently implemented a new policy regarding reimbursement for pharmacy services. Although the policy was not intended to change the manner in which physician-administered drugs billed under the medical benefit are reimbursed, certain Medi-Cal managed care plans nevertheless began to transition these claims to be payable as a pharmacy benefit and exclude coverage of prescription drugs formerly available through the medical benefit or direct their subcontractors or network providers to no longer bill for prescription drugs through their medical claims. The California Department of Health Care Services, or DHCS, later issued clarifying guidance which instructed Medi-Cal managed care plans to ensure all medically necessary prescription drugs administered in an outpatient office or clinic setting by a health care professional continue to be available through the medical benefit, even though some may be available as a pharmacy benefit. In addition, during the COVID-19 public health emergency, DHCS delayed the processing of Medi-Cal annual redeterminations and delayed discontinuances and negative actions for Medi-Cal and other state and county healthcare programs. DHCS has indicated that Medicaid redeterminations will resume on April 1, 2023, which may cause some of our patients to lose their coverage. As a result, the TOI PCs could experience a reduction in membership, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Any reductions in reimbursement rates or the scope of services, including pharmacy services, rendered by the TOI PCs being reimbursed could have a material, adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations or even result in reimbursement rates that are insufficient to cover our operating expenses. Additionally, any delay or default by the government in making Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement payments to the TOI PCs or any reduction in patients eligible for such programs could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We cannot predict the effect that health care reform and other changes in government programs may have on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The impact of healthcare reform legislation and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is currently unknown, but may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our revenue is dependent on the healthcare industry and could be affected by changes in healthcare spending, reimbursement and policy. The healthcare industry is subject to changing political, regulatory and other influences. By way of example, the ACA, which was enacted in 2010, made major changes in how healthcare is delivered and reimbursed, and it increased access to health insurance benefits to the uninsured and underinsured populations of the United States.
Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court’s decision, President Biden issued an executive order initiating a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare.
Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of 2%, which began in 2013 and will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022. Under current legislation, the actual reduction in Medicare payments varies from 1% from April 1, 2022 to June 30, 2022, up to 3% in the final fiscal year of this sequester, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In January 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments
to providers from three to five years. New laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which may materially adversely affect consumer demand and affordability for our products and services and, accordingly, the results of our financial operations. Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, or MACRA, which first affected physician payment in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, signed into law on August 16, 2022, also contains a number of provisions designed to limit or reduce drug prices under the Medicare program, reduce beneficiary out-of-pocket spending under Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, and expand subsidies for individuals to obtain private health insurance under the ACA. While these provisions of the IRA do not apply directly to healthcare providers like the TOI PCs, we are continuing to evaluate the potential impact, if any, that the IRA may have on our business.
Such changes in the regulatory environment may also result in changes to our payer mix that may affect our operations and revenue. In addition, certain provisions of the ACA authorize voluntary demonstration projects, which include the development of bundling payments for acute, inpatient hospital services, physician services and post-acute services for episodes of hospital care. Further, the ACA may adversely affect payers by increasing medical costs generally, which could have an effect on the industry and potentially impact our business and revenue as payers seek to offset these increases by reducing costs in other areas.
Uncertainty regarding future amendments to the ACA as well as new legislative proposals to reform healthcare and government insurance programs, along with the trend toward managed healthcare in the United States, could result in reduced demand and prices for our services. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments and other third party payers will pay for healthcare products and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The transition from volume to value-based reimbursement models may have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Healthcare reform is causing some payors to transition from volume to value-based reimbursement models, which can include risk-sharing, bundled payment and other innovative approaches. While these models may provide us with opportunities to provide new or additional services and to participate in incentive- based payment arrangements, there can be no assurance that such new models and approaches will be profitable to us or the TOI PCs. Further, new models and approaches may require investment by us to develop technology or expertise to offer necessary and appropriate solutions or support to the TOI PCs, and we do not fully know the amount and timing for return of such investment at this time. In addition, some of these new models are being offered as pilot programs and there is no assurance that they will continue or be renewed. Many states in which these new value-based structures are being developed also lack regulatory guidance or a well-developed body of law for these new models and approaches, or may not have updated their laws or enacted legislation yet to reflect the new healthcare reform models. As a result, new and existing laws, regulations or guidance could have a material adverse effect on our operations and could subject us to the risk of restructuring or terminating our arrangements with the TOI PCs, as well as the risk of regulatory enforcement, penalties and sanctions, if state and federal enforcement agencies disagree with our interpretation of these laws.
CMS, through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, or the CMMI, has implemented or has announced plans to implement numerous demonstration models designed to test value-based reimbursement models, some of which are specifically focused on oncology services. For example, in 2016, CMS initiated the Oncology Care Model, or OCM demonstration, which continued through June 30, 2022 and provided participating physician practices with performance-based financial incentives that aim to manage or reduce Medicare costs without negatively affecting the efficacy of care. In June 2022, CMS issued a request for applications for the Enhancing Oncology Model, a new 5-year voluntary model that builds on the OCM demonstration. While the extent to which these models may impact our business is uncertain and will depend on future developments, such models may materially reduce Medicare reimbursement levels for our services or TOI PCs’ services and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Changes in the payor mix of patients and potential decreases in reimbursement rates as a result of consolidation among plans could adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.
The amounts the TOI PCs receive for services provided to patients are determined by a number of factors, including the payor mix of patients and the reimbursement methodologies and rates utilized by our patients’ plans. Our Patient Services revenue consists of both capitation and fee-for-service agreements held by the TOI PCs. Reimbursement rates are generally higher for capitation agreements than they are under fee-for-service arrangements, and capitation agreements provide the TOI PCs with an opportunity to capture any additional surplus created by applying our care model. Under a capitation plan, the TOI PCs receive a fixed fee PMPM for services. Under a fee-for-service payor arrangement, the TOI PCs collect fees directly from
the payor as services are provided. Our Patient Services revenue accounted for approximately 66% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022. A significant decrease in the number of capitation or FFS arrangements held by the TOI PCs could adversely affect our revenues and results of operation.
The healthcare industry has also experienced a trend of consolidation, resulting in fewer but larger payors that have significant bargaining power, given their market share. Payments from payors are the result of negotiated rates. These rates may decline based on renegotiations and larger payors have significant bargaining power to negotiate higher discounted fee arrangements with healthcare providers. As a result, payors increasingly are demanding discounted fee structures or the assumption by healthcare providers of all or a portion of the financial risk related to paying for care provided through capitation agreements.
We face significant competition from other healthcare services providers. Our failure to adequately compete could adversely affect our business.
We and the TOI PCs compete directly with national, regional and local providers of healthcare for patients and physicians. There are many other companies and individuals currently providing healthcare services, many of which have been in business longer and/or have substantially more resources. Other companies could enter the healthcare industry in the future and divert some or all of our business. If we expand to other geographies, we expect competition may change based on a number of factors, including the number of competing oncology care facilities in the local market and the types of services available at those facilities, our local and the TOI PCs reputation for quality care of patients, the commitment and expertise of the TOI PCs medical staff, our local service offerings and community programs, the cost of care in each locality, and the physical appearance, location, age and condition of our facilities. If we are unable to attract patients to our managed clinics, our revenue and profitability will be adversely affected. Some of our competitors may have greater recognition and be more established in their respective communities than we are, and may have greater financial and other resources than we have. Competing oncology care providers may also offer larger facilities or different programs or services than we do, which, combined with the foregoing factors, may result in our competitors being more attractive to our current patients, potential patients and referral sources. Furthermore, while we budget for routine capital expenditures at our managed clinics to keep them competitive in their respective markets, to the extent that competitive forces cause those expenditures to increase in the future, our financial condition may be negatively affected. In addition, our relationships with governmental and private third-party payors are not exclusive and our competitors have established or could seek to establish relationships with such payors to serve their covered patients. Additionally, as we expand into new geographies, we may encounter competitors with stronger relationships or recognition in the community in such new geography, which could give those competitors an advantage in obtaining new patients. Individual physicians, physician groups and companies in other healthcare industry segments, including those with which the TOI PCs have contracts, and some of which have greater financial, marketing and staffing resources, may become competitors in providing health care services, and this competition may have a material adverse effect on our business operations and financial position.
Competition for physicians and nurses, shortages of qualified personnel or other factors could increase our labor costs and adversely affect our revenue, profitability and cash flows.
Our operations are dependent on the efforts, abilities and experience of the TOI PCs’ physicians and clinical personnel. We compete with other healthcare providers, primarily hospitals and other oncology practices, in attracting physicians, nurses and medical staff to support our managed clinics, recruiting and retaining qualified management and support personnel responsible for the daily operations of each of our managed clinics and in the TOI PCs contracting with payors in each of our markets. In some markets, the lack of availability of clinical personnel has become a significant operating issue facing all healthcare providers. This shortage may require us and the TOI PCs to continue to enhance wages and benefits to recruit and retain qualified personnel or to contract for more expensive temporary personnel. We also depend on the available labor pool of semi-skilled and unskilled workers in each of the markets in which we operate.
If our labor costs increase, we may not be able to raise rates to offset these increased costs. Because a significant percentage of our revenue consists of fixed, prospective payments, our ability to pass along increased labor costs is limited. In particular, if labor costs rise at an annual rate greater than our net annual consumer price index basket update from Medicare, our results of operations and cash flows will likely be adversely affected. Any union activity at our managed clinics that may occur in the future could contribute to increased labor costs. Certain proposed changes in federal labor laws and the National Labor Relations Board’s modification of its election procedures could increase the likelihood of employee unionization attempts. Although none of our employees or the employees of the TOI PCs are currently represented by a collective bargaining agreement, to the extent a significant portion of our employee base unionizes, it is possible our labor costs could increase materially. Our failure to recruit and retain qualified management and medical personnel for the TOI PCs, or to control our collective labor costs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations and financial condition.
Because competition for qualified personnel is intense, we may not be able to attract and retain the highly skilled employees we need to execute our business strategies and growth plans.
To execute on our growth plan, we and the TOI PCs must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for highly qualified personnel is intense, especially for physicians and other medical professionals who are experienced in providing oncology care services. We and the TOI PCs have, from time to time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies and healthcare providers with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we and the TOI PCs hire employees from competitors or other companies or healthcare providers, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached certain legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources.
As we become a more mature company, we may find our recruiting efforts more challenging. The incentives to attract, retain, and motivate employees provided by our stock options and other equity awards, or by other compensation arrangements, may not be as effective as in the past. As such, we may not be successful in continuing to attract and retain qualified personnel. Our recruiting efforts may also be limited by laws and regulations, such as restrictive immigration laws, and restrictions on travel or availability of visas (including during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic). If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed.
Certain of our management has limited experience in operating a public company.
Certain of our executive officers and certain directors have limited experience in the management of a publicly traded company. Our management team may not successfully or effectively manage its transition to a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under federal securities laws. Their limited experience in dealing with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies could be a significant disadvantage in that it is likely that an increasing amount of their time may be devoted to these activities which will result in less time being devoted to the management and growth of the company. It is possible that we will be required to expand our employee base and hire additional employees to support our operations as a public company, which will increase our operating costs in future periods.
If we are unable to provide consistently high quality of care, our business will be adversely impacted.
Our business is dependent upon the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers providing high-quality care to our patients. In particular, our ability to attract and retain patients and patient referrals dependent upon providing cost effective, quality patient care that meets or exceeds our patients’ and payors’ expectations. We depend on third parties for certain of our patient care needs. If we or the TOI PCs fail to provide service that meets our patients’ and payors’ expectations, we may have difficulty retaining or growing our patient base, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect the importance of high-quality patient experience to increase as we, through the TOI PCs, expand our business and pursue new lives served. Any failure to maintain high-quality patient experience, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality care, could harm the reputation of us and our affiliated providers and our ability to grow the number of lives served, and our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Additionally, as the number of lives served by the TOI PCs in our managed clinics grows, we will need to hire additional personnel to provide quality care at scale. If we and the TOI PCs are unable to provide such care, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and reputation could be harmed.
