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EX-3.1 2 avdx-ex3_1.htm EX-3.1 EX-3.1

 

AVIDXCHANGE HOLDINGS, INC.

a Delaware Corporation

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

As adopted on September 15, 2022

(Effective as of September 15, 2022)

 

 


 

AVIDXCHANGE HOLDINGS, INC.

a Delaware Corporation

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

Article I: STOCKHOLDERS

1

Section 1.1:

Annual Meetings

1

Section 1.2:

Special Meetings

1

Section 1.3:

Notice of Meetings

1

Section 1.4:

Adjournments

1

Section 1.5:

Quorum

2

Section 1.6:

Organization

2

Section 1.7:

Voting; Proxies

2

Section 1.8:

Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record

3

Section 1.9:

List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote

3

Section 1.10:

Inspectors of Election

4

Section 1.11:

Notice of Stockholder Business; Nominations

5

Article II: BOARD OF DIRECTORS

13

Section 2.1:

Number; Qualifications

13

Section 2.2:

Election; Resignation; Removal; Vacancies

13

Section 2.3:

Regular Meetings

13

Section 2.4:

Special Meetings

13

Section 2.5:

Remote Meetings Permitted

14

Section 2.6:

Quorum; Vote Required for Action

14

Section 2.7:

Organization

14

Section 2.8:

Unanimous Action by Directors in Lieu of a Meeting

14

Section 2.9:

Powers

14

Section 2.10:

Compensation of Directors

14

Section 2.11:

Confidentiality

15

Article III: COMMITTEES

15

Section 3.1:

Committees

15

Section 3.2:

Committee Rules

15

Article IV: OFFICERS; CHAIRPERSON; LEAD INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR

15

Section 4.1:

Generally

15

 

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Section 4.2:

Chief Executive Officer

16

Section 4.3:

Chairperson of the Board

17

Section 4.4:

Lead Independent Director

17

Section 4.5:

President

17

Section 4.6:

Vice President

17

Section 4.7:

Chief Financial Officer

17

Section 4.8:

Treasurer

17

Section 4.9:

Secretary

18

Section 4.10:

Delegation of Authority

18

Section 4.11:

Removal

18

Article V: STOCK

18

Section 5.1:

Certificates; Uncertificated Shares

18

Section 5.2:

Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates or Uncertificated Shares

18

Section 5.3:

Other Regulations

18

Article VI: INDEMNIFICATION

19

Section 6.1:

Indemnification of Officers and Directors

19

Section 6.2:

Advance of Expenses

19

Section 6.3:

Non‑Exclusivity of Rights

19

Section 6.4:

Indemnification Contracts

19

Section 6.5:

Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit

20

Section 6.6:

Nature of Rights

20

Section 6.7:

Insurance

20

Article VII: NOTICES

21

Section 7.1:

Notice

21

Section 7.2:

Waiver of Notice

22

Article VIII: INTERESTED DIRECTORS

22

Section 8.1:

Interested Directors

22

Section 8.2:

Quorum

22

Article IX: MISCELLANEOUS

22

Section 9.1:

Fiscal Year

22

Section 9.2:

Seal

22

Section 9.3:

Form of Records

22

Section 9.4:

Reliance Upon Books and Records

23

Section 9.5:

Certificate of Incorporation Governs

23

Section 9.6:

Severability

23

Section 9.7:

Forum Selection.

23

 

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Article X: AMENDMENT

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AVIDXCHANGE HOLDINGS, INC.

a Delaware Corporation

SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

As adopted on September 15, 2022

(Effective as of September 15, 2022)

Article I: STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1.1: Annual Meetings. If required by law, an annual meeting of stockholders shall be held for the election of directors at such date and time as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board”) shall fix. The meeting may be held either at a place, within or without the State of Delaware as permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), or by means of remote communication as the Board in its sole discretion may determine. Any proper business may be transacted at the annual meeting.

Section 1.2: Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes shall be called in the manner set forth in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (as the same may be amended and/or restated from time to time, the “Certificate of Incorporation”). The special meeting may be held either at a place, within or without the State of Delaware, or by means of remote communication as the Board in its sole discretion may determine. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of the meeting.

Section 1.3: Notice of Meetings. Notice of all meetings of stockholders shall be given in writing or by electronic transmission in the manner provided by applicable law and these Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Corporation (these “Bylaws”) (including, without limitation, as set forth in Section 7.1.1 of these Bylaws) stating the date, time and place, if any, of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting). In the case of a special meeting, such notice shall also set forth the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than ten (10), nor more than sixty (60), days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting.

