Callaway Golf Company
Bylaws Amended/Restated in a 10-Q on 11/06/2019   Download
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EX-3.2 2 ely-exx32q319.htm EXHIBIT 3.2 Exhibit

Exhibit 3.2
SIXTH AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS
OF
CALLAWAY GOLF COMPANY
(A DELAWARE CORPORATION)
(as Amended and Restated Effective August 6, 2019)







INDEX
Article I Corporate Offices
1

 
 
 
 
 
1.1
Registered Office
1

 
1.2
Other Offices
1

 
 
 
 
Article II Meetings of Stockholders
1

 
 
 
 
 
2.1
Place of Meetings
1

 
2.2
Annual Meeting
1

 
2.3
Special Meeting
1

 
2.4
Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting
1

 
2.5
Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors
5

 
2.6
Additional Requirements for Valid Nomination of Candidates to Serve as Director and, if Elected, to be Seated as Directors
8

 
2.7
Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings
9

 
2.8
Conduct of Meeting
10

 
2.9
Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice
10

 
2.10
Quorum
10

 
2.11
Adjourned Meeting; Notice
11

 
2.12
Voting
11

 
2.13
Waiver of Notice
11

 
2.14
Stockholder Action By Written Consent
12

 
2.15
Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting
13

 
2.16
Proxies
14

 
2.17
List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote
14

 
2.18
Meeting By Remote Communications
14

 
 
 
 
Article III Directors
15

 
 
 
 
 
3.1
Powers
15

 
3.2
Number of Directors; Independence
15

 
3.3
Election and Term of Office of Directors
15

 
3.4
Resignation and Vacancies
15

 
3.5
Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone
16

 
3.6
Regular Meetings
16

 
3.7
Special Meetings; Notice
16

 
3.8
Quorum
17

 
3.9
Waiver of Notice
17

 
3.10
Adjournment
17

 
3.11
Notice of Adjournment
17

 
3.12
Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting
17

 
3.13
Fees and Compensation of Directors
17

 
3.14
Approval of Loans to Officers
18

 
 
 
 

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Article IV Committees
18

 
 
 
 
 
4.1
Committees of Directors
18

 
4.2
Meetings and Action of Committees
18

 
4.3
Committee Minutes
19

 
 
 
 
Article V Officers
19

 
 
 
 
 
5.1
Officers
19

 
5.2
Election of Officers
19

 
5.3
Subordinate Officers
19

 
5.4
Removal and Resignation of Officers
19

 
5.5
Vacancies In Offices
20

 
5.6
Chairman of the Board
20

 
5.7
Chief Executive Officer
20

 
5.8
President
20

 
5.9
Vice Presidents
20

 
5.10
Secretary
20

 
5.11
Chief Financial Officer
21

 
 
 
 
Article VI Indemnification of Directors, Officers, Employees and Other Agents
21

 
 
 
 
 
6.1
Indemnification of Directors and Officers
21

 
6.2
Indemnification of Others
22

 
6.3
Insurance
22

 
6.4
Claims
23

 
 
 
 
Article VII Records and Reports
23

 
 
 
 
 
7.1
Maintenance and Inspection of Records
23

 
7.2
Inspection By Directors
23

 
7.3
Representation of Shares of Other Corporations
23

 
7.4
Certification and Inspection of Bylaws
24

 
 
 
 
Article VIII General Matters
24

 
 
 
 
 
8.1
Record Date for Purposes Other than Notice and Voting
24

 
8.2
Checks; Drafts; Evidences of Indebtedness
24

 
8.3
Corporate Contracts and Instruments: How Executed
24

 
8.4
Stock Certificates; Transfer; Partly Paid Shares
24

 
8.5
Special Designation On Certificates
25

 
8.6
Lost Certificates
26

 
8.7
Transfer Agents and Registrars
26

 
8.8
Construction; Definitions
26

 
8.9
Forum Selection
26

 
8.10
Electronic Signatures
27

 
 
 
 