If certain of our suppliers do not meet our needs, if there are material price increases on supplies, if we are not reimbursed or adequately reimbursed for drugs purchased or if we are unable to effectively access new technology or superior products, it could negatively impact the ability of the TOI PCs to effectively provide the services we offer and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The TOI PCs have significant drug suppliers that may be the sole or primary source of products critical to the services the TOI PCs provide, or to which we have committed obligations to make purchases, sometimes at particular prices. Approximately 76% of the TOI PCs’ total costs are related to drug purchases, including both oral and chemotherapy drugs, for the year ended December 31, 2022. If any of these suppliers do not meet the TOI PCs’ needs for the products they supply, including in the event of a product recall, shortage or dispute, and we are not able to find adequate alternative sources, if we experience material price increases from these suppliers that we are unable to mitigate, or if some of the drugs that the TOI PCs purchase are not reimbursed or not adequately reimbursed by commercial or government payors, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, the technology related to the products critical to the services we provide is subject to new developments which may result in superior products. If we are not able to access superior products on a cost-effective basis or if suppliers are not able to fulfill our requirements for such products, we and the
TOI PCs could face patient attrition and other negative consequences which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We depend on our information technology systems, and those of our third-party vendors, contractors and consultants, and any failure or significant disruptions of these systems, security breaches or loss of data could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business is highly dependent on maintaining effective information systems as well as the integrity and timeliness of the data we use to serve our patients, support our care teams and operate our business. Because of the large amount of data that we collect and manage, it is possible that hardware failures or errors in our systems could result in data loss or corruption or cause the information that we collect to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our partners regard as significant. If our data were found to be inaccurate or unreliable due to fraud or other error, or if we, or any of the third-party service providers we engage, were to fail to maintain information systems and data integrity effectively, we could experience operational disruptions that may impact our patients and care teams and hinder our ability to provide services, establish appropriate pricing for services, retain and attract patients, manage our patient risk profiles, establish reserves, report financial results timely and accurately and maintain regulatory compliance, among other things.
Our information technology strategy and execution are critical to our continued success. We must continue to invest in long-term solutions that will enable us to anticipate patient needs and expectations, enhance the patient experience, act as a differentiator in the market and protect against cybersecurity risks and threats. We believe our success is dependent, in large part, on maintaining the effectiveness of existing technology systems and continuing to deliver and enhance technology systems that support our business processes in a cost-efficient and resource-efficient manner. Increasing regulatory and legislative changes will place additional demands on our information technology infrastructure that could have a direct impact on resources available for other projects tied to our strategic initiatives. In addition, recent trends toward greater patient engagement in health care require new and enhanced technologies, including more sophisticated applications for mobile devices. Connectivity among technologies is becoming increasingly important. We must also develop new systems to meet current market standards and keep pace with continuing changes in information processing technology, evolving industry and regulatory standards and patient needs. Failure to do so may present compliance challenges and impede our ability to deliver services in a competitive manner. Further, because system development projects are long-term in nature, they may be more costly than expected to complete and may not deliver the expected benefits upon completion.
Security incidents compromising the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our confidential or personal information and our and our third-party service providers’ information technology systems could result from cyber-attacks, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (including spear phishing and ransomware attacks), credential stuffing, supply chain attacks, efforts by individuals or groups of hackers and sophisticated organizations, including state-sponsored organizations, errors or malfeasance of our personnel, and security vulnerabilities in the software or systems on which we and our third party service providers rely. As techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, a disruption, cyberattack or other security breach of our information technology systems or infrastructure, or those of our third-party service providers, may go undetected for an extended period and could result in the theft, transfer, unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of our employee, representative, customer, vendor, consumer and/or other third-party data, including sensitive or confidential data, personal information and/or intellectual property. We and certain of our service providers are from time to time, subject to cyberattacks and security incidents, and we cannot guarantee that our security efforts will prevent breaches or breakdowns of our or our third-party service providers’ information technology systems. While we do not believe that we have experienced any significant system failure, accident or security breach to date, if we suffer a material loss or disclosure of health-related or other personal or confidential information as a result of a breach of our information technology systems, including those of our third-party service providers, we may suffer reputational, competitive and/or business harm, incur significant costs and be subject to government investigations, litigation, fines and/or damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition and/or cash flows. Moreover, while we maintain cyber insurance that may help provide coverage for these types of incidents, we cannot assure you that our insurance will be adequate to cover costs and liabilities related to these incidents. Further, our failure to effectively invest in, implement improvements to and properly maintain the uninterrupted operation and data integrity of our information technology and other business systems could adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flow.
We may be subject to legal proceedings and litigation, including intellectual property and privacy disputes, which are costly to defend and could materially harm our business and results of operations.
We and the TOI PCs may be party to lawsuits and legal proceedings in the normal course of business. These matters are often expensive and disruptive to normal business operations. We may face allegations, lawsuits and regulatory inquiries, audits and investigations regarding data privacy, security, labor and employment, consumer protection and intellectual property
infringement, including claims related to privacy, patents, publicity, trademarks, copyrights and other rights. We may also face allegations or litigation related to our acquisitions, securities issuances or business practices, including public disclosures about our business. Litigation and regulatory proceedings may be protracted and expensive, and the results are difficult to predict. Certain of these matters may include speculative claims for substantial or indeterminate amounts of damages and include claims for injunctive relief. Additionally, our litigation costs could be significant. Adverse outcomes with respect to litigation or any of these legal proceedings may result in significant settlement costs or judgments, penalties and fines, or require us to modify our services or require us to stop serving certain patients or geographies, all of which could negatively impact our geographical expansion and revenue growth. The TOI PCs may also become subject to periodic audits, which would likely increase our regulatory compliance costs and may require us to change our business practices, which could negatively impact our revenue growth. Managing legal proceedings, litigation and audits, even if we achieve favorable outcomes, is time-consuming and diverts the attention of management and our affiliated providers from our business.
The results of regulatory proceedings, litigation, claims, and audits cannot be predicted with certainty, and determining reserves for pending litigation and other legal, regulatory and audit matters requires significant judgment. There can be no assurance that our expectations will prove correct, and even if these matters are resolved in our favor or without significant cash settlements, these matters, and the time and resources necessary to litigate or resolve them, could harm our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and the market price of our common stock.
Furthermore, our business exposes the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers to potential medical malpractice, professional negligence or other related actions or claims that are inherent in the provision of healthcare services. These claims, with or without merit, could cause us to incur substantial costs, and could place a significant strain on our financial resources, divert the attention of management and our affiliated providers from our core business, harm our reputation and adversely affect the TOI PCs’ ability to attract and retain patients, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Although the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers maintain third-party professional liability insurance coverage, it is possible that claims against them may exceed the coverage limits of their insurance policies. Even if any professional liability loss is covered by an insurance policy, these policies typically have substantial deductibles for which the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers are responsible. Professional liability claims in excess of applicable insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our collective business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any professional liability claim brought against the TOI PCs or our affiliated providers, with or without merit, could result in an increase of their professional liability insurance premiums. Insurance coverage varies in cost and can be difficult to obtain, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain insurance coverage on behalf of the TOI PCs and our affiliated providers in the future on terms acceptable to us or at all. If costs of insurance and claims increase, then our collective earnings could decline.
Some jurisdictions preclude the TOI PCs from entering into non-compete agreements with physicians, and other non-compete agreements and restrictive covenants applicable to certain physicians and other clinical employees may not be enforceable.
The TOI PCs have employment contracts with physicians and other health professionals in many states. Some of these contracts include provisions preventing these physicians and other health professionals from competing with us both during and after the term of our contract with them. The law governing non- compete agreements and other forms of restrictive covenants varies from state to state. Some jurisdictions prohibit the TOI PCs from using non-competition covenants with our professional staff. Other states are reluctant to strictly enforce non-compete agreements and restrictive covenants applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission recently proposed new rules which, if enacted, would ban non-compete agreements in employee contracts. There can be no assurance that the TOI PCs’ non-compete agreements related to physicians and other health professionals will be found enforceable if challenged in certain states. In such event, the TOI PCs would be unable to prevent physicians and other health professionals formerly employed by the TOI PCs from competing with us, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our patients.
Current and future acquisitions may use significant resources, may be unsuccessful, and could expose us to unforeseen liabilities.
As part of our growth strategy, we may pursue acquisitions of oncology and other physician practices and services. These acquisitions may involve significant cash expenditures, debt incurrence, additional operational losses and expenses, and compliance risks that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We may not be able to successfully integrate the acquired businesses into ours and the TOI PCs, and therefore, we may not be able to realize the intended benefits from an acquisition. These acquisitions could result in difficulties integrating acquired operations, technologies, and personnel into our business. Such difficulties may divert significant financial, operational, and managerial resources from our existing operations and make it more difficult to achieve our operating and strategic objectives. We and the
TOI PCs may fail to retain employees or patients acquired through these acquisitions, which may negatively impact the integration efforts. These acquisitions could also have a negative impact on our results of operations if it is subsequently determined that goodwill or other acquired intangible assets are impaired, thus resulting in an impairment charge in a future period.
In addition, these acquisitions involve risks that the acquired businesses will not perform in accordance with expectations; that we may become liable for unforeseen financial or business liabilities of the acquires businesses, including liabilities for failure to comply with applicable healthcare regulations; that the expected synergies associated with acquisitions will not be achieved; and that business judgments concerning the value, strengths and weaknesses of businesses acquired will prove incorrect, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary and internally developed information, the value of our technology could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to protect our trade secrets, know-how and other internally developed information adequately. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect this internally developed information and technology, our employees, consultants and other parties (including independent contractors and companies with which we conduct business) may unintentionally or willfully disclose our information or technology to competitors. Enforcing a claim that a third party illegally disclosed or obtained and is using any of our internally developed information or technology is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. We rely, in part, on non-disclosure, confidentiality and assignment-of-invention agreements with our employees, independent contractors, consultants and companies with which we conduct business to protect our internally developed information. These agreements may not be self-executing, or they may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for such breach. Moreover, third parties may independently develop similar or equivalent proprietary information or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets, know- how and other internally developed information.
We conduct some clinical trials in contract with the TCR. If we fail to perform our clinical trial services in accordance with contractual requirements, government regulations and ethical considerations, we could be subject to significant costs or liability and our reputation could be adversely affected.
The TCR, contracts with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to perform services to assist them in bringing new drugs and biologics to market. TCR’s services include monitoring clinical trials, laboratory analysis, electronic data capture, patient recruitment, data analytics, technology solutions, and other related services. Such services are complex and subject to contractual requirements, government regulations, and ethical considerations. TCR’s services are subject to various regulatory requirements designed to ensure the quality and integrity of the clinical trial process. In the United States, clinical development services must be performed in compliance with applicable laws, rules and regulations enforced by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, including Good Clinical Practice, or GCP, requirements, which govern, among other things, the design, conduct, performance, monitoring, auditing, recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials.
If TCR fails to perform services in accordance with these requirements, regulatory authorities may take action against TCR. Such actions may include injunctions or failure to grant marketing approval of products, imposition of clinical holds or delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, rejection of data collected in TCR’s studies, license revocation, product seizures or recalls, operational restrictions, civil or criminal penalties or prosecutions, damages, or fines. Additionally, there is a risk that actions by regulatory authorities, if they result in significant inspectional observations or other measures, could harm TCR’s reputation and cause customers not to award TCR future contracts or to cancel existing contracts. Clients may also bring claims against TCR for breach of TCR’s contractual obligations and patients in the clinical trials and patients taking drugs approved on the basis of those trials may bring personal injury claims against TCR. Any such action could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and reputation.
Negative publicity regarding the managed healthcare industry generally could adversely affect our results of operations or business.
Negative publicity regarding the managed healthcare industry generally, or the MA program in particular, may result in increased regulation and legislative review of industry practices that further increase our costs of doing business and adversely affect our results of operations or business by:
•requiring us to change our products and services;
•increasing the regulatory, including compliance, burdens under which we operate, which, in turn, may negatively impact the manner in which the TOI PCs provide services and increase our costs of providing services;
•adversely affecting our ability to market the TOI PCs products or services through the imposition of further regulatory restrictions regarding the manner in which plans and providers market to MA enrollees; or
•adversely affecting our ability to attract and retain patients.
Our managed clinics may be negatively impacted by weather and other factors beyond our control.