Section 1.4: Adjournments. Notwithstanding Section 1.5 of these Bylaws, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another time, date and place (if any) regardless of whether a quorum is present, at any time and for any reason. Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time, date and place (if any) thereof and the means of remote communication (if any) by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken or are provided in any other manner permitted by the DGCL. If the

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adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting. At the adjourned meeting the Corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the Board may postpone, reschedule or cancel at any time and for any reason any previously scheduled special or annual meeting of the stockholders before it is to be held.

Section 1.5: Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, at each meeting of stockholders the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that where a separate vote by a class or classes or series of stock is required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on such matter, present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to the vote on such matter. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairperson of the meeting or, if directed to be voted on by the chairperson of the meeting, the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote on the matter who are present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting, may adjourn the meeting. Shares of the Corporation’s capital stock shall neither be entitled to vote nor counted for quorum purposes if such shares belong to (a) the Corporation, (b) another corporation, if a majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of such other corporation is held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation or (c) any other entity, if a majority of the voting power of such other entity is otherwise controlled, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation; provided, however, that the foregoing shall not limit the right of the Corporation to vote stock, including but not limited to its own stock, held by it in a fiduciary capacity. A quorum, once established at a meeting, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.

Section 1.6: Organization. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by (a) such person as the Board may designate, or (b) in such person’s absence, the Chairperson of the Board, or (c) in the absence of such person, the Lead Independent Director, or (d) in such person’s absence, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation or (e) in such person’s absence, the President of the Corporation, or (f) in such person’s absence, by a Vice President. Such person shall be chairperson of the meeting and, subject to Section 1.10 of these Bylaws, shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of discussion as seems to such person to be in order. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in such person’s absence, the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 1.7: Voting; Proxies. Each stockholder of record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy. Such a proxy may be prepared, transmitted and delivered in any manner permitted by applicable law,

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including Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”). Except as may be required in the Certificate of Incorporation, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. At all meetings of stockholders at which a quorum is present, unless a different or minimum vote is required by applicable law, rule or regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in which case such different or minimum vote shall be the applicable vote on the matter, every matter other than the election of directors shall be decided by the majority of the votes cast (or if there are two or more classes or series of stock entitled to vote as separate classes, then in the case of each class or series, by a majority of the votes cast by the holders of shares of stock of that class or series).

Section 1.8: Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60), nor less than ten (10), days before the date of such meeting. If the Board so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at the adjourned meeting and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board and which shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no such record date is fixed by the Board, then the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 1.9: List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The Corporation shall prepare, no later than the tenth day before each meeting of stockholders, a complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth (10th) day before the meeting date), arranged in

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alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of ten (10) days ending on the day before the meeting date, (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network as permitted by applicable law (provided, that the information required to gain access to the list is provided with the notice of the meeting), or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 1.9 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list.

The Board may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the presiding person of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting by stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the presiding person of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants; (vi) restricting the use of audio/video recording devices and cell phones; and (vii) complying with any state and local laws and regulations concerning safety and security. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter or business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

Section 1.10: Inspectors of Election.

1.10.1 Applicability. Unless otherwise required by the Certificate of Incorporation or by applicable law, the following provisions of this Section 1.10 shall apply only if and when the Corporation has a class of voting stock that is: (a) listed on a national securities exchange; (b) authorized for quotation on an interdealer quotation system of a registered national securities association; or (c) held of record by more than two thousand (2,000) stockholders. In all other cases, observance of the provisions of this Section 1.10 shall be optional, and at the discretion of the Board.

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1.10.2 Appointment. The Corporation shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting.

1.10.3 Inspector’s Oath. Each inspector of election, before entering upon the discharge of such inspector’s duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability.

1.10.4 Duties of Inspectors. At a meeting of stockholders, the inspectors of election shall (a) ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each share, (b) determine the shares represented at a meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (c) count all votes and ballots, (d) determine and retain for a reasonable period of time a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors, and (e) certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting, and their count of all votes and ballots. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of the duties of the inspectors.

1.10.5 Opening and Closing of Polls. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced by the chairperson of the meeting at the meeting. No ballot, proxies or votes, nor any revocations thereof or changes thereto, shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls unless the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware, upon application by a stockholder, shall determine otherwise.

1.10.6 Determinations. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots, the inspectors shall be limited to an examination of the proxies, any envelopes submitted with those proxies, any information provided in connection with proxies pursuant to Section 211(a)(2)b.(i) of the DGCL, or in accordance with Sections 211(e) or 212(c)(2) of the DGCL, ballots and the regular books and records of the Corporation, except that the inspectors may consider other reliable information for the limited purpose of reconciling proxies and ballots submitted by or on behalf of banks, brokers, their nominees or similar persons which represent more votes than the holder of a proxy is authorized by the record owner to cast or more votes than the stockholder holds of record. If the inspectors consider other reliable information for the limited purpose permitted herein, the inspectors at the time they make their certification of their determinations pursuant to this Section 1.10 shall specify the precise information considered by them, including the person or persons from whom they obtained the information, when the information was obtained, the means by which the information was obtained and the basis for the inspectors’ belief that such information is accurate and reliable.

