AutoNation, Inc.
Bylaws Amended/Restated in a 8-K on 11/18/2021   Download
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EX-3.1 2 amendedandrestatedby-laws.htm EX-3.1 Document











AMENDED AND RESTATED

BY-LAWS

of

AUTONATION, INC.

A Delaware Corporation

Effective November 16, 2021









AMENDED AND RESTATED
BY-LAWS
OF
AUTONATION, INC.
(hereinafter called the “Corporation”)


ARTICLE I
OFFICES

    Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office of the Corporation shall be located at Corporation Service Company, 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington, Delaware 19808.

    Section 2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine.

ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

    Section 1. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time and place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof.

    Section 2. Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of stockholders (the “Annual Meeting”) shall be held on such date and at such time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which meetings the stockholders shall elect directors and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting. Written notice of the Annual Meeting stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting.

    Section 3. Special Meetings.

        (a)    Unless otherwise prescribed by law or by the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and restated from time to time (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), special meetings of stockholders (“Special Meetings”) may be called (i) for any purpose or purposes by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) in accordance with Section 3(b). At Special Meetings, only such business shall be conducted as shall be specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors. Written notice of a Special Meeting stating the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, and the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting.

        (b)    Subject to the provisions of this Section 3(b) and all other applicable sections of these By-Laws, a Special Meeting shall be called by or at the direction of the Board of Directors upon written request (a “Special Meeting Request”) of one or more record holders of shares of common stock of the Corporation representing not less than twenty-five percent (25%) of the Corporation’s issued and outstanding shares of common stock (the “Requisite Percentage”). The Board of Directors shall determine in good faith whether all requirements set forth in this Section 3(b) have been satisfied and such determination shall be binding on the Corporation and its stockholders.

            (i)    A Special Meeting Request must be delivered to the attention of the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation. A Special Meeting Request shall be valid only if it is signed and dated by each stockholder of record submitting the Special Meeting Request, or such stockholder’s duly authorized agent (each, a “Requesting Stockholder”), collectively representing the Requisite Percentage, and includes (A) a statement of the specific purpose(s) of the Special Meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the Special Meeting; (B) as to any director nominations proposed to be presented at the Special Meeting, and any matter (other than a director nomination) proposed to be conducted at the Special Meeting, and as to each Requesting Stockholder, the information, statements, representations, agreements and other documents that would be required to be set forth in or included with a stockholder’s notice of a nomination pursuant to Section 2 of Article III and/or a stockholder’s notice of business proposed to be brought before a meeting pursuant to Section 7 of this Article II, as applicable; (C) a representation that each Requesting Stockholder, or one or more representatives of each such stockholder, intends to appear in person or by proxy at the Special Meeting to present the proposal(s) or business to be brought before the Special Meeting; (D) an agreement by each Requesting Stockholder to notify the
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Corporation promptly in the event of any disposition prior to the record date for the Special Meeting of shares of common stock of the Corporation owned of record and an acknowledgement that any such disposition shall be deemed to be a revocation of such Special Meeting Request with respect to such disposed shares; (E) the number of shares of common stock owned of record by each such Requesting Stockholder; and (F) documentary evidence that the Requesting Stockholders in the aggregate own the Requisite Percentage as of the date on which the Special Meeting Request is delivered to the Secretary. In addition, the Requesting Stockholders shall (x) further update and supplement the information provided in the Special Meeting Request, if necessary, so that all information provided or required to be provided therein shall be true and correct as of the record date for the Special Meeting, and such update and supplement (or a written certification that no such updates or supplements are necessary and that the information previously provided remains true and correct as of the record date) shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the Special Meeting and (y) promptly provide any other information reasonably requested by the Corporation.

            (ii)    A Special Meeting Request shall not be valid, and a Special Meeting requested by stockholders shall not be held, if (A) the Special Meeting Request does not comply with this Section 3(b); (B) the Special Meeting Request relates to an item of business that is not a proper subject for stockholder action under applicable law (as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors); (C) the Special Meeting Request is delivered during the period commencing one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting and ending on the earlier of (x) the date of the next Annual Meeting and (y) thirty (30) days after the first anniversary of the date of the previous Annual Meeting; (D) an identical or substantially similar item (as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors, a “Similar Item”) was presented at an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting held, or was the subject of a request that the Board of Directors fix a Consent Record Date pursuant to Section 9 of Article II, not more than one hundred twenty (120) days before the Special Meeting Request is delivered (and, for purposes of this clause (D), the election of directors shall be deemed to be a “Similar Item” with respect to all items of business involving the election or removal of directors, changing the size of the Board of Directors and the filling of vacancies and/or newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors); (E) a Similar Item is included in the Corporation’s notice of meeting as an item of business to be brought before an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting that has been called but not yet held, or is included in a request that the Board of Directors fix a Consent Record Date pursuant to Section 9 of Article II that has been received but not yet acted upon; or (F) the Special Meeting Request was made in a manner that involved a violation of Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or other applicable law.

            (iii)    Special Meetings called pursuant to this Section 3(b) shall be held at such place, if any, on such date, and at such time as the Board of Directors shall fix; provided, however, that the Special Meeting shall not be held more than one hundred twenty (120) days after receipt by the Corporation of a valid Special Meeting Request.

            (iv)    The Requesting Stockholders may revoke a Special Meeting Request by written revocation delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation at any time prior to the Special Meeting. If, at any point following the earliest dated Special Meeting Request, the unrevoked requests from Requesting Stockholders (whether by specific written revocation or deemed revocation pursuant to clause (D) of Section 3(b)(i)), represent in the aggregate less than the Requisite Percentage, the Board of Directors, in its discretion, may cancel the Special Meeting.

