Consensus Cloud Solutions, Inc.
Bylaws Amended/Restated in a 8-K on 10/08/2021   Download
SEC Document
SEC Filing

Exhibit 3.2

AMENDED AND RESTATED BY-LAWS OF

CONSENSUS CLOUD SOLUTIONS, INC.

ARTICLE I

STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1.1 Annual Meetings. An annual meeting of stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting shall be held at such date, time and place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware as may be designated by the Board of Directors from time to time. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any annual meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board of Directors.

Section 1.2 Special Meetings.

(a) General. Special meetings of stockholders may be called at any time by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors, to be held at such date, time and place either within or without the State of Delaware as may be stated in the notice of the meeting.

(b) Stockholder-Requested Special Meetings. A special meeting of stockholders shall be called by the Secretary upon the written request of stockholders who together own of record a majority of the outstanding shares of each class of stock entitled to vote at such meeting. A request to the Secretary shall be signed by each stockholder, or a duly authorized agent of such stockholder, requesting the special meeting and shall set forth a brief description of each matter of business desired to be brought before the special meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the special meeting and the information required by Section 1.12(a) below with respect to any director nominations or other business proposed to be presented at the special meeting, and as to each person requesting the meeting and each other person (including any beneficial owner) on whose behalf the person is acting, other than persons who have provided such request solely in response to any form of public solicitation for such requests. A special meeting requested by stockholders shall be held at such date, time and place within or without the state of Delaware as may be fixed by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that the date of any such special meeting shall be not more than 90 days after the request to call the special meeting is received by the Secretary. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a special meeting requested by stockholders shall not be held if the Board of Directors has called or calls for an annual meeting of stockholders to be held within 90 days after the Secretary receives the request for the special meeting and the Board of Directors determines in good faith that the business of such annual meeting includes (among any other matters properly brought before the annual meeting) the business specified in the request. A stockholder may revoke a request for a special meeting at any time by written revocation delivered to the Secretary, and if, following such revocation, there are un-revoked requests from stockholders holding in the aggregate less than the requisite number of shares entitling the stockholders to request the calling of a special meeting, the Board of Directors, in its discretion, may cancel the special meeting. Business transacted at a special meeting requested by stockholders shall be limited to the matters described in the special meeting request; provided, however that nothing herein shall prohibit the Board of Directors from submitting matters to the stockholders at any special meeting requested by stockholders.


For purposes of this Section 1.2(b), a stockholder shall be deemed to “own” only those outstanding shares of common stock of the Corporation as to which the stockholder possesses, as of both the date the written request for a special meeting is received by the Secretary and the record date for determining stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting, both (i) the full voting and investment rights pertaining to the shares and (ii) the full economic interest in (including the opportunity for profit and risk of loss on) such shares; provided that the number of shares calculated in accordance with clauses (i) and (ii) shall not include any shares (x) sold by such stockholder or any of its affiliates in any transaction that has not been settled or closed, (y) borrowed by such stockholder or any of its affiliates for any purposes or purchased by such stockholder or any of its affiliates pursuant to an agreement to resell or (z) subject to any option, warrant, forward contract, swap, contract of sale, other derivative or similar agreement entered into by such stockholder or any of its affiliates, whether any such instrument or agreement is to be settled with shares or with cash based on the notional amount or value of shares of outstanding common stock of the Corporation, in any such case which instrument or agreement has, or is intended to have, the purpose or effect of (1) reducing in any manner, to any extent or at any time in the future, such stockholder’s or affiliates’ full right to vote or direct the voting of any such shares, and/or (2) hedging, offsetting or altering to any degree gain or loss arising from the full economic ownership of such shares by such stockholder or affiliate. A stockholder shall be deemed to own shares held in the name of a nominee or other intermediary so long as the stockholder retains the right to instruct how the shares are voted with respect to the election of directors and possesses the full economic interest in the shares. A stockholder’s ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which the stockholder has delegated any voting power by means of a proxy, power of attorney or other instrument or arrangement which is revocable at any time by the stockholder. Whether outstanding shares of the common stock of the Corporation are deemed to be owned for these purposes shall be determined by the Board of Directors.