Our results of operations may be adversely impacted by adverse conditions affecting our managed clinics, including severe weather events such as hurricanes and flooding, natural disasters such as earthquakes and forest fires, public health concerns such as contagious disease outbreaks, violence or threats of violence or other factors beyond our control that cause disruption of patient scheduling, displacement of our patients, employees and care teams, or force certain of our managed clinics to close temporarily. Our future operating results may be adversely affected by these and other factors that disrupt the operation of our managed clinics.
Risks Related to Our Regulatory Environment
We are dependent on our relationships with the TOI PCs, which are affiliated professional entities that we do not own, to provide healthcare services, and our business would be harmed if those relationships were disrupted or if our arrangements with the TOI PCs become subject to legal challenges.
Our contractual relationships with the TOI PCs may implicate certain state laws that generally prohibit non-professional entities from providing licensed medical services or exercising control over licensed physicians or other healthcare professionals (such activities generally referred to as the “corporate practice of medicine”) or engaging in certain practices such as fee-splitting with such licensed professionals. The interpretation and enforcement of these laws vary significantly from state to state. There can be no assurance that these laws will be interpreted in a manner consistent with our practices or that other laws or regulations will not be enacted in the future that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory authorities, state boards of medicine, state attorneys general and other parties may assert that, despite the agreements through which we operate, we are engaged in the provision of medical services and/or that our arrangements with the TOI PCs constitute unlawful fee- splitting. If a jurisdiction’s prohibition on the corporate practice of medicine or fee-splitting is interpreted in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices, we would be required to restructure or terminate our arrangements with the TOI PCs to bring our activities into compliance with such laws. A determination of non-compliance, or the termination of or failure to successfully restructure these relationships could result in disciplinary action, penalties, damages, fines, and/or a loss of revenue, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. State corporate practice and fee-splitting prohibitions also often impose penalties on healthcare professionals for aiding in the improper rendering of professional services, which could discourage physicians and other healthcare professionals from providing clinical services to members of the health plans with whom we contract.
Our managed clinics and the TOI PCs providing professional services at such clinics may become subject to medical liability claims, which could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our business entails the risk of medical liability claims against us, the TOI PCs and their clinicians. Although we, the TOI PCs and their clinicians carry insurance covering medical malpractice claims in amounts that we believe are appropriate in light of the risks attendant to our business, successful medical liability claims could result in substantial damage awards that exceed the limits of our and our clinicians’ insurance coverage. In addition, professional liability insurance is expensive and insurance premiums may increase significantly in the future, particularly as we expand our services. As a result, adequate professional liability insurance may not be available to our clinicians, our affiliated practices or to us in the future at acceptable costs or at all.
Any claims made against us or the TOI PCs that are not fully covered by insurance could be costly to defend, result in substantial damage awards against us and divert the attention of our management and the TOI PCs from our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any claims may adversely affect our business or reputation.
If there is a change in accounting standards by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") or the interpretation thereof affecting consolidation of entities, it could have a material adverse effect on our consolidation of total revenues derived from the TOI PCs.
Our financial statements are consolidated in accordance with applicable accounting standards and include the accounts of our subsidiaries and the TOI PCs, which we manage under long-term management services agreements but are not owned by us. Such consolidation for accounting and/or tax purposes does not, is not intended to, and should not be deemed to, imply or
provide us any control over the medical or clinical affairs of the TOI PCs. In the event a change in accounting standards promulgated by FASB or in interpretation of its standards, or if there is an adverse determination by a regulatory agency or a court, or a change in state or federal law relating to the ability to maintain present agreements or arrangements with the TOI PCs, we may not be permitted to continue to consolidate the total revenues of such practices.
Our managed clinics and the TOI PCs may be subject to third-party payor audits, which, if adversely determined against us or the TOI PCs, may have a material effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
As a result of the TOI PCs participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, our managed clinics and the TOI PCs are subject to various governmental inspections, reviews, audits and investigations to verify our compliance with these programs and applicable laws and regulations. Payors may also reserve the right to conduct audits. We also periodically conduct internal audits and reviews of our regulatory compliance. An adverse inspection, review, audit or investigation could result in:
•refunding amounts we have been paid pursuant to the Medicare or Medicaid programs or from payors;
•state or federal agencies imposing fines, penalties and other sanctions on us;
•temporary suspension of payment for new patients to the facility or agency;
•decertification or exclusion from participation in the Medicare or Medicaid programs or one or more payor networks;
•self-disclosure of violations to applicable regulatory authorities;
•damage to our reputation;
•the revocation of a facility’s or agency’s license; and
•loss of certain rights under, or termination of, our contracts with payors.
With respect to MA plans, the TOI PCs submit claims and encounter data to applicable MA plans that are used to establish the annual, average Medicare Risk Adjustment Factor, or RAF, scores attributable to each TOI PC’s MA population. These RAF scores determine, in part, the revenue to which the health plans and, in turn, the TOI PCs, are entitled for the provision of medical care to such population. The data submitted to CMS by each health plan is based, in part, on medical charts and diagnosis codes that the TOI PCs prepare and submit to the health plans. CMS audits MA plans for documentation to support RAF-related payments for enrollees chosen at random. The MA plans then ask providers to submit the underlying documentation for members that they serve. It is possible that claims associated with members with higher RAF scores could be subject to more scrutiny in a CMS or plan audit. There is a possibility that a MA plan may seek repayment from the TOI PCs should CMS make any payment adjustments to the MA plan as a result of its audits. CMS has indicated that payment adjustments will not be limited to RAF scores for the specific MA enrollees for which errors are found but may also be extrapolated to the entire MA plan subject to a particular CMS contract. Based on a recent final rule issued by CMS in January 2023, although 2011 to 2017 plan years are still subject to audit, overpayments to MA plans that are identified as a result of a Risk Adjustment Data Validation, or RADV, audit will only be subject to extrapolation for plan year 2018 and any subsequent plan year. In addition, CMS will not apply an adjustment factor, known as a Fee-For-Service, or FFS, Adjuster, in RADV audits to account for potential differences in diagnostic coding between the Medicare Advantage program and Medicare FFS program. We are continuing to assess the potential impact this final rule may have on our business and operations.
We have in the past and will likely in the future be required to refund amounts we have been paid and/or pay fines and penalties as a result of these inspections, reviews, audits and investigations. If adverse inspections, reviews, audits or investigations occur and any of the results noted above occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results. Furthermore, the legal, document production and other costs associated with complying with these inspections, reviews, audits or investigations could be significant.
We are subject to extensive fraud, waste, and abuse laws that may give rise to federal and state audits, investigations, lawsuits and claims against us, the outcome of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations.
The U.S. healthcare industry is heavily regulated and closely scrutinized by federal, state and local governments. Comprehensive statutes and regulations govern the manner in which we provide and bill for services and collect reimbursement from governmental programs and private payors, our contractual relationships and arrangements with healthcare providers and vendors, our marketing activities and other aspects of our operations. Of particular importance are:
•the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, or AKS, which prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any bribe, kickback, rebate or other remuneration for referring an individual, in return for ordering, leasing, purchasing or recommending or arranging for or to induce the referral of an individual or the ordering, purchasing or
leasing of items or services covered, in whole or in part, by any federal healthcare program, such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
•the federal physician self-referral law, the Stark Law, which, subject to limited exceptions, prohibits physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity for the provision of certain designated health services, or DHS if the physician or a member of such physician’s immediate family has a direct or indirect financial relationship (including an ownership interest or a compensation arrangement) with the entity, and prohibits the entity from billing Medicare or Medicaid for such DHS;
•the FCA, which imposes civil and criminal liability on individuals or entities that knowingly submit false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government or knowingly make, or cause to be made, a false statement in order to have a false claim paid, including qui tam or whistleblower suits. There are many potential bases for liability under the FCA. The government has used the FCA to prosecute Medicare and other government healthcare program fraud such as coding errors, billing for services not provided, and providing care that is not medically necessary or that is substandard in quality. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the AKS or Stark Law constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA;
•the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibits, among other things, an individual or entity from offering remuneration to a federal healthcare program beneficiary that the individual or entity knows or should know is likely to influence the beneficiary to order or receive healthcare items or services from a particular provider. We may also be subject to civil monetary penalties and other sanctions under the statute if we or the TOI PCs hire or contract with any individuals or entities that are or become excluded from government healthcare programs, for the provision of items or services for which payment may be made under such programs;
•the criminal healthcare fraud provisions of HIPAA and related rules that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or artifice to defraud any healthcare benefit program or falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any material false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the AKS, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
•reassignment of payment rules that prohibit certain types of billing and collection practices in connection with claims payable by the Medicare or Medicaid programs;
•similar state law provisions pertaining to anti-kickback, self-referral and false claims issues, some of which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any payor, including patients and commercial insurers;
•laws that regulate debt collection practices;
•a provision of the Social Security Act that imposes criminal penalties on healthcare providers who fail to disclose, or refund known overpayments;
•federal and state laws that prohibit providers from billing and receiving payment from Medicare and Medicaid for services unless the services are medically necessary, adequately and accurately documented, and billed using codes that accurately reflect the type and level of services rendered;
•federal and state laws and policies that require healthcare providers to maintain licensure, certification or accreditation to enroll and participate in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, to report certain changes in their operations to the agencies that administer these programs and, in some cases, to re-enroll in these programs when changes in direct or indirect ownership occur; and
•federal and state laws pertaining to the provision of services by nurse practitioners and physician assistants in certain settings, physician supervision of those services, and reimbursement requirements that depend on the types of services provided and documented and relationships between physician supervisors and nurse practitioners and physician assistants; and
•Medicare and Medicaid regulations, manual provisions, local coverage determinations, national coverage determinations and agency guidance imposing complex and extensive requirements upon healthcare providers.
The laws and regulations in these areas are complex, changing and often subject to varying interpretations. As a result, there is no guarantee that a government authority will find that we or the TOI PCs are in compliance with all such laws and regulations that apply to our business. Further, because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of the business activities undertaken by us or the TOI PCs could be subject to challenge under one or more of these laws, including, without limitation, our patient assistance programs that waive or reduce the patient’s obligation to pay copayments, coinsurance or deductible amounts owed for the services we
provide to them if they meet certain financial need criteria. If our or the TOI PCs’ operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply, we may be subject to significant penalties, including, without limitation, administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and imprisonment. In addition, any action against us or the TOI PCs for violation of these laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and result in adverse publicity, or otherwise experience a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation as a result.
If any of our managed clinics or TOI PCs lose their regulatory licenses, permits and/or accreditation status, or become ineligible to receive reimbursement under Medicare or Medicaid or other third-party Payors, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations.
The operations of our managed clinics through the TOI PCs are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation relating to, among other things, the adequacy of medical care, equipment, personnel, operating policies and procedures, dispensing of prescription drugs, fire prevention, rate-setting and compliance with building codes and environmental protection. Our managed clinics and TOI PCs are also subject to extensive laws and regulation relating to facility and professional licensure, conduct of operations, including financial relationships among healthcare providers, Medicare and Medicaid fraud and abuse and physician self-referrals, and maintaining updates to the TOI PCs’ enrollment in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including addition of new clinic locations, providers and other enrollment information. Our managed clinics and TOI PCs are subject to periodic inspection by licensing authorities and accreditation organizations to assure their continued compliance with these various standards. There can be no assurance that these regulatory authorities will determine that all applicable requirements are fully met at any given time. Should any of our managed clinics or TOI PCs be found to be noncompliant with these requirements, we could be assessed fines and penalties, could be required to refund reimbursement amounts or could lose our licensure or Medicare and/or Medicaid certification or accreditation so that we or the TOI PCs are unable to receive reimbursement from such programs and possibly from other third-party payors, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.
If we or the TOI PCs fail to comply with applicable data interoperability and information blocking rules, our consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected.