            (v)    In determining whether a Special Meeting has been requested by the Requesting Stockholders representing in the aggregate at the least the Requisite Percentage, multiple Special Meeting Requests delivered to the Secretary will be considered together only if (A) each Special Meeting Request identifies substantially the same purpose or purposes of the Special Meeting and substantially the same matters proposed to be acted on at the Special Meeting, in each case as determined by the Board of Directors (which, if such purpose is the election or removal of directors, changing the size of the Board of Directors and/or the filling of vacancies and/or newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors, will mean that the exact same person or persons are proposed for election or removal in each relevant Stockholder Meeting Request), and (B) such Special Meeting Requests have been dated and delivered to the Secretary within sixty (60) days of the earliest dated Special Meeting Request.

            (vi)    If none of the Requesting Stockholders appear or send a duly authorized agent to present the business to be presented for consideration specified in the Special Meeting Request, the Corporation need not present such business for a vote at the Special Meeting, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such matter may have been received by the Corporation.

            (vii)    Business transacted at any Special Meeting called pursuant to this Section 3(b) shall be limited to (A) the purpose(s) stated in the valid Special Meeting Request received from the
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Requisite Percentage of record holders, and (B) any additional matters that the Board of Directors determines to include in the Corporation’s notice of the Special Meeting.

    Section 4. Quorum; Adjournment, Postponement or Cancellation of Meetings. Except as otherwise required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business. A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum shall be present or represented. The chairman of the meeting also shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, whether or not there is a quorum.

    Any meeting of the stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, if any, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, notice of the adjourned meeting in accordance with the requirements of Section 2 or Section 3, as applicable, hereof shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting. Any previously scheduled meeting of the stockholders may be postponed, and any Special Meeting may be cancelled, by resolution of the Board of Directors prior to the date previously scheduled for such meeting of stockholders, and the Corporation shall publicly disclose such postponement or cancellation.

    Section 5. Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to a corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy, provided, however, that no proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless said proxy provides for a longer period. Without limiting the manner in which a stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for him or her as proxy, either of the following shall constitute a valid means by which a stockholder may grant such authority:

        (a)    a stockholder may execute a writing authorizing another person or persons to act for him or her as proxy. Execution may be accomplished by the stockholder or his or her authorized officer, director, employee or agent signing such writing or causing his or her signature to be affixed to such writing by any reasonable means, including, but not limited to, by facsimile signature.

        (b)    a stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for him or her as proxy by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of an electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such electronic transmission, provided that any such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder. If it is determined that such electronic transmissions are valid, the inspectors, or if there are no inspectors, such other persons making that determination shall specify the information on which they relied.

    Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission authorizing another person or persons to act as proxy for a stockholder may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used; provided that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or transmission.

    Section 6. Voting. At all meetings of the stockholders at which a quorum is present, except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, any question brought before any meeting of stockholders shall be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of votes of the capital stock present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on such question, voting as a single class. Except as otherwise required in the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at a meeting of stockholders, in his or her discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

    Section 7. Nature of Business at Annual Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business (other than the nominations for election to the Board of Directors, which must comply with the provisions of Section 2 of Article III) may be transacted at an Annual Meeting as is either (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (b) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors
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(or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (c) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 7 and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such Annual Meeting and (ii) who complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 7.

    In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be properly brought before an Annual Meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (c) of the immediately preceding paragraph, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation.

        To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one-hundred twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting (the “Meeting Anniversary Date”); provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within thirty (30) days before or after the Meeting Anniversary Date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting, or the public disclosure of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

        To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must set forth the following information: (a) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the Annual Meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the Annual Meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the Annual Meeting, and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, (i) the name and address of such person, (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates (as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act) or associates (as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act) of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business and any material interest of such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such business, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving the notice (or a qualified representative thereof) will appear in person at the Annual Meeting to bring such business before the meeting, and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies by such person with respect to the proposed business to be brought by such person before the Annual Meeting pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

        Any person providing any information to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 7 shall further update and supplement such information, if necessary, so that all information provided (or required to be provided) pursuant to this Section 7 shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting.

        No business shall be conducted at the Annual Meeting except business brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of this Section 7 and any applicable procedures set forth in this Section 7; provided, however, that, once business has been properly brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with such provisions and procedures, nothing in this Section 7 shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any such business. If the chairman of an Annual Meeting determines that business was not properly brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with such provisions and procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the business was not properly brought before the meeting and such business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the
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Corporation. For the avoidance of doubt, if the stockholder proposing any business breaches any of its representations or fails to comply with any of its obligations under this Section 7, as determined by the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or the chairman of the Annual Meeting, then such business shall be deemed not to have been properly brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 7 and such business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

        Nothing contained in this Section 7 shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act (or any successor provision of law).

    Section 8. Record Date. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors and which record date: (1) in the case of determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders or adjournment thereof, shall not be more than sixty nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting; and (2) in the case of any other action, shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to such other action. If no record date is fixed: (1) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held; and (2) the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting. Nothing in this Section 8 shall in any way be construed to change the procedure for setting the record date and for determining the effectiveness of stockholder action by written consent as set forth in Section 9 of this Article II.

    Section 9. Written Consents.

            (a)    In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date (a “Consent Record Date”). The Consent Record Date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the Consent Record Date is adopted by the Board of Directors and shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the Consent Record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. Any stockholder of record seeking to have the stockholders authorize or take corporate action by written consent shall, by written notice to the Secretary of the Corporation, request the Board of Directors to fix a Consent Record Date. To be valid, such written request shall set forth the purpose or purposes for which the written consent is sought to be used, shall be signed by one or more stockholders of record (or their duly authorized proxies or other representatives) and shall bear the date of signature of each such stockholder (or proxy or other representative). The Board of Directors shall promptly, but in all events within ten (10) days after the date on which such a request is received, adopt a resolution fixing the Consent Record Date. If no Consent Record Date has been fixed by the Board of Directors within ten (10) days of the date on which such a request is received, the Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of stockholders meetings are recorded, to the attention of the Secretary of the Corporation. Delivery shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no Consent Record Date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, the Consent Record Date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the date on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

            (b)    Every written consent shall be signed by a person or persons who as of the Consent Record Date is a stockholder of record on the Consent Record Date, shall bear the date of signature of each such stockholder, shall set forth the name and address, as they appear in the Corporation’s books, of each stockholder signing such consent and the class and number of shares of the Corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by each such stockholder, and shall be delivered to the Corporation in the manner specified in Section 9(a). No written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty (60) days of the date the earliest dated written consent was received in accordance with Section 9(a), a written consent or consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take such action are delivered to the Corporation in the manner prescribed in Section 9(a).