Section 1.3 Notice of Meetings. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and time of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise provided by law, notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. Notice of any meeting shall be given by mailing, postage prepaid, or by such other form of notice permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), a copy of such notice addressed to each stockholder of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting at his, her or its address as recorded on the books of the Corporation. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation.

 

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Section 1.4 Adjournments. Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time, to reconvene at the same or some other place, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the date, time and place, if any, thereof and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

Section 1.5 Quorum. At each meeting of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by law or the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote on a matter at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum. For purposes of the foregoing, where a separate vote by class or classes is required for any matter, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or classes, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. Two or more classes or series of stock shall be considered a single class if the holders thereof are entitled to vote together as a single class at the meeting. In the absence of a quorum of the holders of any class of stock entitled to vote on a matter, the chairman of the meeting or the holders of such class so present or represented may, by majority vote, adjourn the meeting of such class from time to time in the manner provided by Section 1.4 of these by-laws until a quorum of such class shall be so present or represented. Shares of its own capital stock belonging on the record date for the meeting to the Corporation or to another corporation, if a majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of such other corporation is held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation, shall neither be entitled to vote nor be counted for quorum purposes; provided, however, that the foregoing shall not limit the right of the Corporation to vote stock, including but not limited to its own stock, held by it in a fiduciary capacity.

Section 1.6 Organization. Unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Chairman of the Board by the Vice Chairman or any Co-Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Vice Chairman or any Co- Chairman of the Board by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the absence of the foregoing persons by a chairman designated by the Board of Directors, or in the absence of such designation by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary, or in the absence of the Secretary an Assistant Secretary, shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the absence of the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

The order of business at each such meeting shall be as determined by the chairman of the meeting. The chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting and prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts and things as are necessary or desirable for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, the establishment of procedures for the maintenance of order and safety, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments on the affairs of the Corporation, restrictions on entry to such meeting after the time prescribed for the commencement thereof and the opening and closing of the voting polls.

 

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Section 1.7 Inspectors. Prior to any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at such meeting and make a written report thereof and may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at the meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspectors shall ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, determine the shares represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, count all votes and ballots, determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors and certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting and their count of all votes and ballots. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons to assist them in the performance of their duties. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting. No ballot, proxy or vote, nor any revocation thereof or change thereto, shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots, the inspectors shall be limited to an examination of the proxies, any envelopes submitted therewith, any information provided by a stockholder who submits a proxy by telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission from which it can be determined that the proxy was authorized by the stockholder, ballots and the regular books and records of the corporation, and they may also consider other reliable information for the limited purpose of reconciling proxies and ballots submitted by or on behalf of banks, brokers, their nominees or similar persons which represent more votes than the holder of a proxy is authorized by the record owner to cast or more votes than the stockholder holds of record. If the inspectors consider other reliable information for such purpose, they shall, at the time they make their certification, specify the precise information considered by them, including the person or persons from whom they obtained the information, when the information was obtained, the means by which the information was obtained and the basis for the inspectors’ belief that such information is accurate and reliable.

Section 1.8 Voting; Proxies. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by such stockholder which has voting power upon the matter in question. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power, regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the Corporation generally. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by filing an instrument in writing revoking the proxy or another duly executed proxy bearing a later date with the Secretary of the Corporation. Voting at meetings of stockholders need not be by written ballot unless the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of stock entitled to vote thereon present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting shall so determine. Unless otherwise provided by law, rule or regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities or by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws (including Section 2.2 hereof), the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Where a separate vote by class or classes is required, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the shares of such class or classes present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class or classes, except as otherwise provided by law or by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws.

 

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Section 1.9 Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty nor fewer than ten days before the date of such meeting. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 1.10 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The Secretary shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of meeting; or (b) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

 

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Section 1.11 No Action by Written Consent. Except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the certificate of incorporation, no action that is required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation may be effected by consent of stockholders in lieu of a meeting of stockholders.

Section 1.12 Notice of Stockholder Business and Nominations.