Section 1.11: Notice of Stockholder Business; Nominations.

1.11.1 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

(a) Nominations of persons for election to the Board and the proposal of other business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders

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only: (i) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting (or any supplement thereto), (ii) by or at the direction of the Board or any duly authorized committee thereof or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who was a stockholder of record at the time of giving of the notice provided for in this Section 1.11.1 (the “Record Stockholder”), who is entitled to vote at such meeting and who complies with the notice and other procedures set forth in this Section 1.11.1 in all applicable respects. For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose business other than business proposed in accordance with Rule 14a‑8 under the Exchange Act at an annual meeting of stockholders, and such stockholder must fully comply with the notice and other procedures set forth in this Section 1.11.1 to make such nominations or propose business before an annual meeting.

(b) Without qualification, for nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a Record Stockholder pursuant to Section 1.11.1(a) of these Bylaws, the Record Stockholder must:

(i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation;

(ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.11.1; and

(iii) if presenting such other business (other than the nomination of persons for election to the Board), otherwise bring forth a proper matter for stockholder action.

To be timely, a Record Stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than the open of business on the hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (except in the case of the Corporation’s first annual meeting following closing of its initial underwritten public offering of common stock, for which such notice shall be timely if delivered in the same time period as if such meeting were a special meeting governed by Section 1.11.2 of these Bylaws); provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before, or more than sixty (60) days after, such anniversary date, notice by the Record Stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, (A) not more than the open of business on the hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and (B) not later than (1) the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, (2) if later, the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which Public Announcement (as defined below) of the date of such annual meeting was first made by the Corporation (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above. Such Record Stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(X) as to each candidate whom a Record Stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director, (1) all information with respect to such candidate for nomination that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to Section 1.11.1(b)(Z) if such candidate for nomination were a Proposing Person, (2) all information relating to such candidate for nomination that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be

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made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such candidate’s written consent to being named in a proxy statement and accompanying proxy card relating to the Corporation’s next meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected and to serving as a director for a full term if elected), (3) a description of any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement between or among any Proposing Person, on the one hand, and each candidate for nomination or his or her respective associates or any other participants in such solicitation, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Proposing Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the candidate for nomination were a director or executive officer of such registrant, and (4) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 1.11.1(c).

In no event may a Proposing Person provide Timely Notice with respect to a greater number of director candidates than are subject to election by stockholders at the applicable meeting. If the Corporation shall, subsequent to such notice, increase the number of directors subject to election at the meeting, such notice as to any additional nominees shall be due on the later of (a) the conclusion of the time period for Timely Notice or (b) the tenth (10th) day following the date of Public Announcement of such increase.

(Y) as to each item of business other than the nomination of a director or directors that the Record Stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, (1) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material direct or indirect interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (2) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws, the text of the proposed amendment), (3) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (a) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (b) between or among any Proposing Person and any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such Record Stockholder, and (4) any other information relating to such item of business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that the disclosures required by this paragraph (Y) shall not include any disclosures with respect to any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of the beneficial owner; and

(Z) as to each Proposing Person:

(1) (a) the name and address of such Proposing Person, including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records; and (b) the class or series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the stock of

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the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future; and

(2) (a) the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any “derivative security” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(c) under the Exchange Act) that constitutes a “call equivalent position” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(b) under the Exchange Act) (“Synthetic Equity Position”) and that is, directly or indirectly, held or maintained by such Proposing Person with respect to any shares of any class or series of shares of stock of the Corporation; provided that for the purposes of the definition of “Synthetic Equity Position,” the term “derivative security” shall also include any security or instrument that would not otherwise constitute a “derivative security” as a result of any feature that would make any conversion, exercise or similar right or privilege of such security or instrument becoming determinable only at some future date or upon the happening of a future occurrence, in which case the determination of the amount of securities into which such security or instrument would be convertible or exercisable shall be made assuming that such security or instrument is immediately convertible or exercisable at the time of such determination; and, provided, further, that any Proposing Person satisfying the requirements of Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act (other than a Proposing Person that so satisfies Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act solely by reason of Rule 13d-1(b)(1)(ii)(E)) shall not be deemed to hold or maintain the notional amount of any securities that underlie a Synthetic Equity Position held by such Proposing Person as a hedge with respect to a bona fide derivatives trade or position of such Proposing Person arising in the ordinary course of such Proposing Person’s business as a derivatives dealer, (b) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of stock of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (c) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (d) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation or any affiliate of the Corporation, on the other hand, (e) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement of such Proposing Person with the Corporation or any affiliate of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (f) if such notice pertains to business other than the nomination of a director or directors, a representation that such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal, (g) if such notice pertains to the nomination of a director or directors, a representation as to whether the Proposing Person intends or is part of a

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group which intends to (i) deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to elect any nominee and (ii) solicit the holders of shares representing at least 67% of the voting power of shares entitled to vote on the election of directors in support of director nominees other than the Corporation’s nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Exchange Act and (h) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (a) through (h) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.