Article IX Amendments
27



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ARTICLE I
CORPORATE OFFICES
1.1    Registered Office
The registered office of the corporation shall be fixed in the certificate of incorporation of the corporation.
1.2    Other Offices
The board of directors may at any time establish branch or subordinate offices at any place or places where the corporation is qualified to do business.
ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
2.1    Place of Meetings
Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware designated by the board of directors, or if so determined by the board of directors, by means of remote communication as set forth in Section 2.18 below. In the absence of any such designation, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.
2.2    Annual Meeting
The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year on a date and at a time designated by the board of directors. At the meeting, directors shall be elected, and any other business properly brought before the meeting may be transacted.
2.3    Special Meeting
A special meeting of the stockholders may be called at any time by the board of directors, or by the chairman of the board, or by the president. No other person or persons are permitted to call a special meeting. The board of directors may postpone, recess, reschedule or cancel any previously scheduled special meeting of stockholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting.
2.4    Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting
(a)    At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the board of directors, (ii) if not specified in the notice of meeting, otherwise brought before the meeting by the board of directors or the chairman of the board or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder present in person who (A) (1) was a beneficial owner of shares of the corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.4 and at the time of the meeting, (2) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (3) has complied with this

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Section 2.4 in all applicable respects or (B) properly made such proposal in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”). The foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. The only matters that may be brought before a special meeting are the matters specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling the meeting pursuant to Section 2.3, and stockholders shall not be permitted to propose business to be brought before a special meeting of the stockholders. For purposes of this Section 2.4, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder proposing that the business be brought before the annual meeting of the corporation, or a qualified representative of such proposing stockholder, appear at such annual meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the board of directors must comply with Section 2.5 and Section 2.6, and this Section 2.4 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Section 2.5 and Section 2.6.
(b)    Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the secretary of the corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.4. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined below) of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 2.4, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the corporation’s books and records) and (B) the class or series and number of shares of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made

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pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) and (B) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);
(ii)    As to each Proposing Person, (A) the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any “derivative security” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(c) under the Exchange Act) that constitutes a “call equivalent position” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(b) under the Exchange Act) (“Synthetic Equity Position”) and that is, directly or indirectly, held or maintained by such Proposing Person with respect to any shares of any class or series of shares of the corporation; provided that, for the purposes of the definition of “Synthetic Equity Position,” the term “derivative security” shall also include any security or instrument that would not otherwise constitute a “derivative security” as a result of any feature that would make any conversion, exercise or similar right or privilege of such security or instrument becoming determinable only at some future date or upon the happening of a future occurrence, in which case the determination of the amount of securities into which such security or instrument would be convertible or exercisable shall be made assuming that such security or instrument is immediately convertible or exercisable at the time of such determination; and, provided, further, that any Proposing Person satisfying the requirements of Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act (other than a Proposing Person that so satisfies Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act solely by reason of Rule 13d-1(b)(1)(ii)(E)) shall not be deemed to hold or maintain the notional amount of any securities that underlie a Synthetic Equity Position held by such Proposing Person as a hedge with respect to a bona fide derivatives trade or position of such Proposing Person arising in the ordinary course of such Proposing Person’s business as a derivatives dealer, (B) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of the corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the corporation, (C) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the corporation, (D) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the corporation or any affiliate of the corporation, on the other hand, (E) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement of such Proposing Person with the corporation or any affiliate of the corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (F) a representation that such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal and (G) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (G) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing

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Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and
(iii)    As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (A) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder(s) or persons(s) who have a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future of the shares of any class or series of the corporation or any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder, and (D) any other information relating to such item of business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that the disclosures required by this paragraph (iii) shall not include any disclosures with respect to any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.
For purposes of this Section 2.4, the term “Proposing Personshall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, and (iii) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation.
(d)    A Proposing Person shall update and supplement its notice to the corporation of its intent to propose business at an annual meeting, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.4 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder

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to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(e)    Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting that is not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 2.4. The presiding officer of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 2.4, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.
(f)    This Section 2.4 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and included in the corporation’s proxy statement. In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.4 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 2.4 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
(g)    For purposes of these bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
2.5    Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors
(a)    Nominations of any person for election to the board of directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the board of directors, including by any committee or persons authorized to do so by the board of directors or these bylaws, or (ii) by a stockholder present in person (A) who was a beneficial owner of shares of the corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.5 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 as to such notice and nomination. For purposes of this Section 2.5, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder proposing that the business be brought before the meeting of the corporation, or a qualified representative of such stockholder, appear at such meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. The foregoing clause (ii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the board of directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.