(a) Annual Meeting.

(i) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business other than nominations to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only: (A) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto); (B) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any authorized committee thereof); or (C) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 1.12(a) is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 1.12(a). For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing clause (C) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose other business at an annual meeting of stockholders (other than a proposal included in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)).

 

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(ii) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (C) of the foregoing paragraph, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation and, in the case of business other than nominations, such business must be a proper subject for stockholder action. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business (as defined in Section 1.12(c)(ii) below) on the 90th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 30 days after such anniversary date, or if no annual meeting was held in the preceding year, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth day following the date on which public announcement (as defined in Section 1.12(c)(ii) below) of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment or recess of an annual meeting, or a postponement of an annual meeting for which notice of the meeting has already been given to stockholders or a public announcement of the meeting date has already been made, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting on behalf of the beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such annual meeting. For purposes of this Section 1.12, the 2021 annual meeting of stockholders shall be deemed to have been held on May 7, 2021. Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(A) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director: (1) all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act; and (2) such person’s written consent to serving as a director, if elected, for the full term for which such person is standing for election; provided, however, that, in addition to the information required in the stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 1.12(a)(ii)(A), such person shall also provide the Corporation such other information that the Corporation may reasonably request and that is necessary to permit the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such person to serve as a director of the Corporation, including information relevant to a determination whether such person can be considered an independent director;

(B) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these by-laws, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any substantial interest (within the meaning of Item 5 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial owner (within the meaning of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act), if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made;

(C) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made or the other business is proposed:

(1) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, and the name and address of such beneficial owner;

(2) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record by the stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the record date for the meeting; and

 

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(3) a representation that the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) intends to appear at the meeting to make such nomination or propose such business;

(D) as to the stockholder giving the notice or, if the notice is given on behalf of a beneficial owner on whose behalf the nomination is made or the other business is proposed, as to such beneficial owner, and if such stockholder or beneficial owner is an entity, as to each director, executive, managing member or control person of such entity (any such individual or control person, a “control person”):

(1) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned (as defined in Section 1.12(c)(ii) below) by such stockholder or beneficial owner and by any control person as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation beneficially owned by such stockholder or beneficial owner and by any control person as of the record date for the meeting;

(2) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to the nomination or other business between or among such stockholder, beneficial owner or control person and any other person, including, without limitation any agreements that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 5 or Item 6 of Exchange Act Schedule 13D (regardless of whether the requirement to file a Schedule 13D is applicable) and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting; and

(3) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including, without limitation, any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into as of the date of the stockholder’s notice by, or on behalf of, such stockholder, beneficial owner or control person, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit from changes in the share price of any class or series of the Corporation’s stock, or maintain, increase or decrease the voting power of the stockholder, beneficial owner or control person with respect to securities of the Corporation, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting.

 

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(iii) Notwithstanding anything in Section 1.12(a)(ii) above or Section 1.12(b) below to the contrary, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 1.12 shall set forth a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, or by the opening of business on the date of the meeting (whichever is earlier), of the information required under clauses (ii)(C)(2) and (ii)(D)(1)-(3) of this Section 1.12(a), and such information when provided to the Corporation shall be current as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting.

(iv) This Section 1.12(a) shall not apply to a proposal proposed to be made by a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his or her intention to present the proposal at an annual or special meeting only pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and such proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such meeting.

(v) Notwithstanding anything in this Section 1.12(a) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the Corporation naming all of the nominees for director or specifying the size of the increased Board of Directors made by the Corporation at least ten days prior to the last day a stockholder may deliver a notice in accordance with Section 1.12(a)(ii) above a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 1.12(a) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

(b) Special Meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting: (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any authorized committee thereof); or (ii) provided that one or more directors are to be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 1.12(b) is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and who delivers notice thereof in writing setting forth the information required by Section 1.12(a) above; or (iii) in the case of a stockholder-requested special meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation pursuant to Section 1.2. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders (other than a stockholder-requested special meeting) for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any stockholder entitled to vote in such election of directors may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to such position(s) as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the notice required by this Section 1.12(b) shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the close of business on the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the tenth day following the date on which public announcement of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting is first made by the Corporation. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the special meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the annual meeting on behalf of such beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such special meeting. In no event shall an adjournment, recess or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

 

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(c) General.