A Proposing Person providing written notice required by this Section 1.11 shall update and supplement its notice to the Corporation in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 1.11 is true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the close of business on the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.

In addition to the requirements of this Section 1.11 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.11, unless otherwise required by law, (A) no Proposing Person shall solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the Corporation’s nominees unless such Proposing Person has complied with Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Exchange Act in connection with the solicitation of such proxies, including the provision to the Corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner and (B) if any Proposing Person (1) provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) promulgated under the Exchange Act and (2) subsequently fails

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to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(2) and Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act, including the provision to the Corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner, or fails to timely provide reasonable evidence sufficient to satisfy the Corporation that such Proposing Person has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act in accordance with the following sentence, then the Corporation shall disregard any proxies or votes solicited for the Proposing Person’s candidates. If any Proposing Person provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) promulgated under the Exchange Act, such Proposing Person shall deliver to the Corporation, no later than seven (7) business days prior to the applicable meeting, reasonable evidence that it has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act.

(c) To be eligible to be a candidate for election as a director of the Corporation at an annual or special meeting, a candidate must be nominated in the manner prescribed in Section 1.11 of these Bylaws and the candidate for nomination, whether nominated by the Board or by a stockholder of record, must have previously delivered (in accordance with the time period prescribed for delivery in a notice to such candidate given by or on behalf of the Board), to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, (i) a completed written questionnaire (in the form provided by the Corporation upon written request of any stockholder of record therefor) with respect to the background, qualifications, stock ownership and independence of such proposed nominee and (ii) a written representation and agreement (in the form provided by the Corporation upon written request of any stockholder of record therefor) that such candidate for nomination (A) is not and, if elected as a director during his or her term of office, will not become a party to (1) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given and will not give any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) or (2) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation or reimbursement for service as a director that has not been disclosed therein or to the Corporation, (C) if elected as a director of the Corporation, will comply with all applicable corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading and other policies and guidelines of the Corporation applicable to directors and in effect during such person’s term of office as a director (and, if requested by any candidate for nomination, the Secretary of the Corporation shall provide to such candidate for nomination all such policies and guidelines then in effect), and (D) if elected as director of the Corporation, intends to serve the entire term until the next meeting at which such candidate would face re-election.

(d) The Board may also require any proposed candidate for nomination as a director to furnish such other information as may reasonably be requested by the Board in writing prior to the meeting of stockholders at which such candidate’s nomination is to be acted upon. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Board may request such other information in order for the Board to determine the eligibility of such candidate for nomination to be an independent director of the Corporation or to comply with the director qualification standards and additional selection criteria in accordance with the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines. Such other information shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary

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at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (or any other office specified by the Corporation in a Public Announcement) not later than five (5) business days after the request by the Board has been delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Proposing Person.

(e) No candidate shall be eligible for nomination as a director of the Corporation unless such candidate for nomination and the Proposing Person seeking to place such candidate’s name in nomination has complied with Section 1.11 of these Bylaws. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with Section 1.11 of these Bylaws, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting, the defective nomination shall be disregarded and any ballots cast for the candidate in question (but in the case of any form of ballot listing other qualified nominees, only the ballots cast for the nominee in question) shall be void and of no force or effect.

1.11.2 Special Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which the election of directors is a specified matter pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of such meeting (a) by or at the direction of the Board or any duly authorized committee thereof or (b) provided that the Board has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation present in person who is a record owner of shares of the Corporation both at the time of giving of notice of the special meeting provided in this Section 1.11.2 and at the time of the special meeting, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice and other procedures as to such notice and nomination set forth in this Section 1.11 in all applicable respects. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board, any such stockholder may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the stockholder (i) provides Timely Notice (as defined in Section 1.11.1(b) of these Bylaws) in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation, (ii) provides the information, agreements and questionnaires with respect to such stockholder and such candidate for nomination as required to be set forth by this Section 1.11, and (iii) provides any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.11. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at a special meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the special meeting on behalf of such beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such special meeting. In no event shall an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

1.11.3 General.

(a) Any stockholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other stockholders must use a proxy card color other than white, which shall be reserved for the exclusive use by the Board.