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(b)    
(i)    Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the board of directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (1) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Section 2.4) thereof in writing and in proper form to the secretary of the corporation, (2) provide the information, agreements and questionnaires with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination required by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 and (3) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6.
(ii)    Without qualification, if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling a special meeting, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the board of directors at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation, (ii) provide the information with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination required by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 and (iii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5. To be timely for purposes of this Section 2.5(b)(ii), a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Section 2.4) of the date of such special meeting was first made.
(iii)    In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(iv)    In no event may a Nominating Person (as defined below) provide notice under this Section 2.5 or otherwise with respect to a greater number of director candidates than are subject to election by stockholders at the applicable meeting. If the corporation shall, subsequent to such notice, increase the number of directors subject to election at the meeting, such notice as to any additional nominees shall be due on the later of (i) the conclusion of the time period for Timely Notice (with respect to an annual meeting), (ii) the date set forth in Section 2.5(b)(ii) (with respect to a special meeting) or (iii) the tenth (10th) day following the date of public disclosure (as defined in Section 2.4) of such increase.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 2.5, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Nominating Person, the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 2.4(c)(i), except that for purposes of this Section 2.5 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(c)(i));

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(ii)    As to each Nominating Person,  any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 2.4(c)(ii), except that for purposes of this Section 2.5 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(c)(ii) and the disclosure with respect to the business to be brought before the meeting in Section 2.4(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting); and
(iii)    As to each candidate whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, (A) all information with respect to such candidate for nomination that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 if such candidate for nomination were a Nominating Person, (B) all information relating to such candidate for nomination that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such candidate’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), (C) a description of any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each candidate for nomination or his or her respective associates or any other participants in such solicitation, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the candidate for nomination were a director or executive officer of such registrant (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (C) are referred to as “Nominee Information”), and (D) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 2.6(a).
For purposes of this Section 2.5, the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, and (iii) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation.
(d)    A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder

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or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any nomination or to submit any new nomination.
(e)    In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.5 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Nominating Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations.
2.6    Additional Requirements for Valid Nomination of Candidates to Serve as Director and, if Elected, to be Seated as Directors
(a)    To be eligible to be a candidate for election as a director of the corporation at an annual or special meeting, a candidate must be nominated in the manner prescribed in Section 2.5 and the candidate for nomination, whether nominated by the board of directors or by a stockholder of record, must have previously delivered (in accordance with the time period prescribed for delivery in a notice to such candidate given by or on behalf of the board of directors), to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation, (i) a completed written questionnaire (in a form provided by the corporation) with respect to the background, qualifications, stock ownership and independence of such proposed nominee and (ii) a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the corporation) that such candidate for nomination (A) is not and, if elected as a director during his or her term of office, will not become a party to (1) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given and will not give any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) or (2) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation or reimbursement for service as a director that has not been disclosed therein or to the corporation, (C) if elected as a director of the corporation, will comply with all applicable corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading and other policies and guidelines of the corporation applicable to directors and in effect during such person’s term in office as a director (and, if requested by any candidate for nomination, the secretary of the corporation shall provide to such candidate for nomination all such policies and guidelines then in effect), and (D) if elected as director of the corporation, intends to serve the entire term until the next meeting at which such candidate would face re-election.
(b)    The board of directors may also require any proposed candidate for nomination as a director to furnish such other information as may reasonably be requested by the board of directors in writing prior to the meeting of stockholders at which such candidate’s nomination is to be acted upon in order for the board of directors to determine the eligibility of such candidate for nomination to be an independent director of the corporation.
(c)    A candidate for nomination as a director shall further update and supplement the materials delivered pursuant to this Section 2.6, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided pursuant to this Section 2.6 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and

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supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation (or any other office specified by the corporation in any public disclosure (as defined in Section 2.4)) not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding nominees, matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(d)    No candidate shall be eligible for nomination as a director of the corporation unless such candidate for nomination and the Nominating Person seeking to place such candidate’s name in nomination has complied with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6, as applicable. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting, the defective nomination shall be disregarded and any ballots cast for the candidate in question (but in the case of any form of ballot listing other qualified nominees, only the ballots cast for the nominee in question) shall be void and of no force or effect.
(e)    Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, no candidate for nomination shall be eligible to be seated as a director of the corporation unless nominated and elected in accordance with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6.
2.7    Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings
All notices of meetings of stockholders shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with Section 2.9 of these bylaws not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting. The notice shall specify the place, date, and hour of the meeting and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and (i) in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called (no business other than that specified in the notice may be transacted) or (ii) in the case of the annual meeting, those matters which the board of directors, at the time of giving the notice, intends to present for action by the stockholders (but any proper matter may be presented at the meeting for such action). The notice of any meeting at which directors are to be elected shall include the name of any nominee or nominees who, at the time of the notice, the board intends to present for election.