(i) Except as otherwise required by law, only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12 shall be eligible to be elected at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to serve as directors and only such other business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12. Except as otherwise required by law, each of the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to determine whether a nomination or any other business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.12. If any proposed nomination or other business is not in compliance with this Section 1.12, then except as otherwise required by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power to declare that such nomination shall be disregarded or that such other business shall not be transacted. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.12, unless otherwise required by law, or otherwise determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, if the stockholder does not provide the information required under clauses (a)(ii)(C)(2) and (a)(ii)(D)(1)-(3) of this Section 1.12 to the Corporation within the time frames specified herein, any such nomination shall be disregarded and any such other business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.12, unless otherwise required by law, or otherwise determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or other business (whether pursuant to the requirements of these by-laws or in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act), such nomination shall be disregarded and such other business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. To be considered a qualified representative of a stockholder pursuant to the preceding sentence, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder (or a reliable reproduction of the writing) delivered to the Corporation prior to the making of such nomination or proposal at such meeting (and in any event not fewer than five days before the meeting) stating that such person is authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.

 

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(ii) For purposes of this Section 1.12, the “close of business” shall mean 6:00 p.m. local time at the principal executive offices of the Corporation on any calendar day, whether or not the day is a business day, and a “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 1.12, shares shall be treated as “beneficially owned” by a person if the person beneficially owns such shares, directly or indirectly, for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Regulations 13D and 13G thereunder or has or shares pursuant to any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether or not in writing): (A) the right to acquire such shares (whether such right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time or the fulfillment of a condition or both); (B) the right to vote such shares, alone or in concert with others; and/or (C) investment power with respect to such shares, including the power to dispose of, or to direct the disposition of, such shares.

Section 1.13 Meetings by Remote Communications. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in accordance with Section 211(a)(2) of the DGCL. If authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board of Directors may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication: (a) participate in a meeting of stockholders; and (b) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication, provided that: (i) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder; (ii) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings; and (iii) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the Corporation.

ARTICLE II

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 2.1 Powers; Number; Qualifications. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by law or in the certificate of incorporation. The Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members, the number thereof to be determined from time to time by the Board. Directors need not be stockholders.

 

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Section 2.2 Election. (a) Except as may be otherwise required by the certificate of incorporation, at any meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected and at which a quorum is present, each nominee for election as a director in an uncontested election, shall be elected by the vote of the majority of the votes cast (meaning the number of shares voted “for” a nominee must exceed the number of shares voted “against” such nominee). In all director elections other than uncontested elections, the nominees for election as a director shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast (instead of by votes cast for or against a nominee). For purposes of this Section 2.2 an “uncontested election” means any meeting of stockholders at which the number of candidates does not exceed the number of directors to be elected and with respect to which: (a) no stockholder has submitted notice of an intent to nominate a candidate for election at such meeting in accordance with Section 1.12; or (b) such a notice has been submitted, and on or before the fifth business day prior to the date that the Corporation files its definitive proxy statement relating to such meeting with the Securities and Exchange Commission (regardless of whether thereafter revised or supplemented), the notice has been: (i) withdrawn in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation; (ii) determined not to be a valid notice of nomination, with such determination to be made by the Board of Directors (or a committee thereof) pursuant to Section 1.12, or if challenged in court, by a final court order; or (iii) determined by the Board of Directors (or a committee thereof) not to create a bona fide election contest.

(b) Vacancies and Newly Created Directorships. Newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors or any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from the death, resignation, disqualification, removal from office or other cause shall be filled as set forth in the certificate of incorporation.

(c) Resignations and Removal. Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Secretary of the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect upon delivery, unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or time or an effective date or time determined upon the happening of an event or events. Unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Directors of the Corporation may be removed only as expressly provided in the certificate of incorporation.

Section 2.3 Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at such places within or without the State of Delaware and at such times as the Board may from time to time determine, and if so determined notice thereof need not be given.