The 21st Century Cures Act (the “Cures Act”), which was passed and signed into law in December 2016, includes provisions related to data interoperability, information blocking and patient access. In March 2020, the HHS Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, or ONC, and CMS finalized and issued complementary rules that are intended to clarify provisions of the Cures Act regarding interoperability and information blocking, and include, among other things, requirements surrounding information blocking, changes to ONC’s health IT certification program and requirements that CMS- regulated payors make relevant claims/care data and provider directory information available through standardized patient access and provider directory application programming interfaces, or APIs, that connect to provider electronic health record systems, or EHRs. The companion rules will transform the way in which healthcare providers, health IT developers, health information exchanges/health information networks, or HIEs/HINs, and health plans share patient information, and create significant new requirements for healthcare industry participants. For example, the ONC rule, which went into effect on April 5, 2021, prohibits healthcare providers, health IT developers of certified health IT, and HIEs/HINs from engaging in practices that are likely to interfere with, prevent, materially discourage, or otherwise inhibit the access, exchange or use of electronic health information, or EHI, also known as “information blocking.” To further support access and exchange of EHI, the ONC rule identifies eight “reasonable and necessary activities” as exceptions to information blocking activities, as long as specific conditions are met. Any failure to comply with these rules could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable data protection, privacy and security, advertising and consumer protection laws, regulations, standards and other requirements could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We and the TOI PCs collect, receive, generate, use, process, and store significant and increasing volumes of sensitive information, such as employee, individually identifiable health information and other personally identifiable information. We and the TOI PCs are subject to a variety of federal and state laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations, relating to the collection, use, storage, retention, security, disclosure, transfer, return, destruction and other processing of personal information, including health- related information. Enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance with such laws, directives and regulations are rising, and the regulatory framework for privacy, data protection and data transfers is complex and rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future.
In the United States, numerous such federal and state laws and regulations, including data breach notification laws, health information privacy laws, and consumer protection laws and regulations, including those that govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information, could apply to our operations or the operations of the TOI PCs. For example, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and regulations implemented thereunder, which we refer to collectively as HIPAA, imposes privacy, security and breach notification obligations on certain health care providers, health plans, and health care clearinghouses, known as covered entities, as well as business associates that perform certain services that involve creating, receiving, maintaining or transmitting individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of such covered entities. HIPAA requires covered entities, such as the TOI PCs, and business associates, such as us, to develop and maintain policies with respect to the protection of, use and disclosure of protected health information, or PHI, including the adoption of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information, and certain notification requirements in the event of a data breach.
Entities that are found to be in violation of HIPAA as the result of a breach of unsecured protected health information, or PHI, a complaint about privacy practices or an audit by HHS, may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative fines and penalties and/or additional reporting and oversight obligations if required to enter into a resolution agreement and corrective action plan with HHS to settle allegations of HIPAA non-compliance. HIPAA also authorizes state Attorneys General to file suit on behalf of their residents. Courts may award damages, costs and attorneys’ fees related to violations of HIPAA in such cases. While HIPAA does not create a private right of action allowing individuals to sue us in civil court for violations of HIPAA, its standards have been used as the basis for duty of care in state civil suits such as those for negligence or recklessness in the misuse or breach of PHI.
Numerous other state and federal laws, including consumer protection laws and regulations, govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to, confidentiality, security and processing of personal information, including health-related information, some of which are more stringent than HIPAA and many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. In addition, these laws and regulations in many cases are more restrictive than, and may not be preempted by, HIPAA and may be subject to varying interpretations by courts and government agencies. Laws in all 50 states and other United States territories require businesses to provide notice to individuals whose personal information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. Such laws are not always consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly and may be challenging.
States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing requirements, and we expect these changes to continue. For example, in June 2018, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and, among other things, requires covered companies to provide disclosures to California consumers, and affords such consumers certain data protection rights, including the ability to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal information that may increase data breach litigation. While the CCPA includes certain exceptions for health-related information, including PHI, it still may require us to modify our data practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, generally went into effect on January 1, 2023 and significantly amends the CCPA. The CPRA imposes additional data protection obligations on covered businesses, including additional consumer rights processes, limitations on data uses, new audit requirements for higher risk data, and opt outs for certain uses of sensitive data. It will also create a new California data protection agency authorized to issue substantive regulations and could result in increased privacy and information security enforcement. Additional compliance investment and potential business process changes may be required. Similar laws have passed in Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut and Utah, and have been proposed in other states and at the federal level, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States. The enactment of such laws could have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging.
In addition, the Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, expects a company’s data security measures to be reasonable and appropriate in light of the sensitivity and volume of consumer information it holds, the size and complexity of its business, and the cost of available tools to improve security and reduce vulnerabilities. Our failure to take any steps perceived by the FTC as
appropriate to protect consumers’ personal information may result in claims by the FTC that we have engaged in unfair or deceptive acts or practices in violation of Section 5(a) of the FTC Act. State consumer protection laws provide similar causes of action for unfair or deceptive practices for alleged privacy, data protection and data security violations.
In addition to government regulation, privacy advocates and industry groups may propose self- regulatory standards from time to time. These and other industry standards may legally or contractually apply to us, or we may elect to comply with such standards or to facilitate our customers’ compliance with such standards. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws and regulations concerning privacy, data protection, and information security, and we cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on our business. New laws, amendments to or re-interpretations of existing laws and regulations, industry standards, contractual and other obligations may require us to incur additional costs and restrict our business operations. Because the interpretation and application of laws, standards, contractual and other obligations relating to privacy and data protection are still uncertain and changing, it is possible that these laws, standards, contractual and other obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data management practices, our privacy, data protection or data security policies or procedures or the features of our technology. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, other claims and penalties, significant costs for remediation and damage to our reputation, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our technology, any of which could adversely affect our business. We may be unable to make such changes or modifications in a commercially reasonable manner, or at all, and our ability to develop new software or provide new services could be limited. Any inability to adequately address privacy, data protection or information security-related concerns, even if such concerns are unfounded, or to successfully negotiate privacy, data protection or information security- related contractual terms with customers, or to comply with applicable laws and regulations, or our policies relating to privacy, data protection, and information security, could result in additional cost and liability to us, harm our reputation and brand, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We and our TOI PCs are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations that govern our business. These include regulations of our employment practices, including minimum wage, living wage, and paid time-off requirements, permitting and licensing, employee health and safety and the storage, treatment and disposal of waste. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations, or changes to these laws and regulations that increase our expenses, could adversely impact our operations.
We and the TOI PCs are required to comply with all applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations related to the operation of our business. These regulations include regulations governing the TOI PCs’ dispensary services, the construction, the use of our managed clinics and the treatment of hazardous waste or drug products. Changes in regulations or new regulations could increase our costs, cause the TOI PCs to lose licenses or accreditations or otherwise harm our business or the business of the TOI PCs.
We and the TOI PCs are required to comply with all applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to employment, including occupational safety and health requirements, wage and hour and other compensation requirements, employee benefits, providing leave and sick pay, employment insurance, proper classification of workers as employees or independent contractors, immigration and equal employment opportunity laws. These laws and regulations can vary significantly among jurisdictions and can be highly technical. Costs and expenses related to these requirements are a significant operating expense and may increase as a result of, among other things, changes in federal, state or local laws or regulations, or the interpretation thereof, requiring employers to provide specified benefits or rights to employees, increases in the minimum wage and local living wage ordinances, increases in the level of existing benefits or the lengthening of periods for which unemployment benefits are available. We may not be able to offset any increased costs and expenses. Furthermore, any failure to comply with these laws requirements, including even a seemingly minor infraction, can result in significant penalties which could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may not be able to utilize a portion of our NOLs to offset future taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could adversely affect our net income and cash flows.
As of December 31, 2022, we had federal income tax NOLs of approximately $91,435 and state income tax NOLs of approximately $85,733 available to offset our future taxable income, if any, prior to consideration of annual limitations that may be imposed under Section 382 of the Code or otherwise. The federal NOLs will be carried forward indefinitely and the state NOLs begin expiring after 2040. Utilization of these NOLs depends on many factors, including our future income, which cannot be assured. Some of these NOLs could expire unused and be unavailable to offset our future income tax liabilities. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change” (very generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in the corporation’s equity ownership by certain stockholders or groups of stockholders over a rolling three-year period), the corporation’s ability to use is pre-ownership change NOLs to offset its post-ownership change income may be limited. We are
in the process of completing an analysis to determine whether the Business Combination resulted in an ownership change to determine if there is a limitation on pre-ownership NOLs. Additionally, we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control. If it is determined that an ownership change has occurred as a result of the Business Combination or we undergo an ownership change in the future, we may be prevented from fully utilizing our NOLs existing at the time of the ownership change prior to their expiration. The deferred tax asset associated with the Company’s federal and state net operating losses are fully offset by a valuation allowance. Due to the existence of the valuation allowance, future changes in the Company’s unrecognized tax benefits will not impact its effective tax rate. To the extent we are not able to offset future taxable income with our NOLs, our net income and cash flows may be adversely affected.
Future changes to applicable tax laws and regulations and/or their interpretation may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Tax rules and regulations are subject to interpretation and require judgment by us that may be successfully challenged by the applicable taxation authorities upon audit, which could result in additional tax liabilities.
Changes in tax laws or their interpretation could decrease the amount of revenues we receive, the value of any tax loss carry-forwards and tax credits recorded on our balance sheet and the amount of our cash flow, and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, other factors or events, including business combinations and investment transactions, changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, adjustments to taxes upon finalization of various tax returns or as a result of deficiencies asserted by taxing authorities, increases in expenses not deductible for tax purposes, changes in available tax credits, other changes in the apportionment of our income, and changes in tax rates, could also increase our future effective tax rate.
In addition, our effective tax rate and tax liability are based on the application of current income tax laws, regulations and treaties. These laws, regulations and treaties are complex, and the manner which they apply to us and our diverse set of business arrangements is often open to interpretation, and can require us to take positions regarding the interpretation of applicable rules or the valuation of our assets that are subject to material uncertainty. Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. The proper tax treatment or characterization of many of the transactions we undertake, such as the transactions associated with our issuance of the Convertible Notes and DF Warrants, is often subject to significant uncertainty, and the resolution of any related issues could affect the withholding tax liabilities to which we are subject or the tax deductions that we are able to claim. The tax authorities could challenge our interpretation of laws, regulations and treaties or the positions that we have taken regarding the valuation of its assets, resulting in additional tax liability or adjustment to our income tax provision.
Our tax filings are subject to review or audit by various taxing authorities. As discussed above, we exercise significant judgment in determining our provision for taxes and, in the ordinary course of our business, there may be transactions and calculations where the proper tax treatment is uncertain. We may also be liable for taxes in connection with businesses we acquire. Our determinations are not binding on the IRS or any other taxing authorities, and accordingly the final determination in an audit or other proceeding may be materially different than the treatment reflected in our tax provisions, accruals and returns. An assessment of additional taxes because of an audit could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, or interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us, any of which could adversely affect our business operations and financial performance. We are unable to predict what changes will occur and, if so, the ultimate impact on its business. To the extent that such changes have a negative impact on us, they may materially and adversely impact its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Our Financial Condition
Goodwill and other intangible assets represent a significant portion of our total assets. Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually, which could result in a material, non-cash write-down of goodwill and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and stockholders’ equity.
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net assets acquired in business combinations. For example, if our market capitalization drops significantly below the amount of the carrying equity recorded on our balance sheet, it might indicate a decline in our fair value and would require us to further evaluate whether our goodwill has been impaired. If, as part of our annual review of goodwill, we are required to write down all or a significant part of our goodwill, our net earnings could be materially adversely affected, which could affect our flexibility to obtain additional financing. In addition, if our
assumptions used in preparing our valuations for purposes of impairment testing differ materially from actual future results, we may record impairment charges in the future and our financial results may be materially adversely affected. We had $21,418 and $26,626 of goodwill recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Goodwill impairment charges of $9,944 and $0 were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, based on management's evaluation of the value goodwill. It is not possible at this time, under current market conditions, to determine if there will be any future impairment charge, or if there is, whether such charges would be material.
We may need additional capital to fund its operations and finance its growth, and we may not be able to obtain it on acceptable terms, or at all, which may limit our ability to grow.
