Travere Therapeutics, Inc.
Bylaws Amended/Restated in a 8-K on 11/16/2020   Download
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EX-3.1 2 ex2020161131.htm EX-3.1 Document

Exhibit 3.1




AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
OF
TRAVERE THERAPEUTICS, INC.

ARTICLE I
OFFICES

1.1 Registered Office. The registered office shall be in the National Registered Agents, 160 Greentree Dr., Suite 101 in the City of Dover, County of Kent.

1.2 Offices. The principal office of the Corporation in the State of Delaware shall be located at such place as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. The Corporation may have such other offices, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may designate or as the business of the Corporation may require from time to time. The registered office of the Corporation as required by the Delaware Corporation Act to be maintained in the State of Delaware, may be, but is not required to be identical to the principal office and the address of the registered agent may be changed from time to time by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

2.1 Location. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors shall be held within or without the state of Delaware at such place as may be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors, or at such other place either within or without the State of Delaware as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). Meetings of stockholders for any other purpose may be held at such time and place, if any, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice.

2.2 Timing. Annual meetings of stockholders shall be held at such date and time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which they shall elect by a plurality vote a Board of Directors, and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting, subject to Section 2.5 of these bylaws.

2.3 Notice of Meeting. Except as otherwise provided by law, notice of any stockholder meeting, annual or special, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting not fewer than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given to stockholders, any notice shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to (in a manner consistent with the DGCL) by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. The notice of any meeting of stockholders shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. If notice is given by mail, such notice shall be deemed given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. If notice is given by electronic transmission, such notice shall be deemed given at the time specified in Section 232 of the DGCL.

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2.4 Stockholders Records. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address (but not the electronic address or other electronic contact information) of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. The stockholder shall bear the cost for all copies. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

2.5 Annual Meetings.
(a) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the corporation and the proposal of business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders: (i) pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders (with respect to business other than nominations); (ii) if brought specifically by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; or (iii) by any stockholder of the corporation who was a stockholder of record at the time of giving the stockholder’s notice provided for in Section 2.5(b) below, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.5. For the avoidance of doubt, clause (iii) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations and submit other business (other than matters properly included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement under Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “1934 Act”)) before an annual meeting of stockholders.
(b) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law and as shall have been properly brought before the meeting.
(1) For nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 2.5(a) of these bylaws, the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 2.5(b)(3) and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 2.5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each nominee such stockholder proposes to nominate at the meeting: (1) the name, age, business address and residence address of such nominee, (2) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee, (3) the class and number of shares of each class of capital stock of the corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by such nominee, (4) the date or dates on which such shares were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition, (5) such other information concerning such nominee as would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement soliciting proxies for the election of such nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or that is otherwise required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (including such person’s written consent to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); and (B) the information required by Section 2.5(b)(4). The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such proposed nominee.
(2) Other than proposals sought to be included in the corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act, for business other than nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 2.5(a) of these bylaws, the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 2.5(b)(3), and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 2.5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting as well as the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the bylaws of the corporation, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, and any material
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interest (including any anticipated benefit of such business to any Proponent (as defined below) other than solely as a result of its ownership of the corporation’s capital stock, that is material to any Proponent individually, or to the Proponents in the aggregate) in such business of any Proponent; and (B) the information required by Section 2.5(b)(4).
(3) To be timely, the written notice required by Section 2.5(b)(1) or 2.5(b)(2) must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that, subject to the last sentence of this Section 2.5(b)(3), in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than thirty (30) days prior to or delayed by more than seventy (70) days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. In no event shall an adjournment or a postponement of an annual meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(4) The written notice required by Section 2.5(b)(1) or 2.5(b)(2) shall also set forth, as of the date of the notice and as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (each, a “Proponent” and collectively, the “Proponents”): (A) the name and address of each Proponent, as they appear on the corporation’s books; (B) the class, series and number of shares of the corporation that are owned beneficially and of record by each Proponent; (C) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) with respect to such nomination or proposal between or among any Proponent and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert, or otherwise under the agreement, arrangement or understanding, with any of the foregoing; (D) a representation that the Proponents are holders of record or beneficial owners, as the case may be, of shares of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting and intend to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 2.5(b)(1)) or to propose the business that is specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 2.5(b)(2)); (E) a representation as to whether the Proponents intend to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a sufficient number of holders of the corporation’s voting shares to elect such nominee or nominees (with respect to a notice under Section 2.5(b)(1)) or to carry such proposal (with respect to a notice under Section 2.5(b)(2)); (F) to the extent known by any Proponent, the name and address of any other stockholder supporting any nomination or proposal specified in the notice given under Section 2.5(b)(1) and/or Section 2.5(b)(2), as the case may be, on the date of such notice; and (G) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each Proponent during the previous twelve (12) month period, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions.
A “Derivative Transaction” means any agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding entered into by, or on behalf or for the benefit of, any Proponent or any of its affiliates or associates, whether record or beneficial:
(w) the value of which is derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares or other securities of the corporation,