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            (c)    In the event of the delivery, in the manner provided in Section 9(a), to the Corporation of the requisite written consent or consents to take corporate action and/or any related revocation or revocations, the Corporation shall engage independent inspectors of elections for the purpose of promptly performing a ministerial review of the validity of the consents and revocations. For the purpose of permitting the inspectors to perform such review, no action by written consent without a meeting shall be effective until such date as the independent inspectors certify to the Corporation that the consents represent at least the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to take the corporate action. Nothing contained in this paragraph (c) of Section 9 shall in any way be construed to suggest or imply that the Board of Directors or any stockholder shall not be entitled to contest the validity of any consent or revocation thereof, whether before or after certification by the independent inspectors, or to take any other action (including, without limitation, the commencement, prosecution or defense of any litigation with respect thereto, and the seeking of injunctive relief in such litigation).

    Section 10. Conduct of Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of the stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of the stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (iii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iv) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (v) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (vi) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants.

    Section 11. Notices and Waivers.

        (a)    Whenever written notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any stockholder, such notice may be given by mail, addressed to such stockholder, at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Written notice may also be given personally or by electronic transmission, facsimile or any other lawful method.

        (b)    Whenever any notice is required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or Special Meeting need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws.

    Section 12. Inspectors of Election. In advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board by resolution or the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is present, ready and willing to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the Corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall make a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by law.

ARTICLE III
DIRECTORS

    Section 1. Number and Election of Directors. The Board of Directors shall consist of not more than 12 members, the exact number of which shall be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors. Except as provided in Section 3 of this Article III, directors shall be elected by the stockholders at the Annual Meetings (or Special Meetings called for the purpose of electing directors). Notwithstanding any provision in these By-Laws to the contrary, a nominee for director shall be elected to the Board of Directors if the votes cast for such nominee’s election exceed the votes against such nominee’s election; provided, however, that
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directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at any meeting of stockholders for which the Secretary of the Corporation determines that the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected as of the date seven (7) days prior to the scheduled mailing date of the proxy statement for such meeting. Each director shall hold office for the term for which he or she is elected and qualified or until his or her successor shall have been elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation, removal from office or death. The Board of Directors may from time to time establish minimum qualifications for eligibility to become a director. Those qualifications may include, but shall not be limited to, a prerequisite stock ownership in the Corporation.

        Section 2. Nomination of Directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at any Annual Meeting, or at any Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, only (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (b) by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 2 and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting and (ii) who complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 2, or (c) in the case of an Annual Meeting, by any Eligible Stockholder (as defined in Section 13(a) of this Article III) who complies with the procedures set forth in Section 13 of this Article III.

        In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a nomination to be made by a stockholder pursuant to clause (b) of the immediately preceding paragraph, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof (a “Nomination Notice”) in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation.

        To be timely, a Nomination Notice must be delivered to or be mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (a) in the case of an Annual Meeting, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one-hundred twenty (120) days prior to the Meeting Anniversary Date; provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within thirty (30) days before or after the Meeting Anniversary Date, a Nomination Notice in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs, and (b) in the case of a Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Special Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Special Meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, or the public disclosure of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a Nomination Notice as described above.

        To be in proper written form, a Nomination Notice must set forth the following information: (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of such person, (iii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, (iv) the written representation and agreement of such person required by Section 14 of this Article III, and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice, and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, (i) the name and record address of the stockholder giving the notice and the name and principal place of business of such beneficial owner, (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or
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lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation, (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any proposed nominee or any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are being made by such person, and any material interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such nomination, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving the notice (or a qualified representative thereof) will appear in person at the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting to nominate the persons named in its notice, and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Such Nomination Notice must be accompanied by a written consent of each proposed nominee to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected.

        In addition to the information required or requested pursuant to the immediately preceding paragraph or any other provision of these By-Laws, the Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish any other information (a) that may reasonably be requested by the Corporation to determine whether the nominee would be independent under the rules and listing standards of the securities exchanges upon which the stock of the Corporation is listed or traded, any applicable rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission or any publicly disclosed standards used by the Board of Directors in determining and disclosing the independence of the Corporation’s directors (collectively, the “Independence Standards”), (b) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such nominee or (c) that may reasonably be requested by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation.

        Any person providing any information to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 2 shall further update and supplement such information, if necessary, so that all information provided (or required to be provided) pursuant to this Section 2 shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting.

        Except as may be otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation with respect to the right of holders of preferred stock of the Corporation to nominate and elect a specified number of directors in certain circumstances, no person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of this Section 2 and any applicable procedures set forth in this Section 2 or Section 13 of this Article III. If the chairman of the meeting determines that a nomination was not made in accordance with such provisions and procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the nomination was defective and such defective nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. For the avoidance of doubt, if a nominee and/or the stockholder providing a Nomination Notice relating to such nominee breaches any of its agreements or representations or fails to comply with any of its obligations under this Section 2, as determined by the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or the chairman of the meeting, then such nomination shall be deemed not to have been made in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2 and such defective nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.
    
