Sio Gene Therapies Inc.
Bylaws Amended/Restated in a 8-K12G3 on 11/13/2020   Download
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EX-3.2 3 a8-k12g3exhibit32.htm EX-3.2 Document






BYLAWS

OF

SIO GENE THERAPIES INC.





ARTICLE I
OFFICES

Section 1.    Registered Office. The registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware shall be as set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”).
Section 2.    Other Offices. The corporation may also have and maintain an office or principal place of business at such place as may be fixed by the Board of Directors of the corporation (the “Board of Directors”), and may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.
ARTICLE II
CORPORATE SEAL

Section 3.    Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal. If adopted, the corporate seal shall consist of a die bearing the name of the corporation and the inscription, “Corporate Seal-Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.
ARTICLE III
STOCKHOLDERS' MEETINGS

Section 4.    Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”) and Section 14 below.
Section 5.    Annual Meetings.
(a)    The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation, for the purpose of election of directors and for such other business as may properly come before it, shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the corporation and proposals of business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders: (i) pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders; (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or a duly authorized committee thereof; or (iii) by any stockholder of the corporation who was a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed or such nomination or nominations are made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the corporation) at the time of giving the stockholder’s notice provided for in Section 5(b) below, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 5. For the avoidance of doubt, clause (iii) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations and submit other business (other than matters properly included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement under Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “1934 Act”)) before an annual meeting of stockholders.
(b)    At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws, and as shall have been properly brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures below.
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(i)    For nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a), the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii) and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each nominee such stockholder proposes to nominate at the meeting: (1) the name, age, business address and residence address of such nominee, (2) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee, (3) the class or series and number of shares of each class or series of capital stock of the corporation that are owned of record and beneficially by such nominee, (4) the date or dates on which such shares were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition, (5) a statement whether such nominee, if elected, intends to tender, promptly following such person’s failure to receive the required vote for election or re-election at the next meeting at which such person would face election or re-election, an irrevocable resignation effective upon acceptance of such resignation by the Board of Directors, and (6) all other information concerning such nominee as would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement soliciting proxies for the election of such nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved and whether or not proxies are being or will be solicited), or that is otherwise required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (including such person’s written consent to being named in the corporation’s proxy statement and associated proxy card as a nominee of the stockholder and to serving as a director if elected); and (B) all of the information required by Section 5(b)(iv). The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation (as such term is used in any applicable stock exchange listing requirements or applicable law) or on any committee or sub-committee of the Board of Directors under any applicable stock exchange listing requirements or applicable law, or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such proposed nominee.
(ii)    Other than proposals sought to be included in the corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act, for business other than nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a), the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii), and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these Bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, and any material interest (including any anticipated benefit of such business to any Proponent (as defined below) other than solely as a result of its ownership of the corporation’s capital stock, that is material to any Proponent individually, or to the Proponents in the aggregate) in such business of any Proponent; and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv).
(iii)    To be timely, the written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the 90th day, nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day, prior to the first anniversary of the immediately preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that, subject to the last sentence of this Section 5(b)(iii), in the event that (A) the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or, if later than the 90th day prior to such annual meeting, the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the corporation or (B) the corporation did not have an annual meeting in the preceding year, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not later than the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. In no event shall an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
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(iv)    The written notice required by Sections 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) shall also set forth, as of the date of the notice and as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (each, a “Proponent” and collectively, the “Proponents”): (A) the name and address of each Proponent, including, if applicable, such name and address as they appear on the corporation’s books and records; (B) the class, series and number of shares of each class or series of the capital stock of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the 1934 Act) by each Proponent (provided, that for purposes of this Section 5(b)(iv), such Proponent shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own all shares of any class or series of capital stock of the corporation as to which such Proponent has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future); (C) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) with respect to such nomination or proposal (and/or the voting of shares of any class or series of capital stock of the corporation) between or among any Proponent and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert, or otherwise under the agreement, arrangement or understanding, with any of the foregoing; (D) a representation that the Proponents are holders of record or beneficial owners, as the case may be, of shares of the corporation at the time of giving notice, will be entitled to vote at the meeting, and intend to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to propose the business that is specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (E) a representation as to whether the Proponents intend to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a sufficient number of the corporation’s voting shares to elect such nominee or nominees (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to carry such proposal (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (F) to the extent known by any Proponent, the name and address of any other stockholder supporting the proposal on the date of such stockholder’s notice; and (G) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each Proponent, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions.
(c)    A stockholder providing the written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or (ii) shall update and supplement such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting and (ii) the date that is five Business Days (as defined below) prior to the meeting and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, five Business Days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (i) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five Business Days after the public announcement of the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than two Business Days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, two Business Days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting.
(d)    Notwithstanding anything in Section 5(b)(iii) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors at the next annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the corporation naming all of the nominees for the Board of Directors or specifying the size of the increased Board of Directors at least 100 days before the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 5 and that complies with the requirements in Section 5(b)(i), other than the timing requirements in Section 5(b)(iii), shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the corporation.
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(e)    A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director at an annual meeting, unless the person is nominated in accordance with either clause (ii) or (iii) of Section 5(a) and in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 5(b), Section 5(c), and Section 5(d), as applicable. Only such business shall be conducted at any annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with clauses (i), (ii), or (iii) of Section 5(a) and in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 5(b) and Section 5(c), as applicable. Except as otherwise required by applicable law, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made, or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, or the Proponent does not act in accordance with the representations in Sections 5(b)(iv)(D) and 5(b)(iv)(E), to declare that such proposal or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded, or that such business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nomination or such business may have been solicited or received.
(f)    Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 5, in order to include information with respect to a stockholder proposal in the proxy statement and form of proxy for a stockholders’ meeting, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to proposals and/or nominations to be considered pursuant to Section 5(a)(iii). Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to nominate and elect directors pursuant to and to the extent provided in any applicable provision of the Certificate of Incorporation.
(g)    For purposes of Sections 5 and 6,
(i)    “affiliates” and “associates” shall have the meanings set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”);
(ii)    “Business Day” means any day other than Saturday, Sunday or a day on which banks are closed in New York City, New York;
(iii)    “close of business” means 6:00 p.m. local time at the principal executive offices of the corporation on any calendar day, whether or not the day is a Business Day;
(iv)    “Derivative Transaction” means any agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding entered into by, or on behalf or for the benefit of, any Proponent or any of its affiliates or associates, whether record or beneficial:

(A) the value of which is derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares or other securities of the corporation;
(B) that otherwise provides any direct or indirect opportunity to gain or share in any gain derived from a change in the value of securities of the corporation;
(C) the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit of security value or price changes; or
(D) that provides the right to vote or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proponent, or any of its affiliates or associates, directly or indirectly, with respect to any securities of the corporation,
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which agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding may include, without limitation, any option, warrant, debt position, note, bond, convertible security, swap, stock appreciation or similar right, short position, profit interest, hedge, right to dividends, voting agreement, performance-related fee or arrangement to borrow or lend shares (whether or not subject to payment, settlement, exercise or conversion in any such class or series), and any proportionate interest of such Proponent in the securities of the corporation held by any general or limited partnership, or any limited liability company, of which such Proponent is, directly or indirectly, a general partner or managing member; and
(v)    “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act or by such other means reasonably designed to inform the public or security holders in general of such information, including, without limitation, posting on the corporation’s investor relations website.
Section 6.    Special Meetings.
(a)    Special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation (i) may be called, for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, by (A) the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, (B) the Principal Executive Officer, (C) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption), (D) any two directors, or (E) any director and the Secretary, and (ii) shall be called, for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, by the Secretary of the corporation following receipt at the principal executive offices of the corporation of one or more written requests of stockholders submitted by or on behalf of the record holder or holders of not less than 10% of the voting power of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation provided that such written request is in compliance with the requirements of Section 6(b) hereof (a “Stockholder-Requested Meeting”). A request to call a special meeting pursuant to Section 6(a)(ii) shall not be valid unless made in accordance with the requirements and procedures set forth in this Section 6. Except as may otherwise be required by applicable law, the Board of Directors shall determine, in its sole judgment, the validity of any request under Section 6(a)(ii), including whether such request was properly made in compliance with these Bylaws.
(b)    For a special meeting called pursuant to Section 6(a)(i), the Board of Directors shall determine the time and place, if any, of such special meeting. In lieu of holding a special meeting of stockholders at a designated place, the Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall be held solely by means of remote communication. Upon determination of the time and place, if any, of the meeting, the Secretary shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 7. For a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, the request shall (i) be in writing, signed and dated by a stockholder of record, (ii) set forth the purpose of calling the special meeting and include the information required by the stockholder’s notice as set forth in Section 5(b)(i), (for nominations for the election to the Board of Directors) and in Section 5(b)(ii) (for the proposal of business other than nominations), (iii) not be an Excluded Request (as defined below), and (iv) be delivered personally or sent by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). If the Board of Directors determines that a request pursuant to Section 6(a)(ii) is valid, the Board of Directors shall determine the time and place, if any, of a Stockholder-Requested Meeting and shall set a record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting in the manner set forth in Section 40. Following determination of the time and place, if any, of the meeting, the Secretary shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 7. No business may be transacted at a special meeting, including a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, otherwise than as specified in the notice of meeting. An “Excluded Request” shall mean a written request of a stockholder that relates to a nomination for the election to the Board of Directors or other proposals of business (x) previously presented to stockholders at an annual or special meeting of stockholders held within the last 12 months determined from the date such new written request is received by the corporation, or (y) to be transacted at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, the date of which meeting is within the next three months from the date the written request is received.
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(c)    In the case of a special meeting called by the Secretary following receipt of special meeting request or requests from stockholders pursuant to Section 6(a)(ii) and made in accordance with Section 6(b), each demanding stockholder shall further update and supplement his or her special meeting demand so that the information provided or required to be provided in such special meeting demand pursuant to Section 6(b) shall be true and correct both as of (i) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting and (ii) the date that is five Business Days prior to the meeting and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, five Business Days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (i) of this Section 6(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five Business Days after the public announcement of the record date for determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of this Section 6(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than two Business Days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, two Business Days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting.
(d)    Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or a duly authorized committee thereof or (ii) by any stockholder of the corporation who is a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination or nominations are made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the corporation) at the time of giving notice provided for in this paragraph, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who delivers written notice to the Secretary of the corporation setting forth the information required by Sections 5(b)(i) and 5(b)(iv). In the event the corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder of record may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting, if written notice setting forth the information required by Sections 5(b)(i) and 5(b)(iv) shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not earlier than 120 days prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such meeting or the tenth day following the day on which the corporation first makes a public announcement of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). In no event shall an adjournment or a postponement of a special meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director at the special meeting unless the person is nominated either in accordance with clause (i) or clause (ii) of this Section 6(d). Except as otherwise required by applicable law, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination was made in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, or if the Proponent does not act in accordance with the representations in Sections 5(b)(iv)(D) and 5(b)(iv)(E), to declare that such nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nomination may have been solicited or received.
(e)    Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 6, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to matters set forth in this Section 6. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to nominations for the election to the Board of Directors and/or proposals of other business to be considered pursuant to Section 6(a)(ii) or Section 6(d).
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Section 7.    Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by applicable law, notice, given in writing or by electronic transmission, of each meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. Such notice shall specify the place, if any, date and hour, in the case of special meetings, the purpose or purposes of the meeting, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such record date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at any such meeting. If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. If sent via electronic transmission, notice is given when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address unless (a) the stockholder has notified the corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail or (b) electronic transmission of such notice is prohibited by applicable law. Notice of the time, place, if any, and purpose of any meeting of stockholders (to the extent required) may be waived in writing, signed by the person entitled to notice thereof, or by electronic transmission by such person, either before or after such meeting, and will be waived by any stockholder by his or her attendance thereat in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy, except when the stockholder attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Any stockholder so waiving notice of such meeting shall be bound by the proceedings of any such meeting in all respects as if due notice thereof had been given.
Section 8.    Quorum and Vote Required. At all meetings of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, the presence, in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy duly authorized, of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote at the meeting shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned, from time to time, either by the chairperson of the meeting or by vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares represented thereat and entitled to vote thereon, but no other business shall be transacted at such meeting. The stockholders present at a duly called or convened meeting, at which a quorum is present, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum. Except as otherwise provided by statute, by applicable stock exchange rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in all matters, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy duly authorized at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively (excluding abstentions and broker non-votes) on such matter shall be the act of the stockholders. If the number of nominees for director exceeds the number of directors to be elected, the directors shall be elected by the vote of a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote at the election. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws or any applicable stock exchange rules, a majority of the voting power of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy duly authorized, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. Except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws or any applicable stock exchange rules, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority (plurality, in the case of the election of directors) of the voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively (excluding abstention and broker non-votes) on such matter shall be the act of such class or classes or series.
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Section 9.     Adjournment and Notice of Adjourned Meetings. Any meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time either by the chairperson of the meeting or by the vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy duly authorized at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon. When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, if any, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed present in person and may vote at such meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
Section 10.    Voting Rights. For the purpose of determining those stockholders entitled to vote by written consent or at any meeting of the stockholders or adjournment thereof, except as otherwise provided by applicable law, only persons in whose names shares stand on the stock records of the corporation on the record date shall be entitled to vote by written consent or at any meeting of stockholders. Every person entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall have the right to do so either in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by an agent or agents authorized by a proxy granted in accordance with Delaware law. An agent so appointed need not be a stockholder. No proxy shall be voted after three years from its date of creation unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by delivering to the Secretary of the corporation a revocation of the proxy or a new proxy bearing a later date. Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot.
Section 11.    Joint Owners of Stock. If shares or other securities having voting power stand of record in the names of two or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if two or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only one votes, his or her act binds all; (b) if more than one votes, the act of the majority so voting binds all; (c) if more than one votes, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or may apply to the Delaware Court of Chancery for relief as provided in Section 217(b) of the DGCL. If the instrument filed with the Secretary shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even-split for the purpose of subsection (c) shall be a majority or even-split in interest.
Section 12.    List of Stockholders. The corporation shall prepare, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number and class of shares registered in the name of each stockholder; provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect all of the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. The list shall be open to examination of any stockholder during the time of the meeting as provided by applicable law.