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(b) Except as otherwise expressly provided in any applicable rule or regulation promulgated under the Exchange Act, only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.11 shall be eligible to be elected at a meeting of stockholders and serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.11. Except as otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, the chairperson of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any other business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.11 and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance herewith, to declare that such defective proposal or nomination shall be disregarded. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.11, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a Qualified Representative of the stockholder (as defined below)) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or proposed business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

(c) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.11, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth herein. Nothing in this Section 1.11 shall be deemed to affect any rights of (i) stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a‑8 under the Exchange Act or (ii) the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.

(d) For purposes of this Section 1.11 the following definitions shall apply:

(i) “affiliate” and “associate” shall have the meanings ascribed thereto in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”); provided, however, that the term “partner” as used in the definition of “associate” shall not include any limited partner that is not involved in the management of the relevant partnership;

(ii) “Proposing Person” shall mean (1) the Record Stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting or nomination of persons for election to the Board at a stockholder meeting, (2) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting or nomination of persons for election to the Board at a stockholder meeting is made, and (3) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation;

(iii) “Public Announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; and

(iv) to be considered a “Qualified Representative” of a stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager, trustee or partner of such stockholder or must

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be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as a proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction thereof, at the annual meeting; provided, however, that if the stockholder is (A) a general or limited partnership, any general partner or person who functions as a general partner of the general or limited partnership or who controls the general or limited partnership shall be deemed a Qualified Representative, (B) a corporation or a limited liability company, any officer or person who functions as the substantial equivalent of an officer of the corporation or limited liability company or any officer, director, general partner or person who functions as an officer, director or general partner of any entity ultimately in control of the corporation or limited liability company shall be deemed a Qualified Representative or (C) a trust, any trustee of such trust shall be deemed a Qualified Representative. The Secretary of the Corporation, or any other person who shall be appointed to serve as secretary of the meeting, may require, on behalf of the Corporation, reasonable and appropriate documentation to verify the status of a person purporting to be a “Qualified Representative” for purposes hereof.

Article II: BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 2.1: Number; Qualifications. The total number of directors constituting the Board (the “Whole Board”) shall be fixed from time to time in the manner set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation. No decrease in the authorized number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall shorten the term of any incumbent director. Directors need not be stockholders of the Corporation.

Section 2.2: Election; Resignation; Removal; Vacancies. Election of directors need not be by written ballot. Unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation and subject to the special rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, the Board shall be divided into three classes, designated as Class I, Class II and Class III. Each class shall consist, as nearly as may be possible, of one‑third of the Whole Board. Each director shall hold office until the annual meeting at which such director’s term expires and until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal. Any director may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation at its principal office or to the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at a later time or upon the happening of an event. Subject to the special rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, directors may be removed only as provided by the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. All vacancies occurring on the Board and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors shall be filled in the manner set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation.

Section 2.3: Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board may be held at such places, within or without the State of Delaware, and at such times as the Board may from time to time determine. Notice of regular meetings need not be given if the date, times and places thereof are fixed by resolution of the Board.

Section 2.4: Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board may be called by or at the direction of the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the Lead Independent

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Director or a majority of the members of the Board then in office and may be held at any time, date or place, within or without the State of Delaware, as the person or persons calling the meeting shall fix. Notice of the time, date and place of such meeting shall be given, orally, in writing or by electronic transmission (including electronic mail), by the person or persons calling the meeting to all directors at least four (4) days before the meeting if the notice is mailed, or at least twenty‑four (24) hours before the meeting if such notice is given by telephone, hand delivery, facsimile, electronic mail or other means of electronic transmission. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.

Section 2.5: Remote Meetings Permitted. Members of the Board, or any committee of the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board or such committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to conference telephone or other communications equipment shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 2.6: Quorum; Vote Required for Action. Except as otherwise provided herein or in the Certificate of Incorporation or required by law, at all meetings of the Board, a majority of the Whole Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting to another place, date or time. Except as otherwise provided herein or in the Certificate of Incorporation, or required by law, the vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board.

Section 2.7: Organization. Meetings of the Board shall be presided over by (a) the Chairperson of the Board, or (b) in the absence of such person, the Lead Independent Director, or (c) in such person’s absence, the Chief Executive Officer, or (d) in such person’s absence, by a chairperson chosen by the Board at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in such person’s absence the chairperson of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

Section 2.8: Unanimous Action by Directors in Lieu of a Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. After the action is taken, the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions shall be filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee, as applicable. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

Section 2.9: Powers. Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board.

Section 2.10: Compensation of Directors. Members of the Board, as such, may receive, pursuant to a resolution of the Board, fees and other compensation for their services as directors, including without limitation their services as members of committees of the Board.