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2.8    Conduct of Meeting
The board of directors may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the board, the chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the board or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. Unless and to the extent determined by the board or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
2.9    Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice
Notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given either personally or by mail or by electronic transmission in accordance with Section 232 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or other written communication. Notices not personally delivered, or sent by electronic transmission, shall be sent charges prepaid and shall be addressed to the stockholder at the address of that stockholder appearing on the books of the corporation or given by the stockholder to the corporation for the purpose of notice. Notice shall be deemed to have been given at the time when delivered personally or deposited in the mail or sent by electronic transmission or other means of written communication. Notice by electronic transmission shall be deemed given as provided in Section 232 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware; provided that any notice by electronic transmission will include a prominent legend that the communication is an important notice regarding the corporation.
An affidavit of the mailing or other means of giving any notice of any stockholders’ meeting, executed by the secretary, assistant secretary or any transfer agent of the corporation giving the notice, shall be prima facie evidence of the giving of such notice.
For purposes of these bylaws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
2.10    Quorum
The holders of a majority in voting power of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation.

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When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which, by express provision of the laws of the State of Delaware or of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of the question.
If a quorum be initially present, the stockholders may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum, if any action taken is approved by a majority of the stockholders initially constituting the quorum.
2.11    Adjourned Meeting; Notice
(a)    Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time to any other time and to any other place at which a meeting of stockholders may be held under these bylaws by the board of directors, the chairman of the meeting or, if directed to be voted on by the chairman of the meeting, by the stockholders present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon, although less than a quorum.
(b)    When a meeting is adjourned to another time and place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof, if any, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
2.12    Voting
The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.15 of these bylaws, subject to the provisions of Sections 217 and 218 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners, and to voting trusts and other voting agreements).
Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.
2.13    Waiver of Notice
Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting

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is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
2.14    Stockholder Action By Written Consent
(a)    Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting and without prior notice, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders of record on the record date established pursuant to Section 2.14(b) (the “Written Consent Record Date”) of outstanding shares having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take that action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on that action were present and voted. In the case of election of directors, if the certificate of incorporation so provides, such a consent shall be effective only if signed by the holders of all outstanding shares entitled to vote for the election of directors; provided, however, that a director may be elected at any time to fill a vacancy on the board of directors (other than a vacancy created by the removal of a director) that has not been filled by the directors, by the written consent of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote for the election of directors. To be effective, a written consent must be delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office, its principal place of business or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the books in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. Every written consent shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent and no written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated consent delivered in the manner required by this Section 2.14 to the corporation, written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take action are delivered to the corporation in accordance with this Section 2.14. Any stockholder giving a written consent, or the stockholder’s proxy holders, may revoke the consent by a writing received by the secretary of the corporation before written consents of the number of shares required to authorize the proposed action have been filed with the secretary.
(b)    Without qualification, any stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take any action by written consent shall first request in writing that the board of directors fix a Written Consent Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to take such action, which request shall be in proper form and delivered to, or mailed and received by, the secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation. Within ten (10) days after receipt of a request in proper form and otherwise in compliance with this Section 2.14(b) from any such stockholder, the board of directors may adopt a resolution fixing a Written Consent Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to take such action, which date shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors. If no resolution fixing a record date has been adopted by the board of directors within such ten (10) day period after the date on which such a request is received, (i) the Written Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to such action, when no prior action of the board of directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which valid signed written consents constituting not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take that action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on that action were present and

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voted and setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation in the manner described in Section 2.14(a), and (ii) the Written Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to such action, when prior action by the board of directors is required by applicable law, shall be at the close of business on the date on which the board of directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.
(c)    Any electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxyholder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxyholder, shall be deemed written, signed and dated for purposes of this Section 2.14, provided that any such electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the corporation can determine: (i) that the electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxyholder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxyholder; and (ii) the date on which such stockholder or proxyholder or authorized person or persons transmitted such electronic transmission. The date on which such electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed.
(d)    Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of a consent in writing may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing for any and all purposes for which the original writing could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire writing.
(e)    If the consents of all stockholders entitled to vote have not been solicited in writing, and if the unanimous written consent of all such stockholders shall not have been received, the secretary shall give prompt notice of the corporate action approved by the stockholders without a meeting.
2.15    Record Date for Stockholder Notice; Voting
(a)    
(i)    For purposes of determining the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting or to vote thereat, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors and which shall not be more than sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of any such meeting, and in such event only stockholders of record on the date so fixed are entitled to notice and to vote, notwithstanding any transfer of any shares on the books of the corporation after the record date.
(ii)    If the board of directors does not so fix a record date, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the business day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the business day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.
(iii)    A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting unless the board of directors fixes a new record date for the adjourned meeting, but the board of directors