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Section 13.    Action without Meeting.
(a)    Any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders may be taken without a meeting and without prior notice, if a consent in writing, setting forth the action so taken, is signed by the holders of outstanding shares having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take that action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote on that action were present and voted. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, no director may be elected by written consent unless such consent is by unanimous written consent of all shares entitled to vote for the election of directors; provided, however, that a director may be elected at any time, by the written consent of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote for the election of directors, to fill a vacancy (unless such vacancy is created by removal) on the Board unless previously filled by action of the Board.
(b)    All written consents shall be filed with the Secretary of the corporation and shall be maintained in the corporate records. Any stockholder giving a written consent, or the stockholder’s proxy holders, or a transferee of the shares or a personal representative of the stockholder or their respective proxy holders, may revoke the consent by a writing received by the Secretary of the corporation before written consents of the number of shares (including those whose consent is sought to be revoked) required to authorize the proposed action have been filed with the Secretary. If the consents of all stockholders entitled to vote have not been solicited in writing, and if the unanimous written consent of all such shareholders shall not have been received, the Secretary shall give prompt notice of the corporate action approved by the stockholders without a meeting.
Section 14.    Remote Communication. For the purposes of these Bylaws, if authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders may, by means of remote communication:
(a)    participate in a meeting of stockholders; and
(b)    be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that (i) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder, (ii) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings, and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the corporation.
Section 15.    Organization.
(a)    At every meeting of stockholders, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairperson has not been appointed, is absent or refuses to act, the Principal Executive Officer, or if no Principal Executive Officer is then serving or the Principal Executive Officer is absent or refuses to act, the President, or, if the President is absent or refuses to act, a chairperson of the meeting designated by the Board of Directors, or, if the Board of Directors does not designate such chairperson, a chairperson of the meeting chosen by a majority of the voting power of the stockholders entitled to vote, present in person or by proxy duly authorized, shall act as chairperson of the meeting of stockholders. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors may appoint the Principal Executive Officer as chairperson of the meeting. The Secretary, or, in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary or other officer or other person directed to do so by the chairperson of the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting.
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(b)    The Board of Directors shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairperson, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on participation in such meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation and their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairperson shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting on matters that are to be voted on by ballot. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairperson of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with rules of parliamentary procedure.
ARTICLE IV
DIRECTORS