Section 2.4 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time or place within or without the State of Delaware whenever called by the Chairman of the Board, if any, by the Vice Chairman or any Co-Chairman of the Board, if any, by the Chief Executive Officer or by any two directors. Notice of each such meeting shall be given to each director, if by mail, addressed to such director at his or her residence or usual place of business, at least five days before the day on which such meeting is to be held, or shall be sent to such director by electronic transmission, or be delivered personally or by telephone, in each case at least 24 hours prior to the time set for such meeting.

Section 2.5 Participation in Meetings by Conference Telephone Permitted. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board or of such committee, as the case may be, by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this by-law shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

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Section 2.6 Quorum; Vote Required for Action. At all meetings of the Board of Directors, one-third of the entire Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board unless the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws shall require a vote of a greater number. In case at any meeting of the Board a quorum shall not be present, the members of the Board present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum shall be present.

Section 2.7 Organization. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Chairman of the Board by the Vice Chairman or any Co-Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the absence of the Vice Chairman or any Co-Chairman of the Board by the Chief Executive Officer, or in their absence by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary, or in the absence of the Secretary an Assistant Secretary, shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the absence of the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 2.8 Action by Directors Without a Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or of such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or writings are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee.

Section 2.9 Compensation of Directors. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.

ARTICLE III

COMMITTEES

Section 3.1 Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors or in these by-laws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by law to be submitted to stockholders for approval, (ii) adopting, amending or repealing these By-Laws or (iii) removing or indemnifying directors.

 

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Section 3.2 Committee Rules. Unless the Board of Directors otherwise provides, each committee designated by the Board may adopt, amend and repeal rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of a provision by the Board or a provision in the rules of such committee to the contrary, and unless the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws requires a greater number, a majority of the entire authorized number of members of such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, the vote of a majority of the members present at a meeting at the time of such vote if a quorum is then present shall be the act of such committee, and in other respects each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board conducts its business pursuant to Article II of these by-laws.

ARTICLE IV

OFFICERS

Section 4.1 Officers; Election. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer and a Secretary. The Board of Directors, if it so determines, may also elect from among its members a Chairman of the Board, or Co-Chairman of the Board, and a Vice Chairman of the Board. The Board, in its sole discretion, may also elect one or more Chief Financial Officers, Chief Operating Officers, Presidents, General Counsel, Treasurers, Controllers, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers and such other officers as the Board may deem desirable or appropriate and may give any of them such further designations or alternate titles as it considers desirable. Any number of offices may be held by the same person unless the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws otherwise provide. In its discretion, the Board may choose not to fill any office for any period as it may deem advisable.

Section 4.2 Term of Office; Resignation; Removal; Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors electing any officer, each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. Any officer may resign at any time upon written notice to the Board or to the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary of the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein, and unless otherwise specified therein no acceptance of such resignation shall be necessary to make it effective. The Board may remove any officer with or without cause at any time. Any such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer, if any, with the Corporation, but the election of an officer shall not of itself create contractual rights. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation by death, resignation, removal or otherwise may be filled by the Board at any regular or special meeting.

Section 4.3 Powers and Duties. The officers of the Corporation shall have such powers and duties in the management of the Corporation as shall be stated in these by-laws or in a resolution of the Board of Directors which is not inconsistent with these by-laws and, to the extent not so stated, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board. The Secretary shall have the duty to record the proceedings of the meetings of the stockholders, the Board of Directors and any committees in a book to be kept for that purpose. The Board may require any officer, agent or employee to give security for the faithful performance of his or her duties.

 

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Section 4.4 Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall have general supervision and direction of the business and affairs of the Corporation, shall be responsible for corporate policy and strategy, and shall report directly to the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise provided in these by-laws or determined by the Board of Directors, all other officers of the Corporation shall report directly to the Chief Executive Officer or as otherwise determined by the Chief Executive Officer.

Section 4.5 Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall exercise all the powers and perform the duties of the office of the chief financial officer and in general have overall supervision of the financial operations of the Corporation. The Chief Financial Officer shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time determine.