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Section 2.11: Confidentiality. Each director shall maintain the confidentiality of, and shall not share with any third party person or entity (including third parties that originally sponsored, nominated or designated such director (the “Sponsoring Party”)), any non‑public information learned in their capacities as directors, including communications among Board members in their capacities as directors. The Board may adopt a board confidentiality policy further implementing and interpreting this bylaw (a “Board Confidentiality Policy”). All directors are required to comply with this bylaw and any such Board Confidentiality Policy unless such director or Sponsoring Party for such director has entered into a specific written agreement with the Corporation, in either case as approved by the Board, providing otherwise with respect to such confidential information.

Article III: COMMITTEES

Section 3.1: Committees. The Board may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of the committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting of such committee who are not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in a resolution of the Board and subject to any limitations imposed by applicable law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (a) approving, adopting or recommending to the stockholders any action or matter (other than the election or removal of members of the Board) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (b) adopting, amending or repealing any bylaw of the Corporation.

Section 3.2: Committee Rules. Each committee shall keep records of its proceedings and make such reports as the Board may from time to time request. Unless the Board otherwise provides, each committee designated by the Board may make, alter and repeal rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of such rules each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board conducts its business pursuant to Article II of these Bylaws. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws or the resolution of the Board designating the committee, any committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and may delegate to any such subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

Article IV: OFFICERS; CHAIRPERSON; LEAD INDEPENDENT DIRECTOR

Section 4.1: Generally. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer (who may be the Chairperson of the Board or the President), a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer and may consist of such other officers, including, without limitation, a Chief Financial Officer and one or more Vice Presidents, as may from time to time be appointed by the Board. All officers shall be elected by the Board; provided, however, that the Board may empower the Chief

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Executive Officer of the Corporation to appoint any officer other than the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, each officer shall hold office until such officer’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation, death, disqualification or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. The officers of the Corporation shall have such authority and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be specified in these Bylaws or pursuant to authorization of the Board, and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board. Any officer may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation at its principal office or to the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation by death, resignation, removal or otherwise may be filled by the Board and the Board may, in its discretion, leave unfilled, for such period as it may determine, any offices. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term of such officer’s predecessor and until a successor is duly elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation, death, disqualification or removal.

Section 4.2: Chief Executive Officer. Subject to the control of the Board and such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board, the powers and duties of the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation are:

(a) to act as the general manager and, subject to the control of the Board, to have general supervision, direction and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation;

(b) subject to Article I, Section 1.6 of these Bylaws, to preside at all meetings of the stockholders;

(c) subject to Article I, Section 1.2 of these Bylaws, to call special meetings of the stockholders to be held at such times and, subject to the limitations prescribed by applicable law or by these Bylaws, at such places as the Chief Executive Officer shall deem proper;

(d) to affix the signature of the Corporation to all deeds, conveyances, mortgages, guarantees, leases, obligations, bonds, certificates and other papers and instruments in writing which have been authorized by the Board or which, in the judgment of the Chief Executive Officer, should be executed on behalf of the Corporation;

(e) to sign certificates for shares of stock of the Corporation (if any);

(f) subject to the direction of the Board, to have general charge of the property of the Corporation and to supervise and control all officers, agents and employees of the Corporation; and

(g) to possess such other powers and perform such other duties as may be assigned by these Bylaws, as may from time to time be assigned by the Board and as may be incident to the office of Chief Executive Officer.

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Section 4.3: Chairperson of the Board. Subject to the provisions of Section 2.7 of these Bylaws, the Chairperson of the Board shall have the power to preside at all meetings of the Board and shall have such other powers and duties as provided in these Bylaws and as the Board may from time to time prescribe. The Chairperson may or may not be an officer of the Corporation, as determined by the Board.

Section 4.4: Lead Independent Director. The Board may, in its discretion, elect a lead independent director from among its members that are Independent Directors (as defined below) (such director, the “Lead Independent Director”). He or she shall preside at all meetings at which the Chairperson of the Board is not present and shall exercise such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the Board or as prescribed by these Bylaws. For purposes of these Bylaws, “Independent Director” has the meaning ascribed to such term under the rules of the exchange upon which the Corporation’s Common Stock is primarily traded.

Section 4.5: President. The person holding the office of Chief Executive Officer shall be the President of the Corporation unless the Board shall have designated one individual as the President and a different individual as the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board, and subject to the supervisory powers of the Chief Executive Officer (if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President), and subject to such supervisory powers and authority as may be given by the Board to the Chairperson of the Board, and/or to any other officer, the President shall have the responsibility for the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and the general supervision and direction of all of the officers, employees and agents of the Corporation (other than the Chief Executive Officer, if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President) and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of President or that are delegated to the President by the Board.

Section 4.6: Vice President. Each Vice President shall have all such powers and duties as are commonly incident to the office of Vice President or that are delegated to him or her by the Board or the Chief Executive Officer. A Vice President may be designated by the Board to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Chief Executive Officer or President in the event of the Chief Executive Officer’s or President’s absence or disability.