Section 16.    Number and Term of Office. The authorized number of directors of the corporation shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation. If for any cause, the directors shall not have been elected at an annual meeting, they may be elected as soon thereafter as convenient at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose in the manner provided in these Bylaws.
Section 17.    Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL.
Section 18.    Classes of Directors. The directors shall be divided into classes as and to the extent provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, except as otherwise required by applicable law.
Section 19.    Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect additional directors or fill vacancies with respect to such directors, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or by a sole remaining director, and not by the stockholders, provided, however, that whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified. A vacancy in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist under this Bylaw in the case of the death, removal or resignation of any director.
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Section 20.    Resignation. Any director may resign at any time by delivering his or her notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors or the Secretary. Such resignation shall take effect at the time of delivery of the notice or at any later time specified therein. Acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. When one or more directors shall resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the director whose place shall be vacated and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
Section 21.    Removal. Subject to any rights of any series of preferred stock to remove directors elected by such series of preferred stock, any individual director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation, entitled to vote generally at an election of directors.
Section 22.    Meetings.
(a)    Regular Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time or date and at any place within or without the State of Delaware that has been designated by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors, either orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice-messaging system or other system designed to record and communicate messages, or by electronic mail or other electronic means. No further notice shall be required for regular meetings of the Board of Directors.
(b)    Special Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time and place within or without the State of Delaware as designated and called by any director.
(c)    Meetings by Electronic Communications Equipment. Any member of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
(d)    Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors shall be deemed to be duly given to a director if it is given to such director verbally (including in person or by telephone) or otherwise communicated or sent to such director by post, electronic means or other mode of representing words in a visible form at such director's last known address or in accordance with any other instructions given by such director to the Corporation for this purpose at least 24 hours prior to such meeting of the Board of Directors, unless each Director attends or gives his prior written consent to the meeting being held on such shorter notice.
(e)    Waiver of Notice. Notice of any meeting of the Board of Directors may be waived in writing, or by electronic transmission, at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. The transaction of all business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, however called or noticed, or wherever held, shall be as valid as though it had been transacted at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum be present and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the directors not present who did not receive notice shall sign a written waiver of notice or shall waive notice by electronic transmission. All such waivers shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.