    Section 3. Vacancies. Subject to the terms of any one or more classes or series of preferred stock, any vacancy on the Board of Directors that results from an increase in the number of directors may only be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, and any other vacancy occurring on the Board of Directors may only be filled by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Notwithstanding the foregoing, whenever the holders of any one or more class or classes or series of preferred stock of the Corporation shall have the right, voting separately as a class, to elect directors at an Annual or Special Meeting, the election, term of office, filling of vacancies and other features of such directorships shall be governed by the Certificate of Incorporation.

    Section 4. Duties and Powers. The business of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

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    Section 5. Organization. Each meeting of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or in his or her absence, by the Vice Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or such other member of the Board of Directors as is designated by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or as shall be chosen by the Board of Directors at the meeting. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as Secretary at each meeting of the Board of Directors. In case the Secretary shall be absent from any meeting of the Board of Directors, the chairman of the meeting shall be entitled to designate any person, including an Assistant Secretary, to act as Secretary of the meeting.

    Section 6. Resignations and Removals of Directors. Any director of the Corporation may resign at any time, by giving written notice to the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or the Secretary of the Corporation. Such resignation shall take effect at the time therein specified or, if no time is specified, immediately; and, unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Except as otherwise required by law and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of shares of preferred stock then outstanding, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time, only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority in voting power of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote in the election of directors.

    Section 7. Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors and, unless required by resolution of the Board of Directors, without notice. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Vice Chairman, if there be one, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the directors then in office. Notice thereof stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director or member of a committee either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the meeting, or by telephone, facsimile, telegram or other means of electronic transmission, overnight express mail service or personally on twenty-four (24) hours’ notice, or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances. Whenever any notice is required to be given to any director or member of a committee, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by such director or member of a committee, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a director or member of a committee at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the director or member of a committee attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

    Section 8. Quorum. Except as may be otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, at all meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, a majority of the entire Board of Directors or a majority of the members of such committee, as the case may be, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors or any such committee, as the case may be. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting of the time and place of the adjourned meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

    Section 9. Actions by Written Consent. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee.

    Section 10. Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, members of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 10 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

    Section 11. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member. Any committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution establishing such
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committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required.

    Section 12. Compensation. Directors shall receive such compensation and expense reimbursements for their services as directors or as members of committees as set by the Board of Directors. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent or otherwise, and receiving compensation therefor.

    Section 13. Proxy Access for Director Nominations.

(a)    Whenever the Board of Directors solicits proxies with respect to the election of directors at an Annual Meeting, subject to the provisions of this Section 13, the Corporation shall include in its proxy statement for such Annual Meeting, in addition to any persons nominated for election by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), the name, together with the Required Information (as defined below), of any person nominated for election to the Board of Directors by an Eligible Stockholder pursuant to and in accordance with this Section 13 (a “Stockholder Nominee”). For purposes of this Section 13, the “Required Information” that the Corporation will include in its proxy statement is (i) the information provided to the Secretary of the Corporation concerning the Stockholder Nominee and the Eligible Stockholder that is required to be disclosed in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) if the Eligible Stockholder so elects, a Supporting Statement (as defined in Section 13(h)). For the avoidance of doubt, nothing in this Section 13 shall limit the Corporation’s ability to solicit against any Stockholder Nominee or include in its proxy materials the Corporation’s own statements or other information relating to any Eligible Stockholder or Stockholder Nominee, including any information provided to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 13. Subject to the provisions of this Section 13, the name of any Stockholder Nominee included in the Corporation’s proxy statement for an Annual Meeting shall also be set forth on the form of proxy distributed by the Corporation in connection with such Annual Meeting.

(b)    In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a nomination to be made by an Eligible Stockholder pursuant to this Section 13, the Eligible Stockholder must have given timely notice thereof (a “Notice of Proxy Access Nomination”) in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation and must expressly request in the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination to have such nominee included in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13. To be timely, a Notice of Proxy Access Nomination must be delivered to or be mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than one-hundred twenty (120) days nor more than one-hundred fifty (150) days prior to the anniversary of the date that the Corporation first distributed its proxy statement to stockholders for the immediately preceding Annual Meeting. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting, or the public disclosure of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a Notice of Proxy Access Nomination as described above.

(c)    The maximum number of Stockholder Nominees nominated by all Eligible Stockholders that will be included in the Corporation’s proxy materials with respect to an Annual Meeting shall not exceed the greater of (i) two (2) or (ii) twenty percent (20%) of the number of directors in office as of the last day on which a Notice of Proxy Access Nomination may be delivered pursuant to and in accordance with this Section 13 (the “Final Proxy Access Nomination Date”) or, if such amount is not a whole number, the closest whole number below twenty percent (20%) (such greater number, as it may be adjusted pursuant to this Section 13(c), the “Permitted Number”). In the event that one or more vacancies for any reason occurs on the Board of Directors after the Final Proxy Access Nomination Date but before the date of the Annual Meeting and the Board of Directors resolves to reduce the size of the Board of Directors in connection therewith, the Permitted Number shall be calculated based on the number of directors in office as so reduced. In addition, the Permitted Number shall be reduced by (i) the number of individuals who will be included in the Corporation’s proxy materials as nominees recommended by the Board of Directors pursuant to an agreement, arrangement or other understanding with a stockholder or group of stockholders (other than any such agreement, arrangement or understanding entered into in connection with an acquisition of stock from the Corporation by such stockholder or group of stockholders) and (ii) the number of directors in office as of the Final Proxy Access Nomination Date who were included in the Corporation’s proxy materials as Stockholder Nominees for any of the three (3) preceding Annual Meetings (including any persons counted as Stockholder Nominees pursuant to the immediately succeeding sentence) and whose re-election at the upcoming Annual Meeting is being recommended by the Board of Directors. For purposes of determining when the Permitted Number has been reached, any individual nominated by an Eligible Stockholder for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13 whose nomination is subsequently withdrawn or whom the Board of Directors decides to nominate for election to the Board of Directors shall be counted as one of the Stockholder Nominees. Any Eligible Stockholder submitting more than one Stockholder Nominee for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13 shall rank such Stockholder Nominees based on the order in which the Eligible Stockholder desires such Stockholder Nominees to be selected
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for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials in the event that the total number of Stockholder Nominees submitted by Eligible Stockholders pursuant to this Section 13 exceeds the Permitted Number. In the event that the number of Stockholder Nominees submitted by Eligible Stockholders pursuant to this Section 13 exceeds the Permitted Number, the highest ranking Stockholder Nominee who meets the requirements of this Section 13 from each Eligible Stockholder will be selected for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials until the Permitted Number is reached, going in order of the amount (largest to smallest) of shares of common stock of the Corporation each Eligible Stockholder disclosed as Owned in its Notice of Proxy Access Nomination. If the Permitted Number is not reached after the highest ranking Stockholder Nominee who meets the requirements of this Section 13 from each Eligible Stockholder has been selected, then the next highest ranking Stockholder Nominee who meets the requirements of this Section 13 from each Eligible Stockholder will be selected for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials, and this process will continue as many times as necessary, following the same order each time, until the Permitted Number is reached. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 13, the Corporation shall not be required to include any Stockholder Nominees in its proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13 for any meeting of stockholders for which the Secretary of the Corporation receives a notice (whether or not subsequently withdrawn) that a stockholder intends to nominate one or more persons for election to the Board of Directors pursuant to clause (b) of the first paragraph of Section 2 this Article III.