Section 4.6 Treasurer. The Treasurer shall supervise and be responsible for all the funds and securities of the Corporation, the deposit of all monies and other valuables to the credit of the Corporation in depositories of the Corporation, borrowings and compliance with the provisions of all indentures, agreements and instruments governing such borrowings to which the Corporation is a party, the disbursement of funds of the Corporation and the investment of its funds, and in general shall perform all of the duties incident to the office of the Treasurer. The Treasurer shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Chief Financial Officer may from time to time determine.

Section 4.7 Controller. The Controller shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer may from time to time determine.

Section 4.8 Secretary. The Secretary shall keep in safe custody the seal of the Corporation and affix it to any instrument when authorized by the Board of Directors, and shall perform all other duties incident to the office of Secretary and such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer. The Secretary (or in such officer’s absence, an Assistant Secretary, but if neither is present, another person selected by the chairperson for the meeting) shall have the duty to record the proceedings of the meetings of stockholders, the Board of Directors and of the committees of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose.

Section 4.9 Additional Matters. The Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of the Corporation shall have the authority to designate employees of the Corporation to have the title of Vice President, Assistant Vice President, Assistant Treasurer or Assistant Secretary. Any employee so designated shall have the powers and duties determined by the officer making such designation. The persons upon whom such titles are conferred shall not be deemed officers of the Corporation unless elected by the Board of Directors.

 

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Section 4.10 Checks; Drafts; Evidences of Indebtedness. From time to time, the Board of Directors shall determine the method, and designate (or authorize officers of the Corporation to designate) the person or persons who shall have authority, to sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for payment of money and notes, bonds, debentures or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in the name of or payable by the Corporation, and only the persons so authorized shall sign or endorse such instruments.

Section 4.11 Corporate Contracts and Instruments; How Executed. Except as otherwise provided in these by-laws, the Board of Directors may determine the method, and designate (or authorize officers of the Corporation to designate) the person or persons who shall have authority to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation. Such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized, or within the power incident to a person’s office or other position with the Corporation, no person shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

Section 4.12 Action with Respect to Securities of Other Corporations or Entities. The Chief Executive Officer or any other officer of the Corporation authorized by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of the Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares or other equity interests of any other corporation or entity or corporations or entities, standing in the name of the Corporation. The authority herein granted may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by the person having such authority.

Section 4.13 Delegation. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article IV.

ARTICLE V

STOCK

Section 5.1 Certificates. The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock represented by a certificate in the Corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the Corporation by the Chairman or Vice Chairman or a Co-Chairman of the Board of Directors, if any, or the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, an Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary of the Corporation or an Assistant Secretary, of the Corporation, representing the number of shares of stock in the Corporation owned by such holder. If such certificate is manually signed by one officer or manually countersigned by a transfer agent or by a registrar, any other signature on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

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If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate which the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, provided that, except as otherwise provided by law, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate which the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

Section 5.2 Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate.

ARTICLE VI

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 6.1 Right to Indemnification.

(a) Each person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to, or was or is otherwise involved in, any action, suit, arbitration, alternative dispute resolution mechanism, investigation, inquiry, judicial, administrative or legislative hearing, or any other threatened, pending or completed proceeding, whether brought by or in the right of the Corporation or otherwise, including any and all appeals, whether of a civil, criminal, administrative, legislative, investigative or other nature (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or an officer of the Corporation or while a director or officer of the Corporation is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (hereinafter an “indemnitee”), or by reason of anything done or not done by him or her in any such capacity, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes, penalties and amounts paid in settlement by or on behalf of the indemnitee) actually and reasonably incurred by such indemnitee in connection therewith, all on the terms and conditions set forth in these by-laws; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by law or provided in Section 6.4 with respect to suits to enforce rights under this Article VI, the Corporation shall indemnify any such indemnitee in connection with a proceeding, or part thereof, voluntarily initiated by such indemnitee (including claims and counterclaims, whether such counterclaims are asserted by: (i) such indemnitee; or (ii) the Corporation in a proceeding initiated by such indemnitee) only if such proceeding, or part thereof, was authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or the Board of Directors otherwise determines that indemnification or advancement of expenses is appropriate.