(x) which otherwise provides any direct or indirect opportunity to gain or share in any gain derived from a change in the value of securities of the corporation,
(y) the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit of security value or price changes, or
(z) which provides the right to vote or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proponent, or any of its affiliates or associates, with respect to any securities of the corporation,
which agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding may include, without limitation, any option, warrant, debt position, note, bond, convertible security, swap, stock appreciation right, short position, profit interest, hedge, right to dividends, voting agreement, performance-related fee or arrangement to borrow or lend shares (whether or not subject to payment, settlement, exercise or conversion in any such class or series), and any proportionate interest of such Proponent in the securities of the corporation held by any general or limited partnership, or any limited liability company, of which such Proponent is, directly or indirectly, a general partner or managing member.
(c) A stockholder providing written notice required by Section 2.5(b)(1) or 2.5(b)(2) shall update and supplement such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting and (ii) the date that is five (5) business days prior to the meeting and, in the event of any
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adjournment or postponement thereof, five (5) business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (i) of this Section 2.5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of this Section 2.5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than two (2) business days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, two (2) business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting.
(d) Notwithstanding anything in Section 2.5(b)(3) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors of the Board of Directors of the corporation is increased and there is no public announcement of the appointment of a director, or, if no appointment was made, of the vacancy, made by the corporation at least ten (10) days before the last day a stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination in accordance with Section 2.5(b)(3), a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.5 and which complies with the requirements in Section 2.5(b)(1), other than the timing requirements in Section 2.5(b)(3), shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the corporation.
(e) A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director unless the person is nominated either in accordance with clause (ii) of Section 2.5(a), or in accordance with clause (iii) of Section 2.5(a). Except as otherwise required by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made, or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in these bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these bylaws, or the Proponent does not act in accordance with the representations in Sections 2.5(b)(4)(D) and 2.5(b)(4)(E), to declare that such proposal or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominations or such business may have been solicited or received.
(f) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.5, in order to include information with respect to a stockholder proposal in the proxy statement and form of proxy for a stockholders’ meeting, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Nothing in these bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to proposals and/or nominations to be considered pursuant to Section 2.5(a)(iii) of these bylaws.
(g) A “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act; and “affiliates” and “associates” shall have the meanings set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

2.6 Special Meetings.
(a) Special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation (i) may be called, for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, by (A) the Chairman of the Board of Directors, (B) the Chief Executive Officer, or (C) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption), and (ii) shall be called for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, by the Secretary of the corporation upon the request of stockholders of record entitled to cast not less than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding votes entitled to be cast at such special meeting as of the date of delivery of such request, provided that such request is in compliance with the requirements of Section 2.6(b) hereof (“Stockholder-Requested Meeting”). A request to call a special meeting pursuant to Section 2.6(a)(ii) shall not be valid unless made in accordance with the requirements and procedures set forth in this Section 2.6. Except as may otherwise be required by law, the Board of Directors shall determine, in its sole judgment, the validity of any request under Section 2.6(a)(ii), including whether such request was properly made in compliance with these bylaws.
(b) For a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, the request shall (i) be in writing, signed and dated by a stockholder of record, (ii) set forth the purpose of calling the special meeting and include the information required
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by the stockholder’s notice as set forth in Section 2.5(b)(1) and in Section 2.5(b)(2) (for the proposal of business other than nominations), (iii) not be an Excluded Request (as defined below), and (iv) be delivered personally or sent by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 2.5(c). If the Board of Directors determines that a request pursuant to Section 2.6(a)(ii) is valid, the Board of Directors shall determine the time and place, if any, of a Stockholder-Requested Meeting and shall set a record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting. Following determination of the time and place, if any, of the meeting, the Secretary shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.3 of these bylaws. No business may be transacted at a special meeting, including a Stockholder-Requested Meeting, otherwise than as specified in the notice of meeting. An “Excluded Request” shall mean a written request of a stockholder that relates to (A) the removal of any director, (B) the nomination for the election to the Board of Directors or appointment of any person to the Board of Directors, or (C) any other proposal of business (y) previously presented to stockholders at an annual or special meeting of stockholders held within the last twelve (12) months determined from the date such new written request is received by the corporation, or (z) to be transacted at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, the date of which meeting is within the next three (3) months from the date the written request is received.