(d)     An “Eligible Stockholder” is a stockholder or group of no more than twenty (20) stockholders (counting as one stockholder, for this purpose, any two (2) or more funds that are part of the same Qualifying Fund Group (as defined below)) that (i) has Owned (as defined in Section 13(e)) at least the Required Shares (as defined below) continuously throughout the three (3)-year period preceding and including the date the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination is delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation in accordance with this Section 13 (the “Minimum Holding Period”), (ii) continues to Own the Required Shares through the date of the Annual Meeting and (iii) meets all other requirements of this Section 13. “Required Shares” means that number of shares of common stock of the Corporation that represents at least three percent (3%) of the number of outstanding shares of common stock of the Corporation as of both (A) the most recent date for which such amount was given in any filing by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to the start of the Minimum Holding Period and (B) the most recent date for which such amount was given in any filing by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to the date the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination is delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation in accordance with this Section 13. A “Qualifying Fund Group” means two (2) or more funds that are (i) under common management and investment control, (ii) under common management and funded primarily by the same employer or (iii) a “group of investment companies” as such term is defined in Section 12(d)(1)(G)(ii) of the Investment Corporation Act of 1940, as amended. Whenever the Eligible Stockholder consists of a group of stockholders (including a group of funds that are part of the same Qualifying Fund Group), (i) each provision in this Section 13 that requires the Eligible Stockholder to provide any written statements, representations, undertakings, agreements or other instruments or to meet any other conditions shall be deemed to require each stockholder (including each individual fund) that is a member of such group to provide such statements, representations, undertakings, agreements or other instruments and to meet such other conditions (except that the members of such group may aggregate the shares that each member has Owned continuously throughout the Minimum Holding Period in order to meet the three percent (3%) Ownership requirement of the “Required Shares” definition) and (ii) a breach of any obligation, agreement or representation under this Section 13 by any member of such group shall be deemed a breach by the Eligible Stockholder. No stockholder may be a member of more than one group of stockholders constituting an Eligible Stockholder with respect to any Annual Meeting.

(e)    For purposes of this Section 13, a stockholder shall be deemed to “Own” only those outstanding shares of common stock of the Corporation as to which the stockholder possesses both (i) the full voting and investment rights pertaining to the shares and (ii) the full economic interest in (including the opportunity for profit from and risk of loss on) such shares; provided that the number of shares calculated in accordance with clauses (i) and (ii) shall not include any shares (A) sold by such stockholder or any of its affiliates in any transaction that has not been settled or closed, (B) borrowed by such stockholder or any of its affiliates for any purposes or purchased by such stockholder or any of its affiliates pursuant to an agreement to resell, or (C) subject to any option, warrant, forward contract, swap, contract of sale, or other derivative or similar instrument or agreement entered into by such stockholder or any of its affiliates, whether any such instrument or agreement is to be settled with shares or with cash based on the notional amount or value of shares of outstanding common stock of the Corporation, in any such case which instrument or agreement has, or is intended to have, the purpose or effect of (1) reducing in any manner, to any extent or at any time in the future, such stockholder’s or its affiliates’ full right to vote or direct the voting of any such shares and/or (2) hedging, offsetting or altering to any degree any gain or loss realized or realizable from maintaining the full economic ownership of such shares by such stockholder or affiliate. A stockholder shall “Own” shares held in the name of a nominee or other intermediary so long as the stockholder retains the right to instruct how the shares are voted with respect to the election of directors and possesses the full economic interest in the shares. A stockholder’s Ownership of shares shall be deemed to continue during any period in which (i) the stockholder has loaned such shares, provided that the stockholder has the power to recall such loaned shares on five (5) business days’ notice and includes in the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination an agreement
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that it (A) will promptly recall such loaned shares upon being notified that any of its Stockholder Nominees will be included in the Corporation’s proxy materials and (B) will continue to hold such recalled shares through the date of the Annual Meeting or (ii) the stockholder has delegated any voting power by means of a proxy, power of attorney or other instrument or arrangement which is revocable at any time by the stockholder. The terms “Owned,” “Owning” and other variations of the word “Own” shall have correlative meanings. Whether outstanding shares of common stock of the Corporation are “Owned” for these purposes shall be decided by the Board of Directors.