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Section 23.    Quorum and Voting.
(a)    Unless the Certificate of Incorporation requires a greater number, and except with respect to questions related to indemnification arising under Section 47 for which a quorum shall be one-third of the exact number of directors fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation, a quorum of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the total number of directors then serving on the Board of Directors. At any meeting whether a quorum be present or otherwise, a majority of the directors present may adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting of the Board of Directors, without notice other than by announcement at the meeting.
(b)    At each meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present, all questions and business shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, unless a different vote be required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
Section 24.    Action without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. Such consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
Section 25.    Fees and Compensation. Directors shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as may be approved by the Board of Directors , including, if so approved, by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and reimbursement of expenses incurred, if any, for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors and at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors, as well as reimbursement for other reasonable expenses incurred with respect to duties as a member of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation therefor.
Section 26.    Committees.
(a)    Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may appoint an Executive Committee to consist of one or more members of the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, to the extent permitted by applicable law and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any Bylaw of the corporation.
(b)    Other Committees. The Board of Directors may, from time to time, appoint such other committees as may be permitted by applicable law. Such other committees appointed by the Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members of the Board of Directors and shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed by the resolution or resolutions creating such committees, but in no event shall any such committee have the powers denied to the Executive Committee in these Bylaws.
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(c)    Term. The Board of Directors, subject to any requirements of any outstanding series of preferred stock and the provisions of subsections (a) or (b) of this Section 26, may at any time increase or decrease the number of members of a committee or terminate the existence of a committee. The membership of a committee member shall terminate on the date of his or her death or voluntary resignation from the committee or from the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may at any time for any reason remove any individual committee member and the Board of Directors may fill any committee vacancy created by death, resignation, removal or increase in the number of members of the committee. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee, and, in addition, in the absence or disqualification of any member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.
(d)    Meetings. Unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide, regular meetings of the Executive Committee or any other committee appointed pursuant to this Section 26 shall be held at such times and places, if any, as are determined by the Board of Directors, or by any such committee, and when notice thereof has been given to each member of such committee, no further notice of such regular meetings need be given thereafter. Special meetings of any such committee may be held at such place, if any, that has been determined from time to time by such committee, and may be called by any director who is a member of such committee, upon notice to the members of such committee of the time and place, if any, of such special meeting given in the manner provided for the giving of notice to members of the Board of Directors of the time and place, if any, of special meetings of the Board of Directors. Notice of any meeting of any committee may be waived in writing or by electronic transmission at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends such meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors in the resolutions authorizing the creation of the committee, a majority of the authorized number of members of any such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of those present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of such committee.
Section 27.    Lead Independent Director. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or if the Chairperson is not an independent director, one of the independent directors, may be designated by the Board of Directors as lead independent director to serve until replaced by the Board of Directors (“Lead Independent Director”). The Lead Independent Director will: with the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, establish the agenda for regular meetings of the Board of Directors and serve as chairperson of Board of Directors meetings in the absence of the Chairperson of the Board of Directors; establish the agenda for meetings of the independent directors; coordinate with the committee chairs regarding meeting agendas and informational requirements; preside over any portions of meetings of the Board of Directors at which the performance of the Board of Directors is presented or discussed; and perform such other duties as may be established or delegated by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors.
Section 28.    Duties of Chairperson of the Board of Directors. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors, when present, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors shall perform such other duties customarily associated with the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.
Section 29.    Organization. At every meeting of the directors, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairperson has not been appointed or is absent, the Lead Independent Director, or if the Lead Independent Director is absent, the Principal Executive Officer (if a director), or, if a Principal Executive Officer is absent, the President (if a director), or if the President is absent, the most senior Vice President (if a director), or, in the absence of any such person, a chairperson of the meeting chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall preside over the meeting. The Secretary, or in his or her absence, any Assistant Secretary or other officer, director or other person directed to do so by the person presiding over the meeting, shall act as secretary of the meeting.