2.7 Quorum; Meeting Adjournment; Presence by Remote Means.
(a) Quorum; Meeting Adjournment. The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by applicable law or by the certificate of incorporation. Any meeting of the stockholders, including one at which directors are to be elected, may be adjourned for such periods as the presiding officer of the meeting shall direct. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
(b) Presence by Remote Means. If authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication:
(1) participate in a meeting of stockholders; and
(2) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that (i) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder, (ii) the corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings, and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the corporation.

2.8 Voting Thresholds. When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question.

2.9 Number of Votes Per Share. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote by such stockholder or by proxy for each share of the capital stock having voting power held by such stockholder, but no proxy shall be voted on after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.

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2.10 Action by Written Consent of Stockholders; Electronic Consent; Written Consent Record Date.
(a) Action by Written Consent of Stockholders. Unless otherwise provided by the certificate of incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any annual or special meeting of the stockholders may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent in writing setting forth the action so taken, is signed by holders of record on the record date established pursuant to Section 2.10(c) below (the “Written Consent Record Date”) of outstanding shares of the corporation having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. Written stockholder consents shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent in the manner permitted by law and shall be delivered to the corporation as provided in subsection (b) below. No written consent shall be effective to take the action set forth therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated consent delivered to the corporation in the manner provided above, written consents signed by a sufficient number of stockholders to take the action set forth therein are delivered to the corporation in the manner provided above. Only stockholders of record on the Written Consent Record Date shall be entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting.

(b) Electronic Consent. A telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxyholder, or a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxyholder, shall be deemed to be written, signed and dated for the purposes of this section, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the corporation can determine (1) that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxyholder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxyholder and (2) the date on which such stockholder or proxyholder or authorized person or persons transmitted such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission. The date on which such telegram, cablegram or electronic transmission is transmitted shall be deemed to be the date on which such consent was signed. No consent given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission shall be deemed to have been delivered until such consent is reproduced in paper form and until such paper form is delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to a corporation’s registered office shall be made by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations on delivery, consents given by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission may be otherwise delivered to the principal place of business of the corporation or to an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded if, to the extent and in the manner provided by resolution of the Board of Directors of the corporation.
(c) Without qualification, any stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take any action by written consent shall first request in writing that the Board of Directors fix a Written Consent Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to take such action, which request shall be in proper form and delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation. Within ten (10) days after receipt of a request in proper form and otherwise in compliance with this Section 2.10(c) from any such stockholder, the Board of Directors may adopt a resolution fixing a Written Consent Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to take such action, which date shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no resolution fixing a record date has been adopted by the Board of Directors within such ten (10) day period after the date on which such a request is received, (i) the Written Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to such action, when no prior action of the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date after the expiration of such ten (10) day period on which a signed written consents setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation in the manner provided in Section 228 of the DGCL, and (ii) the Written Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to such action, when prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be at the close of business on the date on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.
(d) In the event of the delivery, in the manner provided by this Section 2.10 and applicable law, to the corporation of written consent or consents to take corporate action and/or any related revocation or revocations, the corporation shall engage an independent inspector for the purpose of performing promptly a ministerial review of the validity of the consents and revocations. For the purpose of permitting the inspector to perform such review, no action by written consent and without a meeting shall be effective until such inspector has completed its review, determined that the requisite number of valid and unrevoked consents delivered to the corporation in accordance with this Section 2.10 and applicable law have been obtained to authorize or take the action specified in the
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consents, and certified such determination for entry in the records of the corporation kept for the purpose of recording the proceedings of meetings of stockholders. Nothing contained in this Section 2.10(d) shall in any way be construed to suggest or imply that the Board of Directors or any stockholder shall not be entitled to contest the validity of any consent or revocation thereof, whether before or after such certification by the independent inspector, or to take any other action (including, without limitation, the commencement, prosecution or defense of any litigation with respect thereto, and the seeking of injunctive relief in such litigation).


ARTICLE III
DIRECTORS

3.1 Authorized Directors. The number of directors that shall constitute the whole Board of Directors shall be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors or by the stockholders at the annual meeting of the stockholders, except as provided in Section 3.2 of this Article, and each director elected shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified. Directors need not be stockholders.

3.2 Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the corporation’s certificate of incorporation, as it may be amended, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, and the directors so chosen shall hold office until the next annual election and until their successors are duly elected and shall qualify, unless sooner displaced. If there are no directors in office, then an election of directors may be held in the manner provided by statute.

3.3 Board Authority. The business of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board of Directors, which may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the certificate of incorporation or by these bylaws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

3.4 Location of Meetings. The Board of Directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware.

3.5 Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.

