MaxLinear, Inc.
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EX-3.1 2 exhibit31.htm EX-3.1 Document
Exhibit 3.1
MAXLINEAR, INC.
AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
(as amended November 14, 2022)
ARTICLE I - OFFICES
Section 1. Principal Offices.
The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall fix the location of the principal executive office of the Corporation at any place within or without the State of Delaware.
Section 2. Other Offices.
The Corporation may also have offices at such other places as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate, or as the business of the Corporation may require.
ARTICLE II - STOCKHOLDERS
Section 1. Annual Meeting.
(1) An annual meeting of the stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such place, on such date, and at such time as the Board of Directors shall each year fix. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law. The Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board (as defined below in Section 2(1)) may cancel, postpone, recess or reschedule any previously scheduled meeting of stockholders at any time, before or after the notice for such meeting has been given to the stockholders.
(2) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business to be transacted by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders (a) pursuant to the Corporation’s proxy materials with respect to such meeting, (b) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof that has been formally delegated authority to nominate such persons or propose such business pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board or (c) by any stockholder of record of the Corporation (the “Record Stockholder”) at the time of the giving of the notice required in the following paragraph and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the procedures set forth in this section. For the avoidance of doubt, the foregoing clause (c) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose business (other than business included in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (such act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, the “Exchange Act”)) or other applicable rules and regulations under the Exchange Act at an annual meeting of stockholders.
(3) For nominations or business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a Record Stockholder pursuant to clause (c) of the foregoing paragraph, (a) the Record Stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation, (b) any such business must be a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law and (c) the Record Stockholder and the Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below in Section 1(4)(c)) must have complied with the requirements of Sections 1(4) and 1(6), including with respect to the representations set forth in the Solicitation Statement required by these Bylaws. To be timely, a Record Stockholder’s notice shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than 8:00 a.m., Pacific time, on the 75th day prior to the one-year anniversary of the date on which the Corporation first mailed its proxy materials for the preceding year’s annual meeting of stockholders or later than 5:00 p.m., Pacific time, on the 45th day prior to the one-year anniversary of the date on which the Corporation first mailed its proxy materials for the preceding year’s annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that, subject to the last sentence of this Section 1(3), if the meeting is convened more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, or if no annual meeting was held in the


Exhibit 3.1
preceding year, notice by the Record Stockholder to be timely must be so received not later than 5:00 p.m., Pacific time, on the later of (i) the 90th day before such annual meeting or (ii) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. Notwithstanding anything in the preceding sentence to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors is increased and there has been no public announcement naming all of the nominees for director or indicating the increase in the size of the Board of Directors made by the Corporation at least 10 days before the last day a Record Stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination in accordance with the preceding sentence, a Record Stockholder’s notice required by this bylaw shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to any nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than 5:00 p.m., Pacific time, on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment, rescheduling, recess, postponement or other delay of an annual meeting for which notice has been given, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a Record Stockholder’s notice.
(4) Such Record Stockholder’s notice shall set forth:
a. if such notice pertains to the nomination of directors, as to each person whom the Record Stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director: (1) such person’s name, age, business address, residence address and principal occupation or employment; the class and number of shares of the Corporation that are held of record or are beneficially owned by such person; and any (i) Derivative Instruments (defined below) held or beneficially owned by such person, including the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any Derivative Instrument, or (ii) other agreement, arrangement or understanding that has been made the effect or intent of which is to create or mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of such person with respect to the Corporation’s securities, (2) all information relating to such person as would be required to be disclosed in connection with solicitations of proxies for the election of such nominees as directors pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, (3) such other information as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the Corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such nominee, (4) such person’s written consent (i) to being named as a nominee of such stockholder, (ii) to being named in the Corporation’s form of proxy pursuant to Rule 14a-19 of the Exchange Act and (iii) to serve as a director if elected, (5) a statement whether such person, if elected, intends to tender, promptly following such person’s election or reelection, an irrevocable resignation effective upon such person’s failure to receive the required vote for reelection at the next meeting at which such person would face reelection and upon acceptance of such resignation by the Board of Directors, in accordance with the Corporation’s governance principles, (6) any direct or indirect compensatory, payment, indemnification or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding that such person has, or has had within the past three years, with any person or entity other than the Corporation (including, without limitation, the amount of any payment or payments received or receivable thereunder), in each case in connection with candidacy or service as a director of the Corporation (such agreement, arrangement or understanding, a “Third-Party Compensation Arrangement”), (7) all arrangements or understandings between or among the stockholder, any Stockholder Associated Person and each nominee and/or any other person or persons (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nominations are to be made by the stockholder or concerning such nominee’s potential board service and (8) a description of any other material relationships between or among such nominee and such nominee’s respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with them, on the one hand, and such stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made, and any Stockholder Associated Person, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such stockholder, beneficial owner, Stockholder Associated Person, affiliate or associate were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and such person were a director or executive officer of such registrant;
b. as to any business that the Record Stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting: (1) a brief description of such business, (2) the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, (3) any material