(f)    To be in proper written form, a Notice of Proxy Access Nomination must set forth or be accompanied by the following:

(i)     a statement by the Eligible Stockholder (A) setting forth and certifying as to the number of shares it Owns and has Owned continuously throughout the Minimum Holding Period, (B) agreeing to continue to Own the Required Shares through the date of Annual Meeting and (C) indicating whether it intends to continue to own the Required Shares for at least one year following the Annual Meeting;

(ii)     one or more written statements from the record holder of the Required Shares (and from each intermediary through which the Required Shares are or have been held during the Minimum Holding Period) verifying that, as of a date within seven (7) calendar days prior to the date the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination is delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, the Eligible Stockholder Owns, and has Owned continuously throughout the Minimum Holding Period, the Required Shares, and the Eligible Stockholder’s agreement to provide, within five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting, one or more written statements from the record holder and such intermediaries verifying the Eligible Stockholder’s continuous Ownership of the Required Shares through the record date;

(iii)     a copy of the Schedule 14N that has been or is concurrently being filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as required by Rule 14a-18 under the Exchange Act;

(iv)     the information, representations, agreements and other documents that would be required to be set forth in or included with a Nomination Notice pursuant to Section 2 of this Article III (including the written consent of each Stockholder Nominee to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected and the written representation and agreement of each Stockholder Nominee required by Section 14 of this Article III);

(v)     the details of any relationship that existed within the past three (3) years and that would have been described pursuant to Item 6(e) of Schedule 14N (or any successor item) if it existed on the date of submission of the Schedule 14N;

(vi)     a representation that the Eligible Stockholder (A) did not acquire, and is not holding, any securities of the Corporation for the purpose or with the intent of changing or influencing control of the Corporation, (B) has not nominated and will not nominate for election to the Board of Directors at the Annual Meeting any person other than the Stockholder Nominee(s) it is nominating pursuant to this Section 13, (C) has not engaged and will not engage in, and has not and will not be a “participant” in another person’s, “solicitation” within the meaning of Rule 14a-1(l) under the Exchange Act in support of the election of any individual as a director at the Annual Meeting other than its Stockholder Nominee(s) or a nominee of the Board of Directors, (D) has not distributed and will not distribute to any stockholder of the Corporation any form of proxy for the Annual Meeting other than the form distributed by the Corporation, (E) has complied and will comply with all laws, rules and regulations applicable to solicitations and the use, if any, of soliciting material in connection with the Annual Meeting and (F) has provided and will provide facts, statements and other information in all communications with the Corporation and its stockholders that are or will be true and correct in all material respects and do not and will not omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;
(vii)     an undertaking that the Eligible Stockholder agrees to (A) assume all liability stemming from any legal or regulatory violation arising out of the Eligible Stockholder’s communications with the stockholders of the Corporation or out of the information that the Eligible Stockholder provided to the Corporation, (B) indemnify and hold harmless the Corporation and each of its directors, officers and employees individually against any liability, loss or damages in connection with any threatened or pending action, suit or proceeding, whether legal, administrative or investigative, against the Corporation or any of its directors, officers or employees arising out of any nomination submitted by the Eligible Stockholder pursuant to this Section 13 or any solicitation or other activity in connection therewith and (C) file with the Securities and Exchange Commission any solicitation or other communication with the stockholders of the Corporation relating to the meeting at which its Stockholder Nominee(s) will be nominated, regardless of whether any such filing is required under Regulation 14A of the Exchange Act or whether any exemption from filing is available for such solicitation or other communication under Regulation 14A of the Exchange Act;
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(viii)     in the case of a nomination by an Eligible Stockholder consisting of a group of stockholders, the designation by all group members of one member of the group that is authorized to receive communications, notices and inquiries from the Corporation and to act on behalf of all members of the group with respect to all matters relating to the nomination under this Section 13 (including withdrawal of the nomination); and

(ix)     in the case of a nomination by an Eligible Stockholder consisting of a group of stockholders in which two (2) or more funds are intended to be treated as one stockholder for purposes of qualifying as an Eligible Stockholder, documentation reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation that demonstrates that the funds are part of the same Qualifying Fund Group.

(g)    In addition to the information required or requested pursuant to Section 13(f) or any other provision of these By-Laws, (i) the Corporation may require any proposed Stockholder Nominee to furnish any other information (A) that may reasonably be requested by the Corporation to determine whether the Stockholder Nominee would be independent under the Independence Standards, (B) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such Stockholder Nominee or (C) that may reasonably be requested by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such Stockholder Nominee to be included in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13 or to serve as a director of the Corporation, and (ii) the Corporation may require the Eligible Stockholder to furnish any other information that may reasonably be requested by the Corporation to verify the Eligible Stockholder’s continuous Ownership of the Required Shares throughout the Minimum Holding Period and through the date of the Annual Meeting.

(h)    The Eligible Stockholder may, at its option, provide to the Secretary of the Corporation, at the time the Notice of Proxy Access Nomination is provided, a written statement, not to exceed five hundred (500) words, in support of its Stockholder Nominee(s)’ candidacy (a “Supporting Statement”). Only one Supporting Statement may be submitted by an Eligible Stockholder (including any group of stockholders together constituting an Eligible Stockholder) in support of its Stockholder Nominee(s). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 13, the Corporation may omit from its proxy materials any information or Supporting Statement (or portion thereof) that it, in good faith, believes would violate any applicable law, rule or regulation.

(i)    In the event that any information or communications provided by an Eligible Stockholder or a Stockholder Nominee to the Corporation or its stockholders is not, when provided, or thereafter ceases to be true and correct in all material respects or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, such Eligible Stockholder or Stockholder Nominee, as the case may be, shall promptly notify the Secretary of the Corporation of any such defect and of the information that is required to correct any such defect. Without limiting the foregoing, an Eligible Stockholder shall provide immediate notice to the Corporation if the Eligible Stockholder ceases to Own any of the Required Shares prior to the date of the Annual Meeting. In addition, any person providing any information to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 13 shall further update and supplement such information, if necessary, so that all information provided (or required to be provided) pursuant to this Section 13 shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of such Annual Meeting. For the avoidance of doubt, no notification, update or supplement provided pursuant to this Section 13(i) or otherwise shall be deemed to cure any defect in any previously provided information or communications or limit the remedies available to the Corporation relating to any such defect (including the right to omit a Stockholder Nominee from its proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13).