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shall fix a new record date if the meeting is adjourned for more than thirty (30) days from the date set for the original meeting.
(b)    The record date for any other purpose shall be as provided in Section 8.1 of these bylaws.
2.16    Proxies
Every person entitled to vote for directors, or on any other matter, shall have the right to do so either in person or by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting signed by the person and filed with the secretary of the corporation, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three (3) years from its date unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be deemed signed if the stockholder’s name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature, electronic signature or otherwise) by the stockholder or the stockholder’s attorney-in-fact. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212(e) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware. Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission created pursuant to this paragraph may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire writing or transmission and that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction was authorized by the stockholder.
2.17    List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote
The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.
2.18    Meeting By Remote Communications
The board of directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in accordance with Section 211(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware. If authorized by the board of directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the board of directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication (a) participate in a meeting of stockholders; and (b) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders, whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by

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means of remote communication, provided that (i) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder; (ii) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings; and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the corporation.
Article III
DIRECTORS
3.1    Powers
Subject to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware and any limitations in the certificate of incorporation and these bylaws relating to action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding shares, the business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the board of directors.
3.2    Number of Directors; Independence
(a)    The board of directors shall consist of not less than six (6) nor more than fifteen (15) members, with the exact number within that range to be set from time to time exclusively by resolution of the board of directors.
(b)    A substantial majority of the members of the board of directors shall be independent as determined by the board of directors or as otherwise required by applicable law, regulation or listing standard of the New York Stock Exchange.
3.3    Election and Term of Office of Directors
Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of stockholders to hold office until the next annual meeting. Each director, including a director elected or appointed to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until a successor has been elected and qualified.
3.4    Resignation and Vacancies
Any director may resign effective on giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the chairman of the board, the president, the secretary or the board of directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for that resignation to become effective. If the resignation of a director is effective at a future time, the board of directors may elect a successor to take office when the resignation becomes effective.

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All vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by a majority of the remaining directors, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director; provided, that whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series may be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected.
3.5    Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone
Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware that has been designated from time to time by resolution of the board. In the absence of such a designation, regular meetings shall be held at the principal executive office of the corporation. Special meetings of the board may be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware that has been designated in the notice of the meeting or, if not stated in the notice or if there is no notice, at the principal executive office of the corporation.
Any meeting, regular or special, may be held by conference telephone or similar communication equipment, so long as all directors participating in the meeting can hear one another; and all such directors shall be deemed to be present in person at the meeting.
3.6    Regular Meetings
Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice if the times of such meetings are fixed by the board of directors. If any regular meeting day shall fall on a legal holiday, then the meeting shall be held next succeeding full business day.
3.7    Special Meetings; Notice
Special meetings of the board of directors for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the chairman of the board, the president or a majority of the directors.
Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be delivered personally or by telephone, electronic transmission or other form of recorded communication to each director or sent by mail, charges prepaid, addressed to each director at that director’s address as it is shown on the records of the corporation. If the notice is mailed, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four (4) days before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is delivered personally or by telephone or electronic transmission, it shall be delivered personally or by telephone or electronic transmission, at least forty-eight (48) hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice given personally or by telephone or electronic transmission, may be communicated either to the director or to a person at the office of the director who the person giving the notice has reason to believe will promptly communicate it to the director. The notice need not specify the purpose or the place of the meeting, if the meeting is to be held at the principal executive office of the corporation.