Exhibit 3.1
interest in such business of such Record Stockholder and any Stockholder Associated Person, (4) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, if applicable, the text of any proposed amendment to these Bylaws) and (5) all agreements, arrangements and understandings between or among such Record Stockholder and any Stockholder Associated Person, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder; and
c. as to (1) the Record Stockholder giving the notice, and (2) (A) any person controlling, directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with, such Record Stockholder, (B) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record or beneficially by such Record Stockholder and on whose behalf the proposal or nomination, as the case may be, is being made, or (C) any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such person referred to in the preceding clauses (A) and (B) (a “Stockholder Associated Person”) (each, a “party”):
(i) the name and address of each such party;
(ii) (A) the class, series, and number of shares of the Corporation that are owned, directly or indirectly, beneficially and of record by each such party, (B) any agreement, arrangement or understanding between or among such party, and any other person or persons (including, in each case, their names) in connection with the proposal of such nomination or other business, (C) any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including, regardless of the form of settlement, any derivative, profit interests, forward, future, swap, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into on behalf of such party (any of the foregoing, a “Derivative Instrument”) including the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any Derivative Instrument, and any other agreement, arrangement or understanding that has been made the effect or intent of which is to create or mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for or increase or decrease the voting power of such party, with respect to the Corporation’s securities, (D) any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding, or relationship pursuant to which either party has a right to vote, directly or indirectly, any shares of any security of the Corporation, (E) any rights to dividends on the shares of the Corporation owned beneficially directly or indirectly by each such party that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (F) any proportionate interest in shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which either party is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner, (G) any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) that each such party is directly or indirectly entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments, if any, as of the date of such notice, including without limitation any such interests held by members of each such party’s immediate family sharing the same household, (H) any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments in any principal competitor of the Corporation that are held by each such party, (I) any direct or indirect interest of each such party in any contract with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation (in each case, including any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (J) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such party is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers, directors or affiliates, (K) any material relationship between such party, on the one hand, and the Corporation or any of its officers, directors or affiliates, on the other hand, (L) such other information relating to any proposed item of business as the Corporation may reasonably require to determine whether such proposed item of business is a proper matter for stockholder action and (M) a representation that the Record Stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such nomination or other business;
(iii) any other information relating to each such party that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations


Exhibit 3.1
of proxies for, as applicable, the proposed item of business and/or the election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act; and
(iv) a statement whether or not each such party will (A) deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of, in the case of a proposal, at least the percentage of voting power of all of the shares of capital stock of the Corporation required under applicable law to carry the proposal or, in the case of a nomination or nominations, at least the percentage of voting power of all of the shares of capital stock of the Corporation reasonably believed by the Record Stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person, as the case may be, to be sufficient to elect the nominee or nominees proposed to be nominated by the Record Stockholder (which statement must include a statement as to whether such party intends to solicit the requisite percentage of the voting power of the Corporation’s stock under Rule 14a-19 of the Exchange Act) or (B) otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal or nomination (such statement, a “Solicitation Statement”).
(5) For purposes of these Bylaws, “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or by such other means as is reasonably designed to inform the public or stockholders of the Corporation in general of such information, including, without limitation, posting on the Corporation’s investor relations website.
(6) In addition, to be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice (and any additional information submitted to the Corporation in connection therewith) to the Secretary shall be updated and supplemented by such Record Stockholder or such Stockholder Associated Person, as the case may be, not later than 10 days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; provided, that if such date is after the date of the meeting, not later than the day prior to the meeting, so that all information provided or required to be provided in such stockholder’s notice is true and correct as of the record date for voting at the meeting. Such Record Stockholder or such Stockholder Associated Person, as the case may be, shall further provide any additional information that the Corporation may reasonably request promptly following a request therefor, which response must be received by the Secretary not later than such reasonable time as is specified in any such request from the Corporation. No later than five business days prior to the annual meeting or any adjournment, rescheduling, postponement or other delay thereof, a stockholder nominating individuals for election as a director will provide the Corporation with reasonable evidence that such stockholder has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19 of the Exchange Act. The failure to timely provide such update, supplement, evidence or additional information shall result in the nomination or proposal no longer being eligible for consideration at the annual meeting. If the stockholder fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19 (including because the stockholder fails to provide the Corporation with all information or notices required by Rule 14a-19), then the director nominees proposed by such stockholder shall be ineligible for election at the annual meeting and any votes or proxies in respect of such nomination shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that such proxies may have been received by the Corporation and counted for the purposes of determining quorum. For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement, or provide additional information or evidence, as set forth in these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines pursuant to these Bylaws or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice pursuant to these Bylaws to amend or update any nomination or to submit any new nomination. No disclosure pursuant to these Bylaws will be required with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is the stockholder submitting a notice pursuant to this Section 1 solely because such broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee has been directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.
Section 2. Special Meetings.
(1) Special meetings of the stockholders, other than those required by statute, may be called only by (a) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board, (b) the Chairperson of the Board or (c) the President of the Corporation. For purposes of these Bylaws, the term “Whole Board” shall mean the