3.6 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the president upon notice to each director; special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of two (2) directors unless the Board of Directors consists of only one director, in which case special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of the sole director. Notice of any special meeting shall be given to each director at his business or residence in writing, or by telegram, facsimile transmission, telephone communication or electronic transmission (provided, with respect to electronic transmission, that the director has consented to receive the form of transmission at the address to which it is directed). If mailed, such notice shall be deemed adequately delivered when deposited in the United States mails so addressed, with postage thereon prepaid, at least five (5) days before such meeting. If by telegram, such notice shall be deemed adequately delivered when the telegram is delivered to the telegraph company at least twenty-four (24) hours before such meeting. If by facsimile transmission or other electronic transmission, such notice shall be transmitted at least twenty-four (24) hours before such meeting. If by telephone, the notice shall be given at least twelve (12) hours prior to the time set for the meeting. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be specified in the notice of such meeting, except for amendments to these bylaws as provided under Article VIII hereof. A meeting may be held at any time without notice if all the directors are present (except as otherwise provided by law) or if those not present waive notice of the meeting in writing, either before or after such meeting.

3.7 Quorum. At all meetings of the Board of Directors a majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and any act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be an act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, the directors
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present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

3.8 Action Without a Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing, writings, electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.

3.9 Telephonic Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the Board of Directors or any committee designated by the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other means of communication by which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

3.10 Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee.
In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.
Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it, but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any provision of these bylaws.

3.11 Minutes of Meetings. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required.

3.12 Compensation of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

3.13 Removal of Directors. Unless otherwise provided by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of shares entitled to vote at an election of directors.
ARTICLE IV
NOTICES

4.1 Notice. Unless otherwise provided in these bylaws, whenever, under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these bylaws, notice is required to be given to any director or stockholder, it shall not be construed to mean personal notice, but such notice may be given in writing, by mail, addressed to such director or stockholder, at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Notice to directors may also be given by telegram.

4.2 Waiver of Notice. Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these bylaws, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after
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the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws.

4.3 Electronic Notice.
(a) Electronic Transmission. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if (1) the corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the corporation in accordance with such consent and (2) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.
(b) Effective Date of Notice. Notice given pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be deemed given: (1) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (2) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (3) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (i) such posting and (ii) the giving of such separate notice; and (4) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
(c) Form of Electronic Transmission. For purposes of these bylaws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

ARTICLE V
OFFICERS

5.1 Required and Permitted Officers. The officers of the corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a president, treasurer and a secretary. The Board of Directors may elect from among its members a Chairman of the Board and a Vice-Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may also choose one or more vice-presidents, assistant secretaries and assistant treasurers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws otherwise provide.

5.2 Appointment of Permitted Officers. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

5.3 Officer Compensation. The salaries of all officers and agents of the corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

5.4 Term of Office; Vacancies. The officers of the corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualify. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors.

THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

5.5 Chairman Presides. The Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he or she shall be present. He or she shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board of Directors and as may be provided by law.
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5.6 Absence of Chairman. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board, the Vice-Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he or she shall be present. He or she shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board of Directors and as may be provided by law.

THE PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS

5.7 Powers of President. The president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation; in the absence of the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Board he or she shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors; he or she shall have general and active management of the business of the corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect.

5.8 President’s Signature Authority. The president shall execute bonds, mortgages and other contracts requiring a seal, under the seal of the corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors to some other officer or agent of the corporation.

5.9 Absence of President. In the absence of the president or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, the vice-president, if any, (or in the event there be more than one vice-president, the vice-presidents in the order designated by the directors, or in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the president, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the president. The vice-presidents shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

THE SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARY

5.10 Duties of Secretary. The secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the corporation and of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required. He or She shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or president, under whose supervision he or she shall be. He or She shall have custody of the corporate seal of the corporation and he or she, or an assistant secretary, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by his signature or by the signature of such assistant secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.

5.11 Duties of Assistant Secretary. The assistant secretary, or if there be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the secretary or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

THE TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS

5.12 Duties of Treasurer. The treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors.

5.13 Disbursements and Financial Reports. He or She shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the president and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.

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5.14 Treasurer’s Bond. If required by the Board of Directors, the treasurer shall give the corporation a bond (which shall be renewed every six years) in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the corporation.

5.15 Duties of Assistant Treasurer. The assistant treasurer, or if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the treasurer or in the event of the treasurer’s inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

ARTICLE VI
CERTIFICATE OF STOCK

6.1 Stock Certificates. The shares of stock in the corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of the corporation’s stock shall be in uncertificated form. Stock certificates shall be in such forms as the Board of Directors may prescribe and signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the corporation.