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3.8    Quorum
A majority of the authorized number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, except to adjourn as provided in Section 3.10 of these bylaws. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present shall be regarded as the act of the board of directors, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation and other applicable law.
A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of directors, if any action taken is approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for that meeting.
3.9    Waiver of Notice
Notice of a meeting need not be given to any director (i) who signs a waiver of notice or a consent to holding the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof, whether before or after the meeting, or (ii) who attends the meeting without protesting, prior thereto or at its commencement, the lack of notice to such directors. All such waivers, consents, and approvals shall be filed with the corporate records or made part of the minutes of the meeting. A waiver of notice need not specify the purpose of any regular or special meeting of the board of directors.
3.10    Adjournment
A majority of the directors present, whether or not constituting a quorum, may adjourn any meeting to another time and place.
3.11    Notice of Adjournment
Notice of the time and place of holding an adjourned meeting need not be given unless the meeting is adjourned for more than twenty-four (24) hours. If the meeting is adjourned for more than twenty-four (24) hours, then notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting shall be given before the adjourned meeting takes place, in the manner specified in Section 3.7 of these bylaws, to the directors who were not present at the time of the adjournment.
3.12    Board Action by Written Consent Without a Meeting
Any action required or permitted to be taken by the board of directors may be taken without a meeting, provided that all members of the board individually or collectively consent in writing or by electronic transmission to that action. Such action by written consent shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote of the board of directors. Such consent or consents and any counterparts thereof shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the board in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained.
3.13    Fees and Compensation of Directors
Directors and members of committees may receive such compensation, if any, for their services and such reimbursement of expenses as may be fixed or determined by resolution of the board of directors. This Section 3.13 shall not be construed to preclude any director from serving

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the corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee or otherwise and receiving compensation for those services.
3.14    Approval of Loans to Officers
The corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the directors, such loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board of directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing contained in this Section shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.
ARTICLE IV
COMMITTEES
4.1    Committees of Directors
The board of directors may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the authorized number of directors, designate one (1) or more committees, each consisting of one or more directors, to serve at the pleasure of the board. The board may designate one (1) or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. The appointment of members or alternate members of a committee requires the vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors. Any committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the board, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the board, but no such committee shall have the power or authority to:
(a)    approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the Delaware General Corporation Law to be submitted to stockholders for approval; or
(b)    adopt, amend or repeal any bylaw of the corporation.
4.2    Meetings and Action of Committees
Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of Article III of these bylaws, Section 3.5 (place of meetings), Section 3.6 (regular meetings), Section 3.7 (special meetings and notice), Section 3.8 (quorum), Section 3.9 (waiver of notice), Section 3.10 (adjournment), Section 3.11 (notice of adjournment), and Section 3.12 (action without meeting), with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the board of directors and its members; provided, however, that the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the board of directors or by resolution of the committee, that special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the board of directors, and that notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The board of directors may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.

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4.3    Committee Minutes
Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when requested.
ARTICLE V
OFFICERS
5.1    Officers
The officers of the corporation shall be a chief executive officer, a president, a secretary, and a chief financial officer. The corporation may also have, at the discretion of the board of directors, a chairman of the board, one or more vice presidents, and such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.
5.2    Election of Officers
The officers of the corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 or Section 5.5 of these bylaws, shall be chosen by the board, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.
5.3    Subordinate Officers
The board of directors may appoint, or may empower the chief executive officer or president to appoint, such other officers as the business of the corporation may require, each of whom shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the board of directors or such empowered officer may from time to time determine.
5.4    Removal and Resignation of Officers
Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the board of directors at any regular or special meeting of the board or, except in case of an officer chosen by the board of directors, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the board of directors.
Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice to the corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice; and, unless otherwise specified in that notice, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party.


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5.5    Vacancies In Offices
A vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal, disqualification or any other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed in these bylaws for regular appointments to that office.
5.6    Chairman of the Board
The chairman of the board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if present, preside at meetings of the board of directors and exercise and perform such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned by the board of directors or as may be prescribed by these bylaws.
5.7    Chief Executive Officer
Subject to the control of the board of directors, the chief executive officer shall have general supervision, direction, and control of the business and the officers of the corporation. The chief executive officer shall have such other duties and powers as may be prescribed from time to time by the board of directors or these bylaws.
5.8    President
The president shall have such powers and perform such duties as from time to time may be prescribed by these bylaws, the chief executive officer or the board of directors.
5.9    Vice Presidents
The vice presidents shall have such powers and perform such duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by these bylaws, the chief executive officer or the board of directors.
5.10    Secretary
The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or such other place as the board of directors may direct, a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of directors, committees of directors and stockholders. The minutes shall show the time and place of each meeting, whether regular or special (and, if special, how authorized and the notice given), the names of those present at directors’ meetings or committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at stockholders’ meetings, and the proceedings thereof.
The secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or at the office of the corporation’s transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the board of directors, a share register, or a duplicate share register, showing the names of all stockholders and their addresses, the number and classes of shares held by each, the number and date of certificates evidencing such shares, and the number and date of cancellation of every certificate surrendered for cancellation.
The secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the board of directors required to be given by law or by these bylaws, shall keep the seal