(j)    Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Section 13, the Corporation shall not be required to include in its proxy materials, pursuant to this Section 13, any Stockholder Nominee (i) who would not be an independent director under the Independence Standards, (ii) whose election as a member of the Board of Directors would cause the Corporation to be in violation of these By-Laws, the Certificate of Incorporation, the rules and listing standards of the securities exchanges upon which the stock of the Corporation is listed or traded, or any applicable law, rule or regulation, (iii) who is or has been, within the past three (3) years, an officer or director of a competitor, as defined in Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, (iv) who is a named subject of a pending criminal proceeding (excluding traffic violations and other minor offenses) or has been convicted in such a criminal proceeding within the past ten (10) years, (v) who is subject to any order of the type specified in Rule 506(d) of Regulation D promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or (vi) who shall have provided any information to the Corporation or its stockholders that was untrue in any material respect or that omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances in which they were made, not misleading.

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(k)    Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth herein, if (i) a Stockholder Nominee and/or the applicable Eligible Stockholder breaches any of its agreements or representations or fails to comply with any of its obligations under this Section 13 or (ii) a Stockholder Nominee otherwise becomes ineligible for inclusion in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to this Section 13, or dies, becomes disabled or otherwise becomes ineligible or unavailable for election at the Annual Meeting, in each case as determined by the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or the chairman of the Annual Meeting, (A) the Corporation may omit or, to the extent feasible, remove the information concerning such Stockholder Nominee and the related Supporting Statement from its proxy materials and/or otherwise communicate to its stockholders that such Stockholder Nominee will not be eligible for election at the Annual Meeting, (B) the Corporation shall not be required to include in its proxy materials any successor or replacement nominee proposed by the applicable Eligible Stockholder or any other Eligible Stockholder and (C) the chairman of the Annual Meeting shall declare that the nomination is defective and such defective nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

(l)    Any Stockholder Nominee who is included in the Corporation’s proxy materials for a particular Annual Meeting but either (i) withdraws from or becomes ineligible or unavailable for election at the Annual Meeting, or (ii) does not receive at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the votes cast in favor of such Stockholder Nominee’s election, will be ineligible to be a Stockholder Nominee pursuant to this Section 13 for the next two (2) Annual Meetings. For the avoidance of doubt, the immediately preceding sentence shall not prevent any stockholder from nominating any person to the Board of Directors pursuant to clause (b) of the first paragraph of Section 2 this Article III.

(m)    This Section 13 provides the exclusive method for a stockholder to include nominees for election to the Board of Directors in the Corporation’s proxy materials.

    Section 14. Director Nominee Representation and Agreement. In order to be eligible for election or re-election as a director of the Corporation, a person must deliver to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written representation and agreement that such person (a) is not and will not become a party to (i) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation in such representation and agreement or (ii) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (b) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with such person’s nomination, candidacy, service or action as a director that has not been disclosed to the Corporation in such representation and agreement, (c) would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with the Corporation’s code of business ethics, corporate governance guidelines, securities trading policies and any other policies or guidelines of the Corporation applicable to directors and (d) will make such other acknowledgments, enter into such agreements and provide such information as the Board of Directors requires of all directors, including promptly submitting all completed and signed questionnaires required of the Corporation’s directors.

ARTICLE IV
OFFICERS

    Section 1. Designation. The Corporation shall have such officers with such titles and duties as set forth in these By-Laws, in a resolution of the Board of Directors or as chosen pursuant to Section 13 of this Article IV.

    Section 2. Election and Qualification. Except as provided in Section 13, the officers of the Corporation shall be elected by the Board of Directors and, if specifically determined by the Board of Directors, may consist of a Chairman of the Board, Vice Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, one or more Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, one or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers, and such other officers and agents as the Board of Directors may deem advisable or as may be provided in Section 13 of this Article IV. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless otherwise prohibited by law or the Certificate of Incorporation. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

    Section 3. Term of Office. Officers shall be chosen in such manner and shall hold their office for such term as determined by the Board of Directors. Each officer shall hold office from the time of his or her election and qualification to the time at which his or her successor is elected and qualified, or until his or her earlier resignation, removal or death.

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    Section 4. Resignation. Any officer of the Corporation may resign at any time by giving written notice of such resignation to the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President. Any such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein or, if no time be specified, upon receipt thereof by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President. The acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

    Section 5. Removal. Any officer may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors.

    Section 6. Compensation. The compensation of each officer shall be determined by the Board of Directors or by an appropriate committee of the Board of Directors.

    Section 7. The Chairman and the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board shall, subject to the direction and oversight of the Board, oversee the business plans and policies of the Corporation, and shall oversee the implementation of those business plans and policies. The Chairman shall report to the Board, shall preside as chairman at meetings of the Board of Directors and at all meetings of the stockholders, and shall have general authority to execute bonds, deeds and contracts in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation. In the absence or disability of the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, the Chief Executive Officer or such other member of the Board of Directors as is designated by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or by the Board of Directors shall be vested with and shall perform all powers and duties of the Chairman (or such limited powers and duties as is designated by the Chairman or the Board of Directors, including presiding at a meeting of the Board of Directors or the stockholders). The Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board, as determined by the Board, may also act in such capacities as non-officer directors.

    Section 8. Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall, subject to the direction of the Board, establish and implement the business plans, policies and procedures of the Corporation. The Chief Executive Officer shall report to the Board, shall preside as chairman over meetings of the Board or the stockholders in the absence of the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board or if so designated by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, and shall have general authority to execute bonds, deeds and contracts in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation and in general to exercise all the powers generally appertaining to the Chief Executive Officer of a corporation.

    Section 9. President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer. The President, the Chief Operating Officer and the Chief Financial Officer shall have such duties as shall be assigned to each from time to time by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer and by the Board of Directors.