6.2 Facsimile Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In the event that any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, the certificate may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if such officer, transfer agent or registrar were still acting as such at the date of issue.

6.3 Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issuance of a new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares, the corporation may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance of the new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require and/or to give the corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

6.4 Transfer of Stock. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the corporation by the holder of the shares in person or by such holder’s attorney upon surrender and cancellation of certificates for the applicable shares (in the case of shares represented by certificates) or as otherwise provided by law (in the case of uncertificated shares).

6.5 Fixing a Record Date. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action. The record date for determining stockholders entitled to express consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be fixed in accordance with Section 2.10 of these bylaws. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.


6.6 Registered Stockholders. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, to vote as such owner, to hold liable for calls and
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assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

ARTICLE VII
GENERAL PROVISIONS

7.1 Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, if any, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

7.2 Reserve for Dividends. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their sole discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purposes as the directors think conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

7.3 Checks. All checks or demands for money and notes of the corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

7.4 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

7.5 Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal having inscribed thereon the name of the corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware.” The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or otherwise reproduced.

7.6 Indemnification.
(a) Authorization of Indemnification. Each person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is involved in any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative and whether by or in the right of the Corporation or otherwise (a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person of whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, partner (limited or general) or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan, shall be (and shall be deemed to have a contractual right to be) indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation (and any successor to the Corporation by merger or otherwise) to the fullest extent authorized by, and subject to the conditions and (except as provided herein) procedures set forth in the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but any such amendment shall not be deemed to limit or prohibit the rights of indemnification hereunder for past acts or omissions of any such person insofar as such amendment limits or prohibits the indemnification rights that said law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), against all expenses, liabilities and losses (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA taxes or penalties and amounts paid or to be paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection therewith; provided, however, that the Corporation shall indemnify any such person seeking indemnification in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person (except for a suit or action pursuant to Section 7.6(b) hereof) only if such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Corporation. The indemnification conferred in this Section 7.6 also shall include the right to be paid by the Corporation (and such successor) the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in the defense of or other involvement in any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that, if and to the extent the DGCL requires, the payment of such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director, officer, employee or agent in advance of the final disposition of a proceeding shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director, officer, employee or agent to repay all amounts so paid in advance if it shall ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 7.6 or otherwise; and provided further, that, such expenses incurred by other employees and agents may be so paid in advance upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Board of Directors deems appropriate.
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(b) Right of Claimant to Bring Action Against the Corporation. If a claim under Section 7.6 is not paid in full by the Corporation within sixty days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, the claimant may at any time thereafter bring an action against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and, if successful in whole or in part, the claimant shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting such action. It shall be a defense to any such action (other than an action brought to enforce a claim for expenses incurred in connection with any proceeding in advance of its final disposition where the required undertaking, if any is required, has been tendered to the Corporation) that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct which make it permissible under the DGCL for the Corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed or is otherwise not entitled to indemnification under Section 7.6, but the burden of proving such defense shall be on the Corporation. The failure of the Corporation (in the manner provided under the DGCL) to have made a determination prior to or after the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he or she has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL shall not be a defense to the action or create a presumption that the claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct. Unless otherwise specified in an agreement with the claimant, an actual determination by the Corporation (in the manner provided under the DGCL) after the commencement of such action that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct shall not be a defense to the action, but shall create a presumption that the claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.
(c) Non-Exclusivity. The rights to indemnification and advance payment of expenses provided by Section 7.6 hereof shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification and advance payment of expenses may be entitled under any by-law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his or her official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.
(d) Survival of Indemnification. The indemnification and advance payment of expenses and rights thereto provided by, or granted pursuant to, Section 7.6 hereof shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee, partner or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the personal representatives, heirs, executors and administrators of such person.
(e) Insurance. The Corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, partner (limited or general) or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, limited liability company, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against such person or incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, and related expenses, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.


CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION GOVERNS
7.7 Conflicts with Certificate of Incorporation. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of the corporation’s certificate of incorporation and these bylaws, the provisions of the certificate of incorporation shall govern.

ARTICLE VIII
AMENDMENTS
These bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, or new bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors, when such power is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the certificate of incorporation at any regular meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors or at any special meeting of the stockholders or of the Board of Directors, subject to the applicable notice requirements set forth in these bylaws. If the power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the certificate of incorporation, it shall not divest or limit the power of the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws.
ARTICLE IX
FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF DISPUTES
Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws of the Corporation, or (d) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation governed by the internal
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affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article IX.


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