Our ability to maintain our operations and grow in existing and new markets may require additional capital, particularly if we were to accelerate its acquisition and expansion plans. Financing may not be available or may be available only on terms that are not favorable. If we are unable to obtain funds on acceptable terms, it may have to delay or abandon some or all of its growth strategies. Further, if additional funds are raised through the issuance of additional equity securities, the percentage ownership of our stockholders would be diluted. Any newly issued equity securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of the Common Stock.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Warrants
Our issuance of additional shares of Common Stock, Warrants or other convertible securities may dilute your ownership interest in us and could adversely affect our stock price.
From time to time in the future, we may issue additional shares of our Common Stock, Warrants or other securities convertible into Common Stock pursuant to a variety of transactions, including acquisitions. Additional shares of our Common Stock may also be issued upon exercise of outstanding stock options and Warrants. The issuance by us of additional shares of our Common Stock, Warrants or other securities convertible into our Common Stock would dilute your ownership interest in us and the sale of a significant amount of such shares in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Common Stock and Warrants. Subject to the satisfaction of vesting conditions and the expiration of our lock-up, shares issuable upon exercise of options will be available for resale immediately in the public market without restriction.
In the future, we expect to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional shares of our capital stock or offering debt or other equity securities, including senior or subordinated notes, debt securities convertible into equity, or shares of preferred stock. Issuing additional shares of our capital stock, other equity securities, or securities convertible into equity may dilute the economic and voting rights of our existing stockholders, reduce the market price of our Common Stock and Warrants, or both. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred stock, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our Common Stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. As a result, holders of our Common Stock and Warrants bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of our Common Stock and Warrants and dilute their percentage ownership.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of our Common Stock and Warrants by us or our existing securityholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Common Stock and Warrants to decline.
The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our Common Stock or Warrants in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our Common Stock and Warrants. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate.
In addition, the shares of our Common Stock reserved for future issuance under the 2021 Plan will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements, lock-up provisions and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The number of shares reserved for future issuance under the 2021 Incentive Plan is equal to the sum of (i) 7% of the aggregate number of shares of DFP Class A and DFP Class B Common Stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of the effective date of the 2021 Plan; (ii) up to 634,067 shares of Common Stock which are subject to options outstanding under the Prior Plan; (iii) an annual increase on January 1 of each calendar year (commencing January 1, 2022 and ending on and including January 1, 2031) equal to a number of shares of Common Stock equal to 4% of the aggregate shares of Common Stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of December 31 of the immediately preceding calendar year (or such lesser number of shares as is determined by the Board), subject to adjustment by the plan administrator in the event of certain changes in our corporate
structure, as described below, and (iv) up to 1,178,065 option holder earnout shares or stockholder earnout shares which may become available for issuance under the 2021 Plan. We have filed one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of our Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our Common Stock issued pursuant to our equity incentive plans. Such Form S-8 registration statements automatically become effective upon filing. Accordingly, shares registered under such registration statements are available for sale in the open market.
Delaware law and provisions in our Charter and Bylaws could make a takeover proposal more difficult.
Our organizational documents are governed by Delaware law. Certain provisions of Delaware law and of our Charter and Bylaws could discourage, delay, defer or prevent a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of Common Stock. These provisions include the ability of our Board to designate the terms of and issue new series of preference shares, which may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities.
These anti-takeover provisions as well as certain provisions of Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, stockholders of the Company may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. If prospective takeovers are not consummated for any reason, we may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on the price of our Common Stock and Warrants. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders of the Company to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions that stockholders of the Company desire. See “Description of Capital Stock.”
We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our Common Stock and Warrants less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may follow reduced disclosure requirements and do not have to make all of the disclosures that public companies that are not emerging growth companies do. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (a) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.235 billion or more; (b) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the completion of the initial public offering of DFP; (c) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (d) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC, which means the market value of our Common Stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the prior June 30th. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include:
•not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;
•not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis);
•reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and
•exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote of stockholders on executive compensation, stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved and having to disclose the ratio of the compensation of our chief executive officer to the median compensation of our employees.
In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards; and as a result of this election, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates.
We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions for emerging growth companies. We cannot predict whether investors will find our Common Stock or Warrants less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our Common Stock or Warrants less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our Common Stock and Warrants and our share and Warrant price may be more volatile.
Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which limits our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our Charter and Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the (a) Court of Chancery (the “Chancery Court”) of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action, suit or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, stockholder or employee of the company to the company or its stockholders; (iii) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim against the Company arising under the DGCL, its certificate of incorporation or its bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; (iv) any action, suit or proceeding as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (v) any action, suit or proceeding asserting a claim against the Company or any current or former director, officer or stockholder governed by the internal affairs doctrine, and, if brought outside of Delaware, the stockholder bringing the suit will be deemed to have consented to (A) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts within Delaware and (B) service of process on such stockholder’s counsel. The provision of the Charter described in the immediately preceding sentence does not apply to (i) suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction and (ii) any action arising under the Securities Act, as to which the federal district court for the United States of America shall have exclusive jurisdiction. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Additionally, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As noted above, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws provide that the federal district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction over any action arising under the Securities Act. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision. Our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
The market price of our Common Stock may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance. You may lose some or all of your investment.
The market price of our Common Stock is likely to be volatile. The stock market recently has experienced extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. You may not be able to resell your shares at an attractive price due to a number of factors such as those listed in this section and the following:
•the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial condition and the results of operations;
•our operating and financial performance and prospects;
•our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry compared to market expectations;
•the public’s reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC;
•the size of our public float;
•coverage by or changes in financial estimates by securities analysts or failure to meet their expectations;
•market and industry perception of our success, or lack thereof, in pursuing our growth strategy;
•strategic actions by us or our competitors, such as acquisitions or restructurings;
•changes in laws or regulations that adversely affect our industry or us;
•changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
•changes in senior management or key personnel;
•issuances, exchanges or sales, or expected issuances, exchanges or sales, of our capital stock;
•changes in our dividend policy;
•adverse resolution of new or pending litigation against us; and
•changes in general market, economic and political conditions in the United States and global economies or financial markets, including those resulting from natural disasters, terrorist attacks, acts of war and responses to such events.
These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our Common Stock and Warrants, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our Common Stock is low. As a result, you may suffer a loss on your investment.
In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities Class Action litigation. If we were involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from our business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.
If securities analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, or if they issue unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or downgrade our Common Stock, the price of our Common Stock could decline.
The trading market for our Common Stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that third-party securities analysts publish about us and the industries in which we operate. We may be unable or slow to attract research coverage, and if one or more analysts cease coverage of us, the price and trading volume of our securities would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts that may cover us change their recommendation regarding our Common Stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our Common Stock would likely decline. If any analyst that may cover us ceases covering us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our Common Stock to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our Common Stock, or if our reporting results do not meet their expectations, the market price of our Common Stock could decline.
The obligations associated with being a public company involve significant expenses and require significant resources and management attention, which may divert from our business operations.
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. As a result, we will incur increased legal, accounting and other expenses that Legacy TOI did not previously incur. Our entire management team and many of our other employees will need to devote substantial time to compliance and may not effectively or efficiently manage our transition into a public company.
In addition, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may also divert management’s attention from implementing our business strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, results of operations and financial condition. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal control over financial reporting, including IT controls, and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, the measures we take may not be sufficient to satisfy our obligations as a public company. If we do not continue to develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our changing enterprise and maintain our culture, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur to comply with these requirements. We anticipate that these costs will materially increase our general and administrative expenses.
These rules and regulations result in our incurring legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, on our board committees or as executive officers.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our Common Stock for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of the business, and therefore, do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on Common Stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, debt repayment obligations, capital expenditure needs, contractual restrictions, covenants in the agreements governing current and future indebtedness, industry trends, the provisions of Delaware law
affecting the payment of dividends and distributions to stockholders and any other factors or considerations the board of directors deems relevant.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. We may not be able to timely and effectively implement controls and procedures required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act that are applicable to us.
As a public company, we are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we are required to provide attestation on internal controls, and we may need to undertake various actions, such as implementing additional internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. The standards required for a public company under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act are significantly more stringent than those that were required of TOI as a privately held company. Management may not be able to effectively and timely implement controls and procedures that adequately respond to the increased regulatory compliance and reporting requirements that became applicable to us after the Business Combination. If we are not able to implement the additional requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may not be able to assess whether our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, which may subject us to adverse regulatory consequences and could harm investor confidence and the market price of our Common Stock. Further, as an emerging growth company, our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until the date we are no longer an emerging growth company. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event that it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting over complex accounting transactions. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.
We have implemented a remediation plan to remediate the material weakness identified but can give no assurance that the measures we take will prevent any future material weaknesses or deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. The material weakness will not be considered remediated until management completes the design and implementation ofprocesses and controls in our remediation plan and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are effective.
Maintaining effective internal controls over financial reporting is necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and helping prevent financial fraud. If we are unable to maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting, our business and operating results could be harmed.
Our warrants may have an adverse effect on the market price of our Common Stock.
Simultaneously with the closing of its IPO, DFP Healthcare Acquisitions Corp., issued in a private placement an aggregate of 4,333,333 private placement warrants, each exercisable to purchase one share of Common Stock at $11.50 per share. As of December 31, 2022, there were 3,177,542 private placement warrants outstanding. To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of our Common Stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to our stockholders and increase the number of shares of Common Stock eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of our Common Stock.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
The Facility Agreement and the associated restrictive covenants thereunder could adversely affect our financial condition and will restrict our ability to raise capital.
On August 9, 2022, we entered into the Facility Agreement with Deerfield Partners and certain of its affiliates. The Facility Agreement contains various covenants, including a requirement to retain $40,000 in unrestricted cash and cash equivalents, and maintain a minimum revenue of $50,000, $75,000, and $100,000 for each fiscal quarter ending during the fiscal year 2023, 2024, and 2025, respectively. In addition, the Facility Agreement restricts our and the guarantors’ ability to, among other things, (i) merge, consolidate, dissolve or liquidate into or convey, transfer, lease or dispose of all or substantially all of its assets (other than into another Loan Party or if the Company determines in good faith in the best interest of a subsidiary and not materially disadvantageous), (ii) create or incur any lien on our assets beyond those outstanding on the date
of the Facility Agreement and certain other permitted liens, (iii) dispose of any assets or property or issue, transfer, or provide a controlling, management, or other interest in certain securities of the Company or its guarantors, (iv) incur any indebtedness not to exceed $1,000 or as otherwise permitted, (v) make any investments other than as otherwise permitted, (vi) amend our organizational documents or any material agreements in a manner that would reasonably be expected to be materially adverse to the rights of the lenders or (vii) change our reporting practices or fiscal year, in each case, subject to exceptions set forth in the Facility Agreement. Furthermore, under the Facility Agreement, we are required to, among other things, (i) remain a reporting company and maintain the listing of our common shares on an eligible market, (ii) provide the lenders with information regarding any event of default or the occurrence of any material adverse event and (iii) publicly disclose material, nonpublic information that is provided to the lenders without their prior written consent. Subject to customary exceptions and exclusions, our obligations under the Facility Agreement are guaranteed by a perfected, first-priority security interest in substantially all of our personal property, including our intellectual property and the equity ownership interests directly and indirectly held by us in our wholly-owned subsidiaries. Compliance with such covenants and our indebtedness will result in the following, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations:
•require us to dedicate a substantial portion of cash and cash equivalents to the payment of interest on, and principal of, the indebtedness, which will reduce the amounts available to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts and other general corporate purposes;
•oblige us to comply with negative covenants restricting our activities, including limitations on dispositions, mergers or acquisitions, encumbering our intellectual property, incurring indebtedness or liens, paying dividends, making investments and engaging in certain other business transactions;
•limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry;
•place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who have less debt or competitors with comparable debt at more favorable interest rates; and
•limit our ability to borrow additional amounts for working capital, capital expenditures, research and development efforts, acquisitions, debt service requirements, execution of our business strategy and other purposes and otherwise restrict our financing options.
Furthermore, because the interests of the lenders may potentially differ from ours and from those of our stockholders, we may be unable to engage in transactions or other activities that may be beneficial to our stockholders. The covenants under the Facility Agreement could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Upon the occurrence of a Major Transaction, as defined under the Senior Secured Convertible Note, the holders of the convertible notes may elect to require us to redeem all or any portion of the notes for an amount equal to the principal amount thereof (in addition to accrued and unpaid interest, a make-whole amount and an exit fee, as applicable). There can be no assurance that we will have sufficient capital to redeem such notes upon the occurrence of a Major Transaction, under the Senior Secured Convertible Note.