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ARTICLE V
OFFICERS

Section 30.    Officers Designated. The officers of the corporation shall include, if and when designated by the Board of Directors, the Principal Executive Officer, Principal Financial Officer, the Secretary and any such officers as the Board shall deem appropriate or necessary. The Board of Directors may also appoint one or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers and such other officers and agents with such powers and duties as it shall deem appropriate or necessary. The Board of Directors may assign such additional titles to one or more of the officers as it shall deem appropriate. Any one person may hold any number of offices of the corporation at any one time unless specifically prohibited therefrom by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. The salaries and other compensation of the officers of the corporation shall be fixed by or in the manner designated by the Board of Directors or by a committee thereof to which the Board of Directors has delegated such responsibility.
Section 31.    Tenure and Duties of Officers. General. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until their successors shall have been duly elected and qualified, unless sooner removed. If the office of any officer becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors or by a committee thereof to which the Board of Directors has delegated such responsibility or, if so authorized by the Board of Directors, by the Principal Executive Officer or another officer of the corporation.
Section 32.    Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
Section 33.    Resignations. Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors, the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Principal Executive Officer or the Secretary. Any such resignation shall be effective when received by the person or persons to whom such notice is given, unless a later time is specified therein, in which event the resignation shall become effective at such later time. Unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract with the resigning officer.
Section 34.    Removal. Any officer may be removed from office at any time, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors, or by any committee thereof or any superior officer upon whom such power of removal may have been conferred by the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE VI
EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND VOTING OF SECURITIES OWNED BY THE CORPORATION

Section 35.    Execution of Corporate Instruments. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute, sign or endorse on behalf of the corporation any corporate instrument or document, or to sign on behalf of the corporation the corporate name without limitation, or to enter into contracts on behalf of the corporation, except where otherwise provided by applicable law or these Bylaws, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the corporation.
All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositaries on funds to the credit of the corporation or in special accounts of the corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall from time to time authorize so to do.
Unless otherwise specifically determined by the Board of Directors or otherwise required by applicable law, the execution, signing or endorsement of any corporate instrument or document may be effected manually, by facsimile or (to the extent permitted by applicable law and subject to such policies and procedures as the corporation may have in effect from time to time) by electronic signature.
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Unless authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
Section 36.    Voting of Securities Owned by the Corporation. All stock and other securities of or interests in other corporations or entities owned or held by the corporation for itself, or for other parties in any capacity, shall be voted, and all proxies with respect thereto shall be executed, by the person authorized so to do by resolution of the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of such authorization, by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Principal Executive Officer, the President, or any Vice President.
ARTICLE VII
SHARES OF STOCK

Section 37.    Form and Execution of Certificates. The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, or shall be uncertificated if so provided by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors. Certificates for the shares of stock, if any, shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock in the corporation represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the corporation by any two authorized officers of the corporation, certifying the number, and the class or series, of shares owned by such holder in the corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.
Section 38.    Lost Certificates. A new certificate or certificates shall be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The corporation may require, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate or certificates, the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or the owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the corporation in such manner as it shall require or to give the corporation a surety bond in such form and amount as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed.
Section 39.    Transfers.
(a)    Transfers of record of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by attorney duly authorized, and, in the case of stock represented by certificate, upon the surrender of a properly endorsed certificate or certificates for a like number of shares.
(b)    The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes or series of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one or more classes or series owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.

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Section 40.    Fixing Record Dates.
(a)    In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, subject to applicable law, not be more than 60 nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting, unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of such meeting, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day immediately preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day immediately preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Section 40(a).
(b)    In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, so long as such action is provided for, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which date shall not be more than ten days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. Any stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take corporate action by written consent may, by written notice to the Secretary, request the Board of Directors to fix a record date. The Board of Directors shall promptly, but in all events within ten days after the date on which such a request is received, adopt a resolution fixing the record date. If no request to fix a record date is made or no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors within ten days of the date on which such a request is received, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.
(c)    In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 41.    Registered Stockholders. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.
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Section 42.    Additional Powers of the Board. In addition to, and without limiting, the powers set forth in these Bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have power and authority to make all such rules and regulations as it shall deem expedient concerning the issue, transfer, and registration of certificates for shares of stock of the corporation, including the use of uncertificated shares of stock, subject to the provisions of the DGCL, other applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws. The Board of Directors may appoint and remove transfer agents and registrars of transfers, and may require all stock certificates to bear the signature of any such transfer agent and/or any such registrar of transfers.
ARTICLE VIII
OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION

Section 43.    Execution of Other Securities. All bonds, debentures and other corporate securities of the corporation, other than stock certificates (covered in Section 35), may be signed by the Chairperson of the Board of Directors, the Principal Executive Officer, the President or any Vice President, or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that where any such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be authenticated by the manual signature, or where permissible facsimile signature, of a trustee under an indenture pursuant to which such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be issued, the signatures of the persons signing and attesting the corporate seal on such bond, debenture or other corporate security may be the imprinted facsimile of the signatures of such persons. Interest coupons appertaining to any such bond, debenture or other corporate security, authenticated by a trustee as aforesaid, shall be signed by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer of the corporation or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, or bear imprinted thereon the facsimile signature of such person. In case any officer who shall have signed or attested any bond, debenture or other corporate security, or whose facsimile signature shall appear thereon or on any such interest coupon, shall have ceased to be such officer before the bond, debenture or other corporate security so signed or attested shall have been delivered, such bond, debenture or other corporate security nevertheless may be adopted by the corporation and issued and delivered as though the person who signed the same or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer of the corporation.
ARTICLE IX
DIVIDENDS

Section 44.    Declaration of Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.
Section 45.    Dividend Reserve. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in its absolute discretion, determines proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose or purposes as the Board of Directors shall determine to be conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.
ARTICLE X
FISCAL YEAR

Section 46.    Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors and failing such resolution shall be the 31st of March of each calendar year.

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ARTICLE XI
INDEMNIFICATION

Section 47.    Indemnification of Directors, Executive Officers, Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents.
(a)    Directors and Executive Officers. The corporation shall indemnify to the full extent permitted under and in any manner permitted under the DGCL or any other applicable law, any person who is made or threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved (as a witness or otherwise) in any threatened, pending, or completed action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative (hereinafter, a “Proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, executive officer (for the purposes of this Article XI, “executive officers” shall be those persons designated by the corporation as (a) executive officers for purposes of the disclosures required in the corporation’s proxy and periodic reports or (b) officers for purposes of Section 16 of the 1934 Act) of the corporation, or while serving as a director or officer of the corporation, is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee, or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (collectively, “Another Enterprise”), against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines (including ERISA excise taxes or penalties) and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with such Proceeding if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful; provided, however, that the corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and executive officers; and, provided, further, that the corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by applicable law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by the Board of Directors of the corporation, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the DGCL or any other applicable law or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under subsection (d) of this Section 47.
(b)    Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents. The corporation shall have power to indemnify (including the power to advance expenses in a manner consistent with subsection (c) of this Section 47) its other officers, employees and other agents as set forth in the DGCL or any other applicable law. The Board of Directors shall have the power to delegate the determination of whether indemnification shall be given to any such person except executive officers to such officers or other persons as the Board of Directors shall determine.
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(c)    Expenses. The corporation shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed Proceeding, by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or executive officer, of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or executive officer of Another Enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the Proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by any director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding provided, however, that if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or executive officer in his or her capacity as a director or executive officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to the corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this section or otherwise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, no advance shall be made by the corporation to an executive officer of the corporation (except by reason of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the corporation in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any Proceeding, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (i) by a majority vote of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, even if not a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation.
(d)    Enforcement. Without the necessity of entering into an express contract, all rights to indemnification and advances to directors and executive officers under this Bylaw shall be deemed to be contractual rights, shall vest when the person becomes a director or executive officer of the corporation, shall continue as vested contract rights even if such person ceases to be a director or executive officer of the corporation, and shall be effective to the same extent and as if provided for in a contract between the corporation and the director or executive officer. Any right to indemnification or advances granted by this section to a director or executive officer shall be enforceable by or on behalf of the person holding such right in any court of competent jurisdiction if (i) the claim for indemnification or advances is denied, in whole or in part, or (ii) no disposition of such claim is made within 90 days of request therefor. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, the claimant in such enforcement action, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting the claim. In connection with any claim for indemnification, the corporation shall be entitled to raise as a defense to any such action that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct that make it permissible under the DGCL or any other applicable law for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. In connection with any claim by an executive officer of the corporation (except in any Proceeding, by reason of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the corporation) for advances, the corporation shall be entitled to raise a defense as to any such action clear and convincing evidence that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, or with respect to any criminal action or proceeding that such person acted without reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was lawful. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL or any other applicable law, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.
(e)    Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this section shall not be exclusive of any other right that such person may have or hereafter acquire under any applicable statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his or her official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL, or by any other applicable law.
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(f)    Survival of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or executive officer or officer, employee or other agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
(g)    Insurance. To the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL or any other applicable law, the corporation, upon approval by the Board of Directors, may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person required or permitted to be indemnified pursuant to this section.
(h)    Amendments. Any repeal or modification of this section shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this section as in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any Proceeding against any agent of the corporation.