Section 4.7: Chief Financial Officer. The person holding the office of Chief Financial Officer shall be the Treasurer of the Corporation unless the Board shall have designated another officer as the Treasurer of the Corporation. Subject to the direction of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of Chief Financial Officer, or as the Board may from time to time prescribe.

Section 4.8: Treasurer. The person holding the office of Treasurer shall have custody of all monies and securities of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall make such disbursements of the funds of the Corporation as are authorized and shall render from time to time an account of all such transactions. The Treasurer shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Treasurer, or as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.

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Section 4.9: Secretary. The Secretary shall issue or cause to be issued all authorized notices for, and shall keep, or cause to be kept, minutes of all meetings of the stockholders and the Board. The Secretary shall have charge of the corporate minute books and similar records and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Secretary, or as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.

Section 4.10: Delegation of Authority. The Board may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer of the Corporation to any other officers or agents of the Corporation, notwithstanding any provision hereof.

Section 4.11: Removal. Any officer of the Corporation shall serve at the pleasure of the Board and may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board; provided that if the Board has empowered the Chief Executive Officer to appoint any officer of the Corporation, then such officer may also be removed by the Chief Executive Officer. Such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer, if any, with the Corporation.

Article V: STOCK

Section 5.1: Certificates; Uncertificated Shares. The shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be uncertificated shares; provided, however, that this Section 5.1 shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation (or the transfer agent or registrar, as the case may be). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be certificated shares. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation, by any two authorized officers of the Corporation, with each of the Chairperson or Vice‑Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary and any Assistant Secretary being such an authorized officer of the Corporation, representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were an officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 5.2: Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates or Uncertificated Shares. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate previously issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the Corporation and/or to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it, against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

Section 5.3: Other Regulations. Subject to applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws, the issue, transfer, conversion and registration of shares

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represented by certificates and of uncertificated shares shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board may establish.

Article VI: INDEMNIFICATION

Section 6.1: Indemnification of Officers and Directors. Each person who was or is made a party to, or is threatened to be made a party to, or is involved in any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, legislative or any other type whatsoever (a “Proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person (or a person of whom such person is the legal representative), is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or, while serving as a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation, or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to employee benefit plans (for purposes of this Article VI, an “Indemnitee”), shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against all expenses, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes and penalties and amounts paid or to be paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such Indemnitee in connection therewith, provided such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner that the Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal Proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the Indemnitee’s conduct was unlawful. Such indemnification shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of such Indemnitees’ heirs, executors and administrators. Notwithstanding the foregoing, subject to Section 6.5 of these Bylaws, the Corporation shall indemnify any such Indemnitee seeking indemnity in connection with a Proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such Indemnitee only if such Proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board or such indemnification is authorized by an agreement approved by the Board.

Section 6.2: Advance of Expenses. The Corporation shall pay all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an Indemnitee in defending any Proceeding in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that if the DGCL then so requires, the advancement of such expenses shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such Indemnitee, to repay such amounts if it shall ultimately be determined that such Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VI or otherwise.

Section 6.3: Non‑Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person in this Article VI shall not be exclusive of any other right that such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote or consent of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise. Additionally, nothing in this Article VI shall limit the ability of the Corporation, in its discretion, to indemnify or advance expenses to persons whom the Corporation is not obligated to indemnify or advance expenses pursuant to this Article VI.

Section 6.4: Indemnification Contracts. The Board is authorized to cause the Corporation to enter into indemnification contracts with any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or any person serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other

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enterprise, including employee benefit plans, providing indemnification or advancement rights to such person. Such rights may be greater than those provided in this Article VI.

Section 6.5: Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. The following shall apply:

6.5.1 Right to Bring Suit. If a claim under Section 6.1 or 6.2 of these Bylaws is not paid in full by the Corporation within sixty (60) days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, except in the case of a claim for an advancement of expenses, in which case the applicable period shall be thirty (30) days, the Indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim. If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit. In any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that the Indemnitee has not met any applicable standard of conduct which makes it permissible under the DGCL (or other applicable law) for the Corporation to indemnify the Indemnitee for the amount claimed.

6.5.2 Effect of Determination. Neither the absence of a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the Indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the Indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in applicable law, nor an actual determination that the Indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the Indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the Indemnitee, be a defense to such suit.

6.5.3 Burden of Proof. In any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article VI, or otherwise, shall be on the Corporation.

Section 6.6: Nature of Rights. The rights conferred upon Indemnitees in this Article VI shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director, officer or trustee and shall inure to the benefit of the Indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, repeal or modification of any provision of this Article VI that adversely affects any right of an Indemnitee or an Indemnitee’s successors shall be prospective only, and shall not adversely affect any right or protection conferred on a person pursuant to this Article VI with respect to any Proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, repeal or modification.