Servicing our indebtedness requires a significant amount of cash. Our ability to repay the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our indebtedness. If we are unable to generate cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as restructuring debt or obtaining additional financing on terms that may be unfavorable to us or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at the time we seek to refinance such indebtedness. Our inability to satisfy our debt obligations could materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
A failure to comply with the conditions of the Facility Agreement or the Senior Secured Convertible Note could result in an event of default. An event of default under the Facility Agreement includes, among other things, a failure to pay any amount due under the Facility Agreement or to issue common stock when required upon conversion of the Senior Secured Convertible Note as well as the occurrence of a criminal proceeding pursuant to which the remedy sought includes forfeiture of a material portion of property. If we fail to comply with any of the covenants under our indebtedness and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment, the lenders may, among other things, accelerate our outstanding indebtedness and exercise rights with respect to collateral securing our outstanding indebtedness, each of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The terms of the Senior Secured Convertible Note may have a negative impact on our business and the value of our securities and may result in substantial dilution to our other equity securityholders.
The Senior Secured Convertible Note provides for certain terms which may have a negative impact on our business. Obligations under such agreement mature on August 9, 2027 and carry the possibility of the issuance of Convertible Note Warrants upon prepayment.
The obligations under the Senior Secured Convertible Note are secured and the lenders thereunder will have a claim against the assets and equity interests securing the related debt obligations that will have priority to claims of the Company’s equity securityholders generally. Additionally, the Convertible Note is guaranteed by certain of our subsidiaries, effectively providing for claims against such subsidiaries which are structurally senior to our other equity securityholders generally.
The Senior Secured Convertible Note is convertible into common stock, subject to certain terms and conditions, which may result in dilution to our other equity securityholders.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Our principal executive offices are located in Cerritos, California where we occupy a suite under a lease that expires in 2026. We use this facility for administration, billing and collections, technology and development and professional services.
We intend to procure additional space as we add team members and expand geographically. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future, and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate any such expansion of our operations. As of December 31, 2022, we have leases for 62 clinics located in California, Arizona, Nevada, Florida, and Texas. Generally, our leases are “net” leases, which require us to pay all of the cost of insurance, taxes, maintenance and utilities. We generally cannot cancel these leases at our option.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may be involved in various legal proceedings and subject to claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims are inherently unpredictable and uncertain, we are not currently a party to any legal proceedings the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, are believed to, either individually or taken together, have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows or financial condition.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
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Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities Stock Price Information
Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq under the symbol “TOI.” Our publicly traded warrants trade on Nasdaq under the symbol “TOIIW.”
As of March 8, 2023, we had approximately 89 holders of record of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our Common Stock or any other securities. Subject to applicable law and the rights and preferences of any holders of any outstanding series of preferred stock, under our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation, holders of our common stock will be entitled to the payment of dividends when, as and if declared by our board in accordance with applicable law.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Equity Compensation Plan Information
See Item 12 - “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.”
Item 6. [ Reserved ]
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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis provides information that management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of the consolidated results of operations and financial condition of The Oncology Institute, Inc. ("TOI") along with its consolidating subsidiaries (the "Company"). The discussion should be read together with the historical audited annual financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the related notes that are included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The information in this discussion contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (as amended, "Securities Act"), as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (as amended, the "Exchange Act"). Such statements are based upon current expectations, as well as management's beliefs and assumptions and involve a high degree of risk and uncertainty. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Statements that include the words "believes," "anticipates," "plans," "expects." "intends," and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are forward-looking statements. In addition, as a result of these and other factors, our past financial performance should not be relied on as an indication of future performance. All forward-looking statements in this document are based on information available to us as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and we assume no obligation to update any forward-looking statements or the reasons why our actual results may differ. All dollar values are expressed in thousands, unless otherwise noted.
The Company is a leading value-based oncology company that manages community-based oncology practices that serve patients at 76 clinic locations across 15 markets and five states throughout the United States. Our community-based oncology practices are staffed with 112 oncologists and advanced practice providers. 62 of these clinics are staffed with 101 providers employed by our affiliated physician-owned professional corporations, referred to as the "TOI PCs", which provided care for more than 64,000 patients in 2022 and managed a population of approximately 1.7 million patients under value-based agreements as of December 31, 2022. The Company also provides management services to 14 clinic locations owned by independent oncology practices. The Company's mission is to heal and empower cancer patients through compassion, innovation, and state-of-the-art medical care.
Operationally, the Company’s medical centers provide a complete suite of medical oncology services including: physician services, in-house infusion and pharmacy, clinical trials, radiation, educational seminars, support groups, counseling, and 24/7 patient assistance. Many of our services, such as managing clinical trials and palliative care programs, are traditionally accessed through academic and tertiary care settings, while the TOI PCs bring these services to patients in a community setting. As scientific research progresses and more treatment options become available, cancer care is shifting from acute care episodes to chronic disease management. With this shift, it is increasingly important for high-quality, high-value cancer care to be available in a local community setting to all patients in need.
As a value-based oncology company, the Company seeks to deliver both better quality care and lower cost of care. The Company works to accomplish this goal by reducing wasteful, inefficient or counterproductive care that drives up costs but does not improve outcomes. The Company believes payors and employers are aligned with the value-based model due to its enhanced access, improved outcomes, and lower costs. Patients under the Company's affiliated providers’ care can benefit from evidence-based and personalized care plans, gain access to sub-specialized care in convenient community locations, and lower out-of-pocket costs. The Company believes its affiliated providers enjoy the stability and predictability of a large multi-state practice, are not incentivized or pressured to overtreat when it may be inconsistent with a patient’s goals of care, and can focus on practicing outstanding evidence-based medicine, rather than business building.
•Completed a $110 million strategic investment from Deerfield Management Company, L.P. through secured senior convertible notes on August 9, 2022
•Ended the fiscal year 2022 with $132 million in cash, cash equivalents, and investments
•Increased market count to 15 at year-end from 10 at the prior year end, including new markets in California, Florida and Texas
•Remediated two of the previously disclosed material weaknesses surrounding controls over review of revenue and segregation of duties within the financial close and reporting process. For the remaining one, Management has developed and continues to execute a remediation plan to address the previously disclosed material weakness around treatment of complex accounting transactions
•Received Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's ("AHRQ") certification as an accredited Patient Safety Organization
•Generated over $1.7 million in savings to patients through the Company's dispensary co-pay assist program
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•Added 3 new gain share contracts in Florida
•Grew Capitated Membership by over 100 thousand lives
•Completed 6 practice acquisitions
The Business Combination
On June 28, 2021, DFP Healthcare Acquisition Corp. ("DFPH"), Orion Merger Sub I, Inc. ("First Merger Sub") and Orion Merger Sub II, LLC ("Second Merger Sub") entered into an agreement and plan of merger ("Merger Agreement") with TOI Parent, Inc. ("TOI Parent") (collectively, the "Business Combination"). In connection with the Business Combination, DFPH entered into subscription agreements with certain investors (the “PIPE Investors”), whereby it issued 17.5 million shares of common stock at $10.00 per share and 100,000 shares of preferred stock at $1,000.00 per share (“PIPE Shares”) for an aggregate investment of $275,000 (“PIPE Investment”), which closed simultaneously with the consummation of the Business Combination.
The Business Combination closed on November 12, 2021 ("Closing Date"). On the Closing Date, (i) First Merger Sub merged with and into TOI Parent, with TOI Parent being the surviving corporation and (ii) immediately following, TOI Parent merged with and into Second Merger Sub ("Legacy TOI"), with Second Merger Sub being the surviving entity and a wholly owned subsidiary of DFPH. DFPH was renamed “The Oncology Institute, Inc.” and TOI Common Stock and Public Warrants continued to be listed on Nasdaq under the ticker symbols “TOI” and “TOIIW,” respectively.
The total merger consideration on the Closing Date was $762,052, consisting of 51.3 million shares of common stock, valued at $10.00 per share (aggregate $595,468, inclusive of shares of DFPH common stock issuable per restricted stock units and the exercise of Legacy TOI stock options), and $166,584 in cash. Legacy TOI also issued 12.5 million shares of common stock pursuant to the terms of an earnout (“Earnout Shares”). The earnout shares are allocable to both Legacy TOI stockholders and Legacy TOI option holders. On the Closing Date, shares of DFPH common stock that were not otherwise redeemed as part of the DFPH public stockholder vote and the PIPE Shares automatically converted into shares of TOI stock on a one-for-one basis.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP"). Under this method of accounting, DFPH was treated as the “acquired” company for accounting purposes and the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy TOI issuing stock for the net assets of DFPH, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of DFPH are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination were those of Legacy TOI.
Components of Results of Operations
The Company receives payments from the following sources for services rendered: (i) commercial insurers; (ii) pharmacy benefit managers (“PBMs”), (iii) the federal government under the Medicare program administered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”); (iv) state governments under Medicaid and other programs; (v) other third-party payors and managed care organizations (e.g., risk bearing organizations and independent practice associations (“IPAs”)); and (vi) individual patients and clients.
Revenue primarily consists of capitation revenue, fee-for-service (“FFS”) revenue, dispensary revenue, and clinical trials revenue. Capitation and FFS revenue comprise the revenues within the Company’s patient services segment and are presented together in the results of operations. The following paragraphs provide a summary of the principal forms of our billing arrangements and how revenue is recognized for each type of revenue.
Capitation revenues consist primarily of fees for medical services provided by the TOI PCs to the Company's patients under a capitated arrangement with various managed care organizations. Capitation revenue is paid monthly based on the number of enrollees by the contracted managed care organization (per member per month or “PMPM”). Capitation contracts generally have a legal term of one year or longer. Payments in capitation contracts are variable since they primarily include PMPM fees associated with unspecified membership that fluctuates throughout the term of the contract; however, based on our experience, our total underlying membership generally increases over time as penetration of MA products grows. Certain contracts include terms for a capitation deduction where the cost of out-of-network referrals of members are deducted from the future payment. Revenue is recognized in the month services are rendered on the basis of the transaction price established at that time.
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FFS revenue represents revenue earned under contracts in which we bill and collect for medical services rendered by the TOI PCs’ employed physicians. The terms for FFS contracts are short in duration and only last for the period over which services are rendered (typically, one day). FFS revenue consists of fees for medical services provided to patients. As specialist providers, our FFS revenue is dependent on referrals from other physicians, such as primary care physicians. The Company's affiliated providers build trusted, professional relationships with these physicians and their associated medical groups, which can lead to recurring FFS volume; however, this volume is subject to numerous factors the Company cannot control and can fluctuate over time. The Company also receives FFS revenue for capitated patients that receive medical services which are excluded from the Company's capitation contracts. Under the FFS arrangements, third-party payors and patients are billed for patient care services provided by the TOI PCs. Payments for services provided are generally less than billed charges. The Company records revenue net of an allowance for contractual adjustments, which represents the net revenue expected to be collected from third-party payors (including managed care, commercial, and governmental payors such as Medicare and Medicaid), and patients. These expected collections are based on fees and negotiated payment rates in the case of third-party payors, the specific benefits provided for under each patient’s healthcare plan, mandated payment rates in the case of Medicare and Medicaid programs, and historical cash collections (net of recoveries). The recognition of net revenue (gross charges less contractual allowances) from such services is dependent on certain factors, such as the proper completion of medical charts following a patient visit, the forwarding of such charts to our billing center for medical coding and entering into the Company's billing system, and the verification of each patient’s submission or representation at the time services are rendered as to the payor(s) responsible for payment of such services. Revenue is recorded on the date the services are rendered based on the information known at the time of entering of such information into the Company's billing systems as well as an estimate of the revenue associated with medical services.
Oral prescription drugs prescribed by doctors to their patients are sold directly through the TOI PCs’ dispensaries. Revenue for the prescriptions is based on fee schedules set by various PBMs and other third-party payors. The fee schedule is often subject to direct and indirect remuneration (“DIR”) fees, which are based primarily on pre-established metrics. DIR fees may be assessed in the periods after payments are received against future payments. The Company recognizes revenue, deducted by estimated DIR fees, at the time the patient takes possession of the oral drug.