 

 

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(b) To receive indemnification under this Article VI, an indemnitee shall submit a written request to the Secretary of the Corporation. Such request shall include documentation or information that is necessary to determine the entitlement of the indemnitee to indemnification and that is reasonably available to the indemnitee. Upon receipt by the Secretary of the Corporation of such a written request, unless indemnification is required by Section 6.3, the entitlement of the indemnitee to indemnification shall be determined by the following person or persons who shall be empowered to make such determination, as selected by the Board of Directors (except with respect to clause (v) of this Section 6.1(b)): (i) the Board of Directors by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such proceeding, whether or not such majority constitutes a quorum; (ii) a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, whether or not such majority constitutes a quorum; (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion to the Board of Directors, a copy of which shall be delivered to the indemnitee; (iv) the stockholders of the Corporation; or (v) in the event that a change of control (as defined below) has occurred, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion to the Board of Directors, a copy of which shall be delivered to the indemnitee. The determination of entitlement to indemnification shall be made and, unless a contrary determination is made, such indemnification shall be paid in full by the Corporation not later than 60 days after receipt by the Secretary of the Corporation of a written request for indemnification. For purposes of this Section 6.1(b), a “change of control” will be deemed to have occurred if, with respect to any particular 24-month period, the individuals who, at the beginning of such 24-month period, constituted the Board of Directors (the “incumbent board”), cease for any reason to constitute at least a majority of the Board of Directors; provided, however, that any individual becoming a director subsequent to the beginning of such 24-month period whose election, or nomination for election by the stockholders of the Corporation, was approved by a vote of at least a majority of the directors then comprising the incumbent board shall be considered as though such individual were a member of the incumbent board, but excluding, for this purpose, any such individual whose initial assumption of office occurs as a result of an actual or threatened election contest with respect to the election or removal of directors or other actual or threatened solicitation of proxies or consents by or on behalf of a person other than the Board of Directors.

Section 6.2 Right to Advancement of Expenses.

(a) In addition to the right to indemnification conferred in Section 6.1, an indemnitee shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, also have the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition (hereinafter an “advancement of expenses”); provided, however, that an advancement of expenses shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision of a court of competent jurisdiction from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Article VI or otherwise.

 

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(b) To receive an advancement of expenses under this Section 6.2, an indemnitee shall submit a written request to the Secretary of the Corporation. Such request shall reasonably evidence the expenses incurred by the indemnitee and shall include or be accompanied by the undertaking required by Section 6.2(a). Each such advancement of expenses shall be made within 20 days after the receipt by the Secretary of the Corporation of a written request for advancement of expenses.

Section 6.3 Indemnification for Successful Defense. To the extent that an indemnitee has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any proceeding (or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein), such indemnitee shall be indemnified under this Section 6.3 against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such defense. Indemnification under this Section 6.3 shall not be subject to satisfaction of a standard of conduct, and the Corporation may not assert the failure to satisfy a standard of conduct as a basis to deny indemnification or recover amounts advanced, including in a suit brought pursuant to Section 6.4 (notwithstanding anything to the contrary therein); provided, however, that, any indemnitee who is not a current or former director or officer (as such term is defined in the final sentence of Section 145(c)(1) of the DGCL) shall be entitled to indemnification under Section 6.1 and this Section 6.3 only if such indemnitee has satisfied the standard of conduct required for indemnification under Section 145(a) or Section 145(b) of the DGCL.

Section 6.4 Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. In the event that a determination is made that the indemnitee is not entitled to indemnification or if payment is not timely made following a determination of entitlement to indemnification pursuant to Section 6.1(b), if a request for indemnification under Section 6.3 is not paid in full by the Corporation within 60 days after a written request has been received by the Secretary of the Corporation, or if an advancement of expenses is not timely made under Section 6.2(b), the indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation in a court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware seeking an adjudication of entitlement to such indemnification or advancement of expenses. If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit to the fullest extent permitted by law. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct for indemnification set forth in Section 145(a) or Section 145(b) of the DGCL. Further, in any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct for indemnification set forth in Section 145(a) or Section 145(b) of the DGCL. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the indemnitee has met such applicable standard of conduct, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the indemnitee, be a defense to such suit. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under applicable law, this Article VI or otherwise shall be on the Corporation.