    Section 10. Vice President. Each Vice President shall have such powers and shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to him or her by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or as provided in Section 13 of this Article IV.

    Section 11. Secretary. The Secretary shall attend meetings of the Board of Directors and stockholders and record votes and minutes of such proceedings, subject to the direction of the Chairman; assist in issuing calls for meetings of stockholders and directors; keep the seal of the Corporation and affix it to such instruments as may be required from time to time; keep the books and records of the Corporation; attest the Corporation’s execution of instruments when requested and appropriate; make such reports to the Board of Directors as are properly requested; and perform such other duties incident to the office of Secretary and those that may be otherwise assigned to the Secretary from time to time by the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Chairman of the Board of Directors.

    Section 12. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have custody of all corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation. The Treasurer shall deposit or disburse all moneys and other property in the name and to the credit of the Corporation as may be designated by the President or the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall render to the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer and the Board of Directors, whenever they may request it, an account of all his or her transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall perform other duties incident to the office of Treasurer as the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or the Board of Directors shall from time to time designate.

    Section 13. Other Officers. Such other officers as the Board of Directors may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.

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ARTICLE V
STOCK

    Section 1. Form of Certificates. The shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution that some or all of any or all classes or series of the Corporation’s capital stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares theretofore represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of any such resolution by the Board of Directors, every holder of capital stock in the Corporation represented by certificates and, upon request, every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate signed, in the name of the Corporation, by (i) the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or a Vice President and (ii) the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by such holder of stock in the Corporation.

    Section 2. Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

    Section 3. Lost, Destroyed, Stolen or Mutilated Certificates. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. The Corporation may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to such an issuance of a new certificate or uncertificated shares, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such person’s legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Corporation shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

    Section 4. Transfers. Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these By-Laws. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and, in the case of certificated shares of capital stock, only by the person named in the certificate or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the certificate therefor, properly endorsed for transfer and payment of all necessary transfer taxes, or, in the case of uncertificated shares of capital stock, upon receipt of proper transfer instructions from the registered holder of the shares or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing, and upon payment of all necessary transfer taxes and compliance with appropriate procedures for transferring shares in uncertificated form; provided, however, that such surrender and endorsement, compliance or payment of taxes shall not be required in any case in which the officers of the Corporation shall determine to waive such requirement. With respect to certificated shares of capital stock, every certificate exchanged, returned or surrendered to the Corporation shall be marked “Cancelled,” with the date of cancellation, by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or the transfer agent thereof. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred.

    Section 5. Transfer and Registry Agents. The Corporation may from time to time maintain one or more transfer offices or agencies and registry offices or agencies at such place or places as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

    Section 6. Beneficial Owners. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by law.



ARTICLE VI
GENERAL PROVISIONS

    Section 1. Dividends. Subject to the requirements of law and the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors, and may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in its absolute
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discretion, deems proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for purchasing any of the shares of capital stock, warrants, rights, options, bonds, debentures, notes, scrip or other securities or evidences of indebtedness of the Corporation, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for any other proper purpose, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

    Section 2. Disbursements. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

    Section 3. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be the calendar year or as fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

    Section 4. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation and shall be in the form as approved by the Board of Directors from time to time. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

    Section 5. Severability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision hereof shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions hereof.

ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION

    Section 1. Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings Other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VII, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director or officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, such person had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that such person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was unlawful.

    Section 2. Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VII, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

    Section 3. Authorization of Indemnification. Any indemnification under this Article VII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VII, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (iv) by the stockholders. To the extent, however, that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or
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proceeding described above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.

    Section 4. Good Faith Defined. For purposes of any determination under Section 3 of this Article VII, a person shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, if such person’s action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The term “another enterprise” as used in this Section 4 shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. The provisions of this Section 4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII, as the case may be.

    Section 5. Indemnification by a Court. Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VII, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or officer may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Sections 1 and 2 of this Article VII. The basis of such indemnification by a court shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standards of conduct set forth in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII, as the case may be. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VII nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of conduct. Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Section 5 shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such application. If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such application.

    Section 6. Expenses Payable in Advance. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director or officer in defending or investigating a threatened or pending civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VII.

    Section 7. Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by or granted pursuant to this Article VII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Certificate of Incorporation or any By-Law, agreement, contract, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or pursuant to the direction (howsoever embodied) of any court of competent jurisdiction or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 1 and 2 of this Article VII shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article VII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or otherwise.

    Section 8. Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article VII.

    Section 9. Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Article VII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors or officers, so that any person who is or was a director or officer of
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such constituent corporation, or is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. For purposes of this Article VII, references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director or officer with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VII.

    Section 10. Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

    Section 11. Limitation on Indemnification. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VII to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 5 hereof), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) or advance expenses in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

    Section 12. Indemnification of Employees and Agents. The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article VII to directors and officers of the Corporation.

    Section 13. Repeal or Modification. Any repeal or other modification of this Article VII shall not limit any rights of indemnification then existing or arising out of events, acts, omissions or circumstances occurring or existing prior to such repeal or modification, including, without limitation, the right to indemnification for proceedings commenced after such repeal or modification to enforce this Article VII with regard to acts, omissions, events or circumstances occurring or existing prior to such repeal or modification.

    Section 14. Severability. If this Article VII or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the Corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each director and officer of the Corporation as to costs, charges and expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement with respect to any proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, including an action by or in the right of the Corporation, to the full extent permitted by any applicable portion of this Article VII that shall not have been invalidated and to the full extent permitted by applicable law.

ARTICLE VIII
AMENDMENTS

    Section 1. Amendments. These By-Laws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new By-Laws may be adopted by the Board of Directors or by the stockholders.

    Section 2. Entire Board of Directors. As used in these By-Laws generally, the term “entire Board of Directors” means the total number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.


[END OF DOCUMENT]

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