Section 6.7: Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.

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Article VII: NOTICES

Section 7.1: Notice.

7.1.1 Form and Delivery. Except as otherwise specifically required in these Bylaws (including, without limitation, Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws) or by applicable law, all notices required to be given pursuant to these Bylaws may (a) in every instance in connection with any delivery to a member of the Board, be effectively given by hand delivery (including use of a delivery service), by depositing such notice in the mail, postage prepaid, or by sending such notice by overnight express courier, facsimile, electronic mail or other form of electronic transmission and (b) be effectively delivered to a stockholder when given by hand delivery, by depositing such notice in the mail, postage prepaid, by email, unless the stockholder has notified the Corporation that such stockholder objects to receiving notice by email, or, if specifically consented to by the stockholder as described in Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws, by sending such notice by other form of electronic transmission. Any such notice shall be addressed to the person to whom notice is to be given at such person’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Notice shall be given (i) if mailed, when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, (ii) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at the stockholder’s address, or (iii) if given by electronic mail, when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address. A notice by electronic mail must include a prominent legend that the communication is an important notice regarding the corporation. A notice by electronic mail will include any files attached thereto and any information hyperlinked to a website if such electronic mail includes the contact information of an officer or agent of the corporation who is available to assist with accessing such files or information. In the case of delivery by electronic transmission (other than email), notice shall be deemed given at the time provided in Section 7.1.2 of these Bylaws.

7.1.2 Electronic Transmission. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission (other than email) consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given in accordance with Section 232 of the DGCL. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Notwithstanding anything in this Article VII to the contrary, notice may not be given by form of electronic transmission (including email), from and after the time (a) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation and (b) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to discover such inability shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Notice given pursuant to this Section 7.1.2 shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of such posting and the giving of such separate notice; and (iii) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

7.1.3 Affidavit of Giving Notice. An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given in writing

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or by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

Section 7.2: Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a written waiver of notice, signed by the person entitled to notice, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any waiver of notice.

Article VIII: INTERESTED DIRECTORS

Section 8.1: Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its members of the Board or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are members of the board of directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board or committee thereof that authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because such director’s or officer’s votes are counted for such purpose, if: (a) the material facts as to such director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board or the committee, and the Board or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; (b) the material facts as to such director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (c) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board, a committee thereof, or the stockholders.

Section 8.2: Quorum. Interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

Article IX: MISCELLANEOUS

Section 9.1: Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be determined by resolution of the Board.

Section 9.2: Seal. The Board may provide for a corporate seal, which may have the name of the Corporation inscribed thereon and shall otherwise be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board.

Section 9.3: Form of Records. Any records administered by or on behalf of the Corporation in the regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account and minute books, may be kept on or by means of, or be in the form of any other information storage device, method, or one or more electronic networks or databases (including one or more distributed

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electronic networks or databases) electronic or otherwise, provided, that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible paper form within a reasonable time and otherwise comply with the DGCL. The Corporation shall so convert any records so kept upon the request of any person entitled to inspect such records pursuant to any provision of the DGCL.

Section 9.4: Reliance Upon Books and Records. A member of the Board, or a member of any committee designated by the Board shall, in the performance of such person’s duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books and records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of the Corporation’s officers or employees, or committees of the Board, or by any other person as to matters the member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.

Section 9.5: Certificate of Incorporation Governs. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation shall govern.

Section 9.6: Severability. If any provision of these Bylaws shall be held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, then such provision shall nonetheless be enforced to the maximum extent possible consistent with such holding and the remaining provisions of these Bylaws (including without limitation, all portions of any section of these Bylaws containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation, that are not themselves invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation) shall remain in full force and effect.

Section 9.7: Forum Selection.

9.7.1 If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of Section 1 of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation is filed in a court other than the courts in the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to (a) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts in the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the provisions of Section 1 of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation and (b) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder.

9.7.2 Section 2 of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation is intended to benefit and may be enforced by the Corporation, its officers and directors, the underwriters to any offering giving rise to such complaint, and any other professional or entity whose profession gives authority to a statement made by that person or entity and who has prepared or certified any part of the documents underlying the offering.

9.7.3 If any provision or provisions of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable as applied to any circumstance for any reason whatsoever, (a) the validity, legality and enforceability of such provisions in any other circumstance and of the remaining provisions of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation

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(including, without limitation, each portion of any paragraph of Article IX of the Certificate of Incorporation containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby and (b) the application of such provision to other persons or entities and circumstances shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

Article X: AMENDMENT

These Bylaws may be amended as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation.

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