 

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Section 6.5 Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, provisions of an entity’s organizational documents (including the Corporation’s), or otherwise.

Section 6.6 Insurance. The Corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.

Section 6.7 Indemnification of Employees and Agents of the Corporation. The Corporation may, to the extent and in the manner permitted by law, and to the extent authorized from time to time, grant rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to any employee or agent of the Corporation.

Section 6.8 Nature of Rights. The rights conferred upon indemnitees in this Article VI shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article VI that adversely affects any right of an indemnitee or its successors shall be prospective only and shall not limit or eliminate any such right with respect to any proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, alteration or repeal.

Section 6.9 Settlement of Claims. Notwithstanding anything in this Article VI to the contrary, the Corporation shall not be liable to indemnify any indemnitee under this Article VI for any amounts paid in settlement of any proceeding effected without the Corporation’s written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.

Section 6.10 Subrogation. In the event of payment under this Article VI, the Corporation shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the rights of recovery of the indemnitee (excluding insurance obtained on the indemnitee’s own behalf), and the indemnitee shall execute all papers required and shall do everything that may be necessary to secure such rights, including the execution of such documents necessary to enable the Corporation effectively to bring suit to enforce such rights.

 

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Section 6.11 Severability. If any provision or provisions of this Article VI shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any person or entity or circumstance for any reason whatsoever, then, to the fullest extent permitted by law: (a) the validity, legality and enforceability of such provision in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Article VI (including, without limitation, all portions of any paragraph of this Article VI containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that are not by themselves invalid, illegal or unenforceable) and the application of such provision to other persons or entities or circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby; and (b) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Article VI (including, without limitation, all portions of any paragraph of this Article VI containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that are not themselves invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to give effect to the intent of the parties that the Corporation provide protection to the indemnitee to the fullest extent set forth in this Article VI.

ARTICLE VII

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 7.1 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be determined by the Board of Directors.

Section 7.2 Seal. The Corporation may have a corporate seal which shall have the name of the Corporation inscribed thereon and shall be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors. The corporate seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.

Section 7.3 Waiver of Notice of Meetings of Stockholders, Directors and Committees. Whenever notice is required to be given by law or under any provision of the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws.

Section 7.4 Electronic Signatures, etc. Except as otherwise required by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, any document, including, without limitation, any consent, agreement, certificate or instrument, required by the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws to be executed by any officer, director, stockholder, employee or agent of the Corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. All other contracts, agreements, certificates or instruments to be executed on behalf of the Corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. The terms “electronic mail,” “electronic mail address,” “electronic signature” and “electronic transmission” as used herein shall have the meanings ascribed thereto in the DGCL.

Section 7.5 Amendment of By-Laws. These by-laws may be amended or repealed, and new by-laws adopted, by the Board of Directors. Except as otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, and in addition to any other vote required by law, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote thereon, voting together as a single class, shall be required for the stockholders to adopt, amend or repeal, or adopt any provision inconsistent with, any provision of these by-laws.

 

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Section 7.6 Forum for Adjudication of Disputes. Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee, agent or stockholder of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (d) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer or other employee of the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall, in each case to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the Chancery Court of the State of Delaware (or if the Chancery Court of the State of Delaware does not have subject matter jurisdiction, a the federal district court for the District of Delaware). Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the rules and regulations thereunder. This Section 7.6 shall not apply to any action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act , or the rules and regulations thereunder. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and, to the fullest extent permitted by law, to have consented to the provisions of this Section 7.6. If any provision of this Section 7.6 shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any person or entity or circumstance for any reason whatsoever, then, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the validity, legality and enforceability of such provision in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of this Section 7.6 (including, without limitation, each portion of any sentence of this Section 7.6 containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) and the application of such provision to other persons or entities or circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

 

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