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of the corporation, if one be adopted, in safe custody and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the chief executive officer, board of directors or by these bylaws.
5.11    Chief Financial Officer
The chief financial officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and shares. The books of account shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any director.
The chief financial officer shall deposit all money and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositaries as may be designated by the board of directors. The chief financial officer shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, shall render to the president and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all transactions effected as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of the corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the chief executive officer, board of directors or these bylaws.
ARTICLE VI
INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND OTHER AGENTS
6.1    Indemnification of Directors and Officers
The corporation shall, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware as the same now exists or may hereafter be amended, indemnify any person against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, including any settlement thereof, in which such person was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation. For purposes of this Article VI, a “director” or “officer” of the corporation shall mean any person (i) who is or was a director or officer of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was a director or officer of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.
The corporation shall be required to indemnify a director or officer in connection with an action, suit, or proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such director or officer only if the initiation of such action, suit, or proceeding (or part thereof) by the director or officer was authorized by the board of directors of the corporation.
The corporation shall pay the expenses (including attorney’s fees) incurred by a director or officer of the corporation entitled to indemnification hereunder in defending any action, suit or proceeding referred to in this Section 6.1 in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that payment of expenses incurred by a director or officer of the corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an

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undertaking by the director or officer to repay all amounts advanced if it should ultimately be determined that the director of officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 6.1 or otherwise.
This Section shall create a right of indemnification for each person referred to above, whether or not the proceeding to which the indemnification relates arose in whole or in part prior to the adoption of this Section, and in the event of death, such right shall extend to such person’s legal representatives. The rights conferred on any person by this Section shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws, agreement, vote of the stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise. Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Section shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.
6.2    Indemnification of Others
The corporation shall have the power, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of Delaware as the same now exists or may hereafter be amended, to indemnify any person (other than directors and officers) against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, including any settlement thereof, in which such person was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was an employee or agent of the corporation. For purposes of this Article VI, an “employee” or “agent” of the corporation (other than a director or officer) shall mean any person (i) who is or was an employee or agent of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as an employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was an employee or agent of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.
6.3    Insurance
The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liability under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.


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6.4    Claims
If a claim for indemnification under Section 6.1 (following the final disposition of such proceeding) is not paid in full within sixty (60) days after the corporation has received a claim therefor by a director or officer entitled to indemnification thereunder, or if a claim for any advancement of expenses under Section 6.1 is not paid in full within thirty (30) days after the corporation has received a statement or statements requesting such amounts be advanced, such director or officer shall thereupon (but not before) be entitled to file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim. If successful in whole or in part, such director or officer shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim to the fullest extent permitted by law. In any such action, the corporation shall have the burden of proving that such director or officer is not entitled to the requested indemnification or advancement of expenses under applicable law.
ARTICLE VII
RECORDS AND REPORTS
7.1    Maintenance and Inspection of Records
The corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at such place or places as designated by the board of directors, keep a record of its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these bylaws as amended to date, accounting books and other records of its business and properties.
Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records and to make copies or extracts therefrom. A proper purpose shall mean a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a stockholder. In every instance where an attorney or other agent is the person who seeks the right to inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or such other writing that authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the corporation at its registered office in Delaware or at its principal place of business.
7.2    Inspection By Directors
Any director shall have the right to examine (and to make copies of) the corporation’s stock Any director shall have the right to examine (and to make copies of) the corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders and its other books and records for a purpose reasonably related to his or her position as a director.
7.3    Representation of Shares of Other Corporations
The chairman of the board, if any, the president, any vice president, the chief financial officer, the secretary or any assistant secretary of this corporation, or any other person authorized by the board of directors or the president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of the stock of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this corporation. The authority herein granted may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.