Exhibit 3.1
total number of authorized directors whether or not there exist any vacancies or other unfilled seats in previously authorized directorships. The Board of Directors may cancel, postpone, recess or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting.
(2) Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors. The notice of such special meeting shall include the purpose for which the meeting is called. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (b) by any stockholder of record at the time of giving of notice provided for in this paragraph and at the time of the special meeting, who shall be entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting and who delivers a written notice to the Secretary setting forth the information set forth in Section 1(4)(a) and 1(4)(c) of this Article II, as updated or supplemented in accordance with Section 1(6) of this Article II (in each case with references therein to “annual meeting” deemed to mean “special meeting” for the purposes of this Article II, Section 2). Nominations by stockholders of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at such a special meeting of stockholders only if such stockholder of record’s notice required by the preceding sentence shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than 5:00 p.m., Pacific time, on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. Notwithstanding anything in the preceding sentence to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors is increased and there has been no public announcement naming all of the nominees for director or indicating the increase in the size of the Board of Directors made by the Corporation at least 10 days before the last day a Record Stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination in accordance with the preceding sentence, a Record Stockholder’s notice required by this bylaw shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment, recess, rescheduling, postponement or other delay of a special meeting for which notice has been given, commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder of record’s notice.
Section 3. Other Requirements.
(1) To be eligible to be a nominee by any stockholder for election as a director of the Corporation, the proposed nominee must provide to the Secretary, in accordance with the applicable time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under Section 1(3) and Section 2(2) of this Article II:
a. a signed and completed written questionnaire (in the form provided by the Secretary at the written request of the nominating stockholder, which form will be provided by the Secretary within 10 days of receiving such request) containing information regarding such nominee’s background and qualifications and such other information as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation or to serve as an independent director of the Corporation;
b. a written representation and undertaking that, unless previously disclosed to the Corporation, such nominee is not, and will not become, a party to any voting agreement, arrangement, commitment, assurance or understanding with any person or entity as to how such nominee, if elected as a director, will vote on any issue;
c. a written representation and undertaking that, unless previously disclosed to the Corporation, such nominee is not, and will not become, a party to any Third-Party Compensation Arrangement;
d. a written representation and undertaking that, if elected as a director, such nominee would be in compliance, and will continue to comply, with the Corporation’s corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading guidelines, and other policies and guidelines applicable to directors and in effect during such person’s term in office as a director (and, if requested by any candidate


Exhibit 3.1
for nomination, the Secretary will provide to such proposed nominee all such policies and guidelines then in effect); and
e. a written representation and undertaking that such nominee, if elected, intends to serve a full term on the Board of Directors.
(2) At the request of the Board of Directors, a proposed nominee for election as a director must furnish to the Secretary within five business days of the making of such request (i) such other information as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility and qualifications of such proposed nominee to serve as director and (ii) information that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, or qualifications of such nominee; in the absence of the timely furnishing of such information if requested, such stockholder’s nomination shall not be considered in proper form pursuant to Sections 1, 2 and 3 of this Article II.
(3) No person will be eligible to be nominated by a stockholder for election as a director of the Corporation, or to be seated as a director of the Corporation, unless nominated and elected in accordance with the procedures set forth in Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II. No business proposed by a stockholder will be conducted at a stockholder meeting except in accordance with Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II.
(4) The chairperson of the applicable meeting of stockholders will, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these Bylaws or that other proposed business was not properly brought before the meeting. If the chairperson of the meeting should so determine, then the chairperson of the meeting will so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination will be disregarded or such business will not be transacted, as the case may be.
(5) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear in person at the meeting to present a nomination or other proposed business, such nomination will be disregarded or such proposed business will not be transacted, as the case may be, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nomination or business may have been received by the Corporation and counted for purposes of determining a quorum. For purposes of this Section 3, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting, and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting.
(6) Without limiting Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to the matters set forth in Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II, it being understood that (i) any references in these Bylaws to the Exchange Act are not intended to, and will not, limit any requirements applicable to nominations or proposals as to any other business to be considered pursuant to Sections 1, 2 and 3; and (ii) compliance with clause (c) of Section 1(2) and clause (b) of Section 2(2) of Article II are the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or submit other business (other than as provided in Section 3(7) of this Article II).
(7) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in Sections 1, 2 and 3 of Article II, the notice requirements set forth in these Bylaws with respect to the proposal of any business will be deemed to be satisfied by a stockholder if (i) such stockholder has submitted a proposal to the Corporation in compliance with Rule 14a 8 under the Exchange Act; and (ii) such stockholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for the meeting of stockholders. Subject to Rule 14a 8 and other applicable rules and regulations under the Exchange Act, nothing in these Bylaws will be construed to permit any stockholder, or give any stockholder the right, to include or have disseminated or described in the Corporation’s proxy statement any nomination of a director or any other business proposal.