Clinical trials & other revenue
The TOI PCs also enter into contracts to perform clinical research trials. The terms for clinical trial contracts last many months as the clinical research is performed. Each contract represents a single, integrated set of research activities that are satisfied over time as the output of results from the trial is captured for the trial sponsor to review. Under the clinical trial contracts, the TOI PCs receive a fixed payment for administrative, set-up, and close-down fees; a fixed amount for each patient site visit; and certain expense reimbursements. The Company recognizes revenue for these arrangements on the fees earned to date based on the state of the trial, as established under contract with the customer.
Direct costs - patient services
Direct costs - patient services primarily includes chemotherapy drug costs, clinician salaries and benefits, and medical supplies. Clinicians include oncologists, advanced practice providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners, and registered nurses employed by the TOI PCs.
Direct costs - dispensary
Direct costs - dispensary primarily includes the cost of oral medications dispensed in the TOI PCs’ clinic locations.
Direct costs - clinical trials & other
Direct costs - clinical trials & other primarily includes costs related to clinical trial contracts and medical supplies.
Selling, general and administrative expense
Selling, general and administrative expenses include employee-related expenses, including both clinic and field support staff as well as central administrative and corporate staff. These expenses include salaries and related costs and share-based compensation for our executives and physicians. The Company's selling, general and administrative expenses also includes
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occupancy costs, technology infrastructure, operations, clinical and quality support, finance, legal, human resources, and business development. Following the consummation of the Business Combination, general and administrative expenses have increased, and the Company expects continued increases over time, due to the additional legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations and other costs that the Company incurs as a public company, as well as other costs associated with continuing to grow the business. While the Company expects its selling, general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars in the foreseeable future. such expenses are on average expected to decrease as a percentage of revenue over the long term.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our Consolidated Statements of Operations data expressed as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated. The Company’s management is not aware of material events or uncertainties that would cause the financial information below to not be indicative of future operating results or results of future financial condition. The results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 and as of December 31, 2022 reflect the adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (“Topic 842”). See Notes 2 and 10 of the notes to consolidated financial statements for more information. Financial data for the years ended December 31, 2021 and as of December 31, 2021 does not reflect the adoption of Topic 842.
Year Ended December 31,
Clinical trials & other
Total operating revenue
Direct costs – patient services
Direct costs – dispensary
Direct costs – clinical trials & other
Goodwill impairment charges
Selling, general and administrative expense
Depreciation and amortization
Total operating expenses
Loss from operations
Other non-operating expense (income)
Interest expense, net
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
Change in fair value of earnout liabilities
Change in fair value of conversion option derivative liabilities
Gain on loan forgiveness
Total other non-operating income
Loss before provision for income taxes
Income tax benefit
Net income (loss)
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Comparison of the Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Clinical trials & other
Total operating revenue
The increase in patient services revenue was primarily due to a 28.9% increase in FFS revenue as a result of practice acquisitions and an overall increase in clinic count as well as a 5.2% increase in capitation revenue due to new capitation contracts entered into during 2022 and in the latter half of 2021.
The increase in dispensary revenue was primarily due to a 7.5% increase in the average revenue per fill and a 1.7% increase in the number of fills.
Clinical trials & other
For the year ended December 31, 2022, the decrease in clinical trials and other revenue was primarily due to a decrease in other revenue compared to the prior year.
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Direct costs – patient services
Direct costs – dispensary
Direct costs – clinical trials & other
Goodwill impairment charges
Selling, general and administrative expense
Depreciation and amortization
Total operating expenses
Patient services cost
The increase in patient services cost was primarily due to a 21.5% increase in intravenous drug costs, primarily driven by the Company's patient mix and volume, as well as the rising rate of inflation during 2022. In addition, clinical payroll costs increased 12.4% from the prior year due to the growth in clinic count.
The increase in dispensary cost was primarily due to a 3.1% increase in the average cost of the prescriptions filled, and a 1.7% increase in the number of prescriptions filled.
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Goodwill impairment charges
During the year ended December 31, 2022, impairment charges of $9,944 and $0 were recorded related to goodwill and intangible assets, respectively. See Note 2 and Note 18 in Item. 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data for additional detail.
Selling, general and administrative expense
The increase in selling, general and administrative expense was primarily driven by a 16.5% increase in salaries and benefits due to the growth in the Company's management and corporate team, as well as a 6.2% increase in office expenses, 5.5% increase in insurance, and 5.5% increase in professional fees primarily related to the continued growth of our business. In addition, share-based compensation expense increased 3.8%, and contingent consideration from acquisitions resulted in the increase to selling, general, and administrative expense.
Other Non-Operating Expenses (Income)
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Interest expense, net
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
Change in fair value of earnout liabilities
Change in fair value of conversion option derivative liabilities
Gain on loan forgiveness
Total other non-operating expense (income)
The increase in interest expense was primarily the result of interest and amortization related to the Senior Secured Convertible Notes issued during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Change in fair value of liabilities
The increase in non-operating (income) expense was primarily due to gains of $59,215 and $24,200, respectively, as a result of decreases in the fair value of earnout liabilities and conversion option derivative liabilities, which were created as part of the Business Combination and the issuance of the Senior Secured Convertible Note, respectively.
Gain on loan forgiveness
During the year ended December 31, 2022, gain on loan forgiveness of $183 was a result of a CARES Act loan that was acquired as part of a physician practice acquisition and subsequently forgiven. During the year ended December 31, 2021, gain on loan forgiveness of $4,957 was a result of forgiveness of all CARES Act loans, including those obtained through physician practice acquisition.
The change in other, net was primarily due to Provider Relief Funding received under the CARES Act during the year ended December 31, 2021 that did not occur in 2022.
Key Business Metrics
In addition to our financial information, the Company's management reviews a number of operating and financial metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions.
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Year Ended December 31,
Lives under value-based contracts (millions)
Net income (loss)
Adjusted EBITDA (in thousands) (2)
(1) Includes independent oncology practices to which we provide limited management services, but do not bear the operating costs.
(2) Adjusted EBITDA is a "non-GAAP" financial measure with the meaning of Item 10 of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC. The Company defines adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) excluding:
•Depreciation and amortization,
•Interest expense, net,
•Income tax expense,
•Goodwill impairment charges,
•Changes in fair value of liabilities,
•Unrealized (gains) losses on investments
•Practice acquisition-related costs,
•Practice acquisition deferred purchase price,
•Consulting and legal fees,
•Public company transaction costs, and
•Other specific charges.
The Company includes adjusted EBITDA because it is an important measure upon which our management uses to assess the results of operations, to evaluate factors and trends affecting the business, and to plan and forecast future periods.
Management believes that this measure provides an additional way of viewing aspects of the Company's operations that, when viewed with the GAAP results, provides a more complete understanding of the Company's results of operations and the factors and trends affecting the business. However, non-GAAP financial measures should be considered a supplement to, and not as a substitute for, or superior to, the corresponding measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP financial measures used by management may differ from the non-GAAP measures used by other companies, including the Company's competitors. Management encourages investors and others to review the Company's financial information in its entirety, not to rely on any single financial measure.
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The following tables provide a reconciliation of net income (loss), the most closely comparable GAAP financial measure, to Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Net income (loss)
Depreciation and amortization
Interest expense, net
Income tax benefit
Goodwill impairment charges
Change in fair value of liabilities
Unrealized (gains) losses on investments
Practice acquisition-related costs(2)
Post-combination compensation expense(3)
Consulting and legal fees(4)
(1) During the year ended December 31, 2022, non-cash addbacks were primarily comprised of non-cash rent of $711, net bad debt write-offs of $476, and other miscellaneous charges of $22. During the year ended December 31, 2021, non-cash addbacks were primarily comprised of a $4,957 gain on loan forgiveness and $417 of net bad debt recoveries, partially offset by deferred rent of $109 and other miscellaneous charges of $150.
(2) Practice acquisition-related costs were comprised of consulting and legal fees incurred to perform due diligence, execute, and integrate acquisitions of various oncology practices.
(3) Deferred consideration payments for practice acquisitions that are contingent upon the seller’s future employment at the Company.
(4) Consulting and legal fees were comprised of a subset of the Company’s total consulting and legal fees during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, and related to certain advisory projects, software implementations, and legal fees for debt financing and predecessor litigation matters.
(5) Other, net is comprised of severance expenses resulting from cost rationalization programs of $248 and $127, as well as temporary labor of $1,830 and $1,182, recruiting expenses to build out corporate infrastructure of $2,835 and $1,275, and other miscellaneous expense of $117 and $131 during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 such expenses were partially offset by $0 and $1,023, respectively, of stimulus funds received under the CARES Act.
(6) Transaction costs incurred related to the issuance of the Senior Secured Convertible Note such as legal, audit, administrative, and registration fees during the year ended December 31, 2022, and related to the Business Combination during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
To date, the Company has financed its operations principally through debt facilities, issuances of equity securities and payments received from various payors. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $14,010 of cash and cash equivalents, none of which are restricted cash, as well as $59,796 of current marketable securities and $58,354 of noncurrent marketable securities.
The Company expects to incur operating losses and generate negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future due to the investments management intends to continue to make in expanding operations and sales and marketing and due to
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additional general and administrative expenses management expects to incur in connection with operating as a public company. As a result, the Company may require additional capital resources to execute strategic initiatives to grow the business.
Management believes that the cash on hand and investments in marketable securities will be sufficient to fund the Company's operating and capital needs for at least the next 12 months. Management's assessment of the period of time through which our financial resources will be adequate to support our operations is a forward-looking statement and involves risks and uncertainties. The Company's actual results could vary because of, and its future capital requirements will depend on, many factors, including our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to open or acquire new clinics and expand into new markets and the expansion of sales and marketing activities. The Company may in the future enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services and technologies, including intellectual property rights. The Company has based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and the Company could use its available capital resources sooner than management currently expects. The Company may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, the Company may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to management or at all. If unable to raise additional capital when desired, or if the Company cannot expand operations or otherwise capitalize on business opportunities because the Company's lack of sufficient capital, the Company's business, results of operations, and financial condition would be adversely affected.
The following table presents a summary of the Company's consolidated cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities for the periods indicated.
Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Net cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash used in operating activities
Net cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash used in investing activities
Net cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash provided by financing activities
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period
Significant changes impacting net cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 were as follows:
•Net income increased $11,079, primarily as a result of a decrease in the fair value of liabilities of $85,258 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to a decrease in fair value of liabilities of $28,577 during the year ended December 31, 2021;
•Cash used by accounts receivable increased $18,090 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 due to the growth in the Company's business;
•Cash used by accounts payable, accrued expenses and income taxes payable increased $2,535 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily due to an increase in vendor payables due to the growth in the Company's business; and
•Cash used by purchasing inventory decreased $110 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 as a result of an increase in inventory acquired through practice acquisition.
•Cash provided by prepaid and other current assets increased $13,373 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily due to the financing of the Company's directors and officers insurance policy that occurred in 2021.
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Net cash used in investing activities increased $119,460 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 due to purchases of marketable securities of $117,508 that did not occur in the prior year and an increase in cash used for purchases of property and equipment of $2,682 for new clinic builds and clinic remodels, offset by a decrease in cash used for purchases of practice acquisitions and intangibles of $730.
Net cash provided by financing activities decreased $61,804 for the year ended December 31, 2022 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily due to cash received in connection with the Business Combination and the issuance of $20,000 of Legacy Preferred Stock during the year ended December 31, 2021, that did not occur in 2022 offset primarily by $110,000 of proceeds from the issuance of the Senior Secured Convertible Note during year ended December 31, 2022.
Material Cash Requirements
The Company's material cash requirements for the following five years consist of principal and interest due on the convertible note, operating leases and other miscellaneous administrative expenses. Additionally, the Company is subject to certain outside claims and litigation arising out of the ordinary course of business, however, no such litigation requires future cash expenditure as of December 31, 2022.
Material Cash Requirements Due by the Year Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
Deferred acquisition and contingent consideration
Total material cash requirements
(1) Includes principal and interest payments due.