(i)    Saving Clause. If this Article XI or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each director and executive officer to the full extent not prohibited by any applicable portion of this Article XI that shall not have been invalidated, or by any other applicable law. If this Article XI shall be invalid due to the application of the indemnification provisions of another jurisdiction, then the corporation shall indemnify each director and executive officer to the full extent under any other applicable law.
(j)    Certain Definitions and Construction of Terms. For the purposes of Article XI of these Bylaws, the following definitions and rules of construction shall apply:
(i)    The term “Proceeding” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, the investigation, preparation, prosecution, defense, settlement, arbitration and appeal of, and the giving of testimony in, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative.
(ii)    The term “expenses” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, court costs, attorneys’ fees, witness fees, fines, amounts paid in settlement or judgment and any other costs and expenses of any nature or kind incurred in connection with any proceeding.

(iii)    The term the “corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger that, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this section with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.
(iv)    References to a “director,” “executive officer,” “officer,” “employee,” or “agent” of the corporation shall include, without limitation, situations where such person is serving at the request of the corporation as, respectively, a director, executive officer, officer, employee, trustee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.

(v)    References to “Another Enterprise” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation that imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the corporation” as referred to in this section.
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ARTICLE XII
NOTICES

Section 48.    Notices.
(a)    Notice to Stockholders. Notice to stockholders of stockholder meetings shall be given as provided in Section 7. Without limiting the manner by which notice may otherwise be given effectively to stockholders under any agreement or contract with such stockholder, and except as otherwise required by applicable law, written notice to stockholders for purposes other than stockholder meetings may be sent by U.S. mail or nationally recognized overnight courier, or by electronic mail or other electronic means.
(b)    Notice to Directors. Any notice required to be given to any director may be given by the method stated in subsection (a), as otherwise provided in these Bylaws (including by any of the means specified in Section 22(d)), or by overnight delivery service. Any notice sent by overnight delivery service or U.S. mail shall be sent to such address as such director shall have filed in writing with the Secretary, or, in the absence of such filing, to the last known post office address of such director.

(c)    Affidavit of Mailing. An affidavit of mailing, executed by a duly authorized and competent employee of the corporation or its transfer agent appointed with respect to the class of stock affected, or other agent, specifying the name and address or the names and addresses of the stockholder or stockholders, or director or directors, to whom any such notice or notices was or were given, and the time and method of giving the same, shall in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained.

(d)    Methods of Notice. It shall not be necessary that the same method of giving notice be employed in respect of all recipients of notice, but one permissible method may be employed in respect of any one or more, and any other permissible method or methods may be employed in respect of any other or others.

(e)    Notice to Person with Whom Communication is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under applicable law or any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the corporation, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.

(f)    Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address. Except as otherwise prohibited under the DGCL, any notice given under the provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Such consent shall have been deemed to have been given if such stockholder fails to object in writing to the corporation within 60 days of having been given notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice. Any consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation.


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ARTICLE XIII
AMENDMENTS

Section 49.    Amendments. Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 47(h) or the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the corporation by the Board of Directors shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors. The stockholders also shall have power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation; provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the corporation required by applicable law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
ARTICLE XIV
LOANS TO OFFICERS

Section 50.    Loans to Officers. Except as otherwise prohibited by applicable law, the corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, such loan, guarantee or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guarantee or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the Board of Directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.
ARTICLE XV
EXCLUSIVE FORUM
Section 51.    Exclusive Delaware Court Forum. Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if and only if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware or, if and only if all such state courts lack subject matter jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) and any appellate court therefrom shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the following claims or causes of action under the Delaware statutory or common law: (A) any derivative claim or cause of action brought on behalf of the Corporation; (B) any claim or cause of action for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Corporation, to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders; (C) any claim or cause of action against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Corporation, arising out of or pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, this Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws of the Corporation (as each may be amended from time to time); (D) any claim or cause of action seeking to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of this Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws of the Corporation (as each may be amended from time to time, including any right, obligation, or remedy thereunder); (E) any claim or cause of action as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; and (F) any claim or cause of action against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Corporation, governed by the internal-affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. This Section 51 shall not apply to claims or causes of action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the 1933 Act, or the 1934 Act, as amended, or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.
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Section 52.    Exclusive Federal Forum. Unless the corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the 1933 Act.

Section 53.    Any person or entity holding, owning or otherwise acquiring any interest in any security of the corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article XV.
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