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7.4    Certification and Inspection of Bylaws
The original or a copy of these bylaws, as amended or otherwise altered to date, certified by the secretary, shall be kept at the corporation’s principal executive office and shall be open to inspection by the stockholders of the corporation, at all reasonable times during office hours.
ARTICLE VIII
GENERAL MATTERS
8.1    Record Date for Purposes Other than Notice and Voting
For purposes of determining the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) days before any such action. In that case, only stockholders of record at the close of business on the date so fixed are entitled to receive the dividend, distribution or allotment of rights, or to exercise such rights, as the case may be, notwithstanding any transfer of any shares on the books of the corporation after the record date so fixed, except as otherwise provided in the General Corporation Law of Delaware.
If the board of directors does not so fix a record date, then the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board adopts the applicable resolution.
8.2    Checks; Drafts; Evidences of Indebtedness
From time to time, the board of directors shall determine by resolution which person or persons may sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in the name of or payable to the corporation, and only the persons so authorized shall sign or endorse those instruments.
8.3    Corporate Contracts and Instruments: How Executed
The board of directors, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the board of directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
8.4    Stock Certificates; Transfer; Partly Paid Shares
The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the board of directors of the corporation may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the corporation.

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Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the board of directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates and, upon request, every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the chairman or vice-chairman of the board of directors, or the president or any vice president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of such corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.
In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.
Certificates for shares shall be of such form and device as the board of directors may designate and shall state the name of the record holder of the shares represented thereby; its number; date of issuance; the number of shares for which it is issued; a summary statement or reference to the powers, designations, preferences or other special rights of such stock and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights, if any; a statement or summary of liens, if any; a conspicuous notice of restrictions upon transfer or registration of transfer, if any; a statement as to any applicable voting trust agreement; if the shares be assessable, or, if assessments are collectible by personal action, a plain statement of such facts.
Upon surrender to the secretary or transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.
The corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, or upon the books and records of the corporation in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.
8.5    Special Designation On Certificates
If the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences and the

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relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.
8.6    Lost Certificates
Except as provided in this Section 8.6, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the corporation and cancelled at the same time. The board of directors may, in case any share certificate or certificate for any other security is lost, stolen or destroyed, authorize the issuance of replacement certificates on such terms and conditions as the board may require; the board may require indemnification of the corporation secured by a bond or other adequate security sufficient to protect the corporation against any claim that may be made against it, including any expense or liability, on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of the certificate or the issuance of the replacement certificate.
8.7    Transfer Agents and Registrars
The board of directors may appoint one or more transfer agents or transfer clerks, and one or more registrars, each of which shall be an incorporated bank or trust company — either domestic or foreign, who shall be appointed at such times and places as the requirements of the corporation may necessitate and the board of directors may designate.
8.8    Construction; Definitions
Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions in the General Corporation Law of Delaware shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes both a corporation and a natural person.
8.9    Forum Selection
Unless the corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (the “Court of Chancery”) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder (including a beneficial owner) to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the corporation to the corporation or the corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against the corporation, its directors, officers or employees arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the corporation, its directors, officers or employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine, except as to each of (i) through (iv) above, for any claim as to which the Court of Chancery determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery within ten (10) days following such determination), which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than the Court of Chancery, or for which the Court of Chancery does not have subject matter jurisdiction. If any provision or provisions of this Section 8.9 shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any person or entity or circumstance for any reason whatsoever,

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then, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the validity, legality and enforceability of such provisions in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Section 8.9 (including, without limitation, each portion of any sentence of this Section 8.9 containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) and the application of such provision to other persons or entities and circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this Section. If any action, the subject matter of which is within the scope of the first sentence of this Section, is filed in a court other than the Court of Chancery (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the Court of Chancery in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the first sentence of this Section and (ii) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder.
8.10    Electronic Signatures
Any document, including, without limitation, any consent, agreement, certificate or instrument, required by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws to be executed by any officer, director, stockholder, employee or agent of the corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. All other contracts, agreements, certificates or instruments to be executed on behalf of the corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
ARTICLE IX
AMENDMENTS
The original or other bylaws of the corporation may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote or by the board of directors of the corporation. The fact that such power has been so conferred upon the directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power, nor limit their power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws.
Whenever an amendment or new bylaw is adopted, it shall be copied in the book of bylaws with the original bylaws, in the appropriate place. If any bylaw is repealed, the fact of repeal with the date of the meeting at which the repeal was enacted or the filing of the operative written consent(s) shall be stated in said book.

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