(2) Other is comprised of finance leases and directors and officers insurance premiums.
The Company qualifies as an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), and has elected to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies, but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company that is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Critical Accounting Policies
The Company prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
Variable Interest Entities
The Company consolidates entities for which it has a variable interest and is determined to be the primary beneficiary. The Company holds variable interests in the TOI PCs, comprised of The Oncology Institute CA, a Professional Corporation (“TOI
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CA”) and The Oncology Institute FL, LLC (“TOI FL”) and The Oncology Institute TX, a Professional Association ("TOI TX"), all of which the Company cannot legally own due to jurisdictional laws governing the corporate practice of medicine. The TOI PCs employ physicians and other clinicians in order to provide professional services to patients of our managed clinics, and under substantially similar MSAs, we serve as the exclusive manager and administrator of the TOI PCs’ non-medical functions and services. The TOI PCs are considered variable interest entities (“VIEs”) as they do not have sufficient equity to finance their activities without additional financial support from the Company. An enterprise having a controlling financial interest in a VIE must consolidate the VIE if it has both power and benefits — that is, it has (1) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impacts the VIE’s economic performance (power), and (2) the obligation to absorb the losses of the VIE that potentially could be significant to the VIE or the right to receive benefits from the VIE that potentially could be significant to the VIE (benefits). The Company has the power to control all financial activities of the TOI PCs, the rights to receive substantially all benefits from the VIEs, and consequently consolidates the TOI PCs. Revenues, expenses, and income from the TOI PCs are included in the consolidated amounts as presented on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The Company presents the financial statements by segment in accordance with the relevant accounting literature to provide investors with transparency into how the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) manages the business. The Company's CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. The CODM reviews financial information and allocates resources across three operating segments: dispensary, patient care, and clinical trials & other.
The Company recognizes consolidated revenue based upon the principle of the transfer of control of our goods and services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled. This principle is achieved through applying the following five-step approach:
1.Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer.
2.Identification of the performance obligations in the contract.
3.Determination of the transaction price.
4.Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.
5.Recognition of revenue when, or as, the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
Consolidated revenue primarily consists of capitation revenue, fee-for-service (FFS) revenue, dispensary revenue, and clinical trials revenue. Revenue is recognized in the period in which services are rendered or the period in which the TOI PCs are obligated to provide services. The form of billing and related risk of collection for such services may vary by type of revenue and the payor. The following paragraphs provide a summary of the principal forms of billing arrangements and how revenue is recognized for each.
Capitation contracts have a single performance obligation that is a stand ready obligation to perform specified healthcare services to the population of enrolled members and constitutes a series for the provision of managed healthcare services for the term of the contract, which is deemed to be one month since the mix of patient-customers can and do change month over month. The transaction price for capitation contracts is variable as it primarily includes PMPM fees associated with unspecified membership that fluctuates throughout the term of the contract. Further, we adjust the transaction price for capitation deductions based on historical experience. Revenue is recognized in the month services are rendered on the basis of the transaction price established at that time. If subsequent information resolves uncertainties related to the transaction price, adjustments will be recognized in the period they are resolved. When payment has been received but services have not yet been rendered, the payment is recognized as a contract liability.
Fee For Service
FFS revenue consists of fees for medical services actually provided to patients. These medical services are distinct since the patient can benefit from the medical services on their own. Each service constitutes a single performance obligation for which the patient accepts and receives the benefit of the medical services as they are performed.
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The transaction price from FFS arrangements is variable in nature because fees are based on patient encounters, credits due to patients, and reimbursement of provider costs, all of which can vary from period to period. The Company estimates the transaction price using the most likely methodology and amounts are only included in the net transaction price to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur once any uncertainty is resolved. As a practical expedient, the Company adopted a portfolio approach to determine the transaction price for the medical services provided under FFS arrangements. Under this approach, the Company bifurcated the types of services provided and grouped health plans with similar fees and negotiated payment rates.
At these levels, portfolios share the characteristics conducive to ensuring that the results do not materially differ from the standard applied to individual patient contracts related to each medical service provided.
Revenue is recorded on the date the services are rendered based on the information known at the time of entering of such information into our billing systems as well as an estimate of the revenue associated with medical services. When the performance obligation is not satisfied, the billing is recognized as a contract liability.
Dispensed prescriptions that are filled and delivered to the patient are considered a distinct performance obligation. The transaction price for the prescriptions is based on fee schedules set by PBMs and other third-party payors. The fee schedule is often subject to DIR fees, which are based primarily on pre-established metrics. DIR fees may be assessed in periods after payments are received against future payments. The Company estimates DIR fees to arrive at the transaction price for prescriptions. Revenue is recognized based on the transaction at the time the patient takes possession of the oral drug.
Clinical Research & Other
Clinical research contracts represent a single, integrated set of research activities and thus are a single performance obligation. The performance obligation is satisfied over time as the output is captured in data and documentation that is available for the customer to consume over the course of arrangement and furthers progress of the clinical trial. The Company has elected to recognize revenue for clinical trials using the ‘as-invoiced’ practical expedient. The customer is invoiced periodically based on the progress of the trial such that each invoice captures the revenue earned to date based on the state of the trial as established under contract with the customer.
On January 1, 2022, the Company adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases, with various amendments issued in 2018 and 2019 (collectively, “ASC 842”) using the modified retrospective approach, for leases that existed on January 1, 2022. ASC 842 requires lessees to recognize assets and liabilities for most leases. The Company evaluates whether an arrangement is or contains a lease at contract inception. A lease exists when a contract conveys to the customer the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Upon lease commencement, the date on which a lessor makes the underlying asset available to the Company for use, the Company classifies the lease as either an operating or finance lease. The Company applied certain practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance, including the package of practical expedients, which permits the Company not to reassess its prior conclusions related to lease identification, lease classification, and initial direct costs capitalization. The Company solely acts as a lessee and its leases primarily consist of operating leases for its real estate in the states in which the Company operates. The Company has other operating or financing leases for various clinical and non-clinical equipment.
Generally, upon the commencement of a lease, the Company will record a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and lease liability. An ROU asset represents the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Lease liabilities are measured at the present value of the remaining, fixed lease payments at lease commencement. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, based on the information available at the later of adoption, inception, or modification in determining the present value of lease payments. ROU assets are measured at an amount equal to the initial lease liability, plus any prepaid lease payments (less any incentives received) and initial direct costs, at the lease commencement date. The Company has elected to account for lease and non-lease components as a single lease component for all underlying classes of assets. As a result, the fixed payments that would otherwise be allocable to the non-lease components are account for as lease payments and included in the measurement of the Company’s right-of-use asset and lease liability.
Lease arrangements with an initial term of 12 months or less are considered short-term leases and are not recorded on the balance sheet. The short-term lease payments are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The
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lease term includes any period covered by renewal options available that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise and any options to terminate the lease that the Company is not reasonably certain to exercise.
Direct Costs of Sales
Direct cost of sales primarily consists of wages paid to clinical personnel and other health professionals, oral and IV drug costs, and other medical supplies used to provide patient care. Costs for clinical personnel wages are expensed as incurred and costs for inventory and medical supplies are expensed when used, generally by applying the specific identification method.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
The Company accounts for goodwill and intangible assets under Accounting Standards Codification Topic No. 350, Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). Goodwill represents the excess of the fair value of the consideration conveyed in acquisition over the fair value of net assets acquired.
Goodwill is not amortized but is required to be evaluated for impairment at the same time every year. The Company performs annual testing of impairment for goodwill in the fourth quarter of each year. When impairment indicators are identified, the Company compares the reporting unit’s fair value to its carrying amount, including goodwill. An impairment loss is recognized as the difference, if any, between the reporting unit’s carrying amount and its fair value to the extent the difference does not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
Under ASC 350, finite-lived intangible assets are stated at acquisition-date fair value. Intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method.
Finite-lived intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. When circumstances indicate that recoverability may be impaired, the Company assesses its ability to recover the carrying value of the asset group from the expected future pre-tax cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) of the related operations. If these cash flows are less than the carrying value of such asset, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between estimated fair value and carrying value. Fair value is determined based on appropriate valuation techniques.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For information regarding recent accounting pronouncements, refer to Note 2 of our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of exposure due to potential changes in inflation or interest rates. We do not hold financial instruments for trading purposes.
Interest Rate Risk
We held cash and cash equivalents of $14,010, current marketable securities of $59,796, and noncurrent marketable securities of $58,354 as of December 31, 2022, consisting of bank deposits and Treasury bills. Such interest-earning instruments carry a degree of interest rate risk. The goals of our investment policy are liquidity and capital preservation. We believe that we do not have any material exposure to changes in the fair value of these assets as a results of changes in interest rates due to the short-term nature of our cash and cash equivalents.
Recently, inflation has increased throughout the U.S. economy. Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing the costs of drugs, clinical trials and research, administration and other costs of doing business. We may experience increases in the prices of labor and other costs of doing business. In an inflationary environment, cost increases may outpace our expectations, causing us to use our cash and other liquid assets faster than forecasted. If this happens, we may need to raise additional capital to fund our operations, which may not be available in sufficient amounts or on reasonable terms, if at all, sooner than expected.
Impairment risk refers to the risk that the Company will write down a material amount of its goodwill or intangible assets. This risk is assessed at least annually in the fourth quarter each year when the Company performs its impairment testing. To the
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extent that, among other factors, (i) there is underperformance in one or more reporting units (ii) a potential recession further disrupts the economic environment or (iii) interest rates continue to rise in response to persistent inflation, the fair value of one or more of the reporting units could fall below their carrying value, resulting in a goodwill or intangible impairment charge.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, the Company recognized an impairment charge of $9,944 to write-down the carrying value of goodwill related to patient services in excess of the fair value.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Shareholders and Board of Directors
The Oncology Institute, Inc.
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of The Oncology Institute, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, convertible preferred stock and changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Change in Accounting Method Related to Leases
As discussed in Notes 2 and 10 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed its method of accounting for leases due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Codification 842, Leases effective January 1, 2022 under the modified retrospective approach.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ BDO USA, LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2019.
Costa Mesa, California
March 16, 2023
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THE ONCOLOGY INSTITUTE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(US Dollars in thousands, except share data)
December 31, 2022
December 31, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents (includes restricted cash of $0 and $875 as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021)
Total current assets
Property and equipment, net
Operating right of use assets
Intangible assets, net
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current portion of operating lease liabilities
Current portion of long-term debt
Income taxes payable
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
Total current liabilities
Operating lease liabilities
Derivative warrant liabilities
Derivative earnout liabilities
Conversion option derivative liabilities
Long-term debt, net of unamortized debt issuance costs
Other non-current liabilities
Deferred income taxes liability
Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, authorized 500,000,000 shares; 73,265,621 and 73,249,042 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value, authorized 10,000,000 shares; 165,045 and 163,510 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021
Additional paid-in capital
Total stockholders’ equity
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
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Note: The Company’s consolidated balance sheets include the assets and liabilities of its consolidated variable interest entities (“VIEs”). The consolidated balance sheets include total assets that can be used only to settle obligations of the Company’s consolidated VIEs totaling $70,994 and $42,332 as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, and total liabilities of the Company’s consolidated VIEs for which creditors do not have recourse to the general credit of the Company totaling $154,572 and $79,579 as of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively. See Note 17 for further details.
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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THE ONCOLOGY INSTITUTE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(US Dollars in thousands, except share data)
Year Ended December 31,
Clinical trials & other
Total operating revenue
Direct costs – patient services
Direct costs – dispensary
Direct costs – clinical trials & other
Goodwill impairment charges
Selling, general and administrative expense
Depreciation and amortization
Total operating expenses
Loss from operations
Other non-operating expense (income)
Interest expense, net
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
Change in fair value of earnout liabilities
Change in fair value of conversion option derivative liabilities
Gain on loan forgiveness
Total other non-operating income
Loss before provision for income taxes
Income tax benefit
Net income (loss)
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, basic
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding, basic
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic
Net loss attributable to common stockholders, diluted
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding, diluted
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, diluted
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
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THE ONCOLOGY INSTITUTE, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(US Dollars in thousands, except share and per share data)