Exhibit 3.1
Section 4. Notice of Meetings.
Notice of the place, if any, date, and time of all meetings of the stockholders, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given, not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date on which the meeting is to be held, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law (meaning, here and hereinafter, as required from time to time by the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Fifth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (as the same shall be further amended and restated, the “Certificate of Incorporation”)). Such notice shall be given in accordance with Section 232 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place (including an adjournment taken to address a technical failure to convene or continue a meeting using remote communication), notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are (i) announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, (ii) displayed, during the time scheduled for the meeting, on the same electronic network used to enable stockholders and proxy holders to participate in the meeting by means of remote communication or (iii) set forth in the notice of meeting given in accordance with Section 222(a) of the Delaware General Corporation Law; provided, however, that if the date of any adjourned meeting is more than 30 days after the date for which the meeting was originally noticed, notice of the place, if any, date, and time of the adjourned meeting and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, shall be given to each stockholder in conformity herewith. If after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors and, except as otherwise required by law, shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting. At any adjourned meeting, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the original meeting.
Section 5. Quorum.
At any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of a majority of the voting power of all of the shares of the stock entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for all purposes, unless or except to the extent that the presence of a larger number may be required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or by the rules of any stock exchange upon which the Corporation’s securities are listed. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, a majority of the voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter, except as otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws or the rules of any applicable stock exchange on which the Corporation’s securities are listed.
If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairperson of the meeting may adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date, or time.
Section 6. Organization.
Such person as the Board of Directors may have designated or, in the absence of such a person, the Chairperson of the Board or, in the Chairperson’s absence, the President of the Corporation or, in the President’s absence, such person as may be chosen by the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, shall call to order any meeting of the stockholders and act as chairperson of the meeting. In the absence of the Secretary of the Corporation, the secretary of the meeting shall be such person as the chairperson of the meeting appoints.


Exhibit 3.1
Section 7. Conduct of Business.
The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of discussion as seem to the chairperson in order. The chairperson shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date and time, whether or not a quorum is present. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting.
Section 8. Proxies and Voting.
At any meeting of the stockholders, every stockholder, or a stockholder’s authorized officer, director, employee or agent, entitled to vote may vote in person or by proxy authorized by a document or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. The authorization of a person to act as a proxy may be documented, signed and delivered in accordance with Section 116 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; provided that such authorization shall set forth, or be delivered with information enabling the Corporation to determine, the identity of the stockholder granting such authorization.
The Corporation may, and to the extent required by law, shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting may, and to the extent required by law, shall, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of such inspector’s duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such person’s ability. Such inspectors shall have the powers set forth in Section 231 of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
A nominee for director shall be elected to the Board of Directors if the votes cast for such nominee’s election exceed the votes cast against such nominee’s election; provided, however, that directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at any meeting of stockholders for which (i) the Secretary of the Corporation receives a notice that a stockholder has nominated a person for election to the Board of Directors in compliance with the advance notice requirements for stockholder nominees for director set forth in Article II of these Bylaws and (ii) such nomination has not been withdrawn by such stockholder on or before the tenth day before the Corporation first mails its notice of meeting for such meeting to the stockholders. If directors are to be elected by a plurality of the votes cast, stockholders shall not be permitted to vote against a nominee. Except as otherwise provided by applicable law or the rules and regulations of any stock exchange or quotation system on which the Corporation’s equity securities may then be listed, all other matters shall be determined by a majority of the votes cast affirmatively or negatively.
The Nominating and Governance Committee has established procedures under which any director nominated for reelection shall tender such director’s contingent resignation to the Board of Directors. The Nominating and Governance Committee will make a recommendation to the Board of Directors on whether to accept or reject the resignation, or whether other action should be taken. The Board of Directors will act on the Nominating and Governance Committee’s recommendation and publicly disclose its decision and the rationale behind it within 90 days from the date of the certification of the election results.
Section 9. Stock List.
The Corporation shall, no later than the tenth day before every meeting of stockholders, prepare a complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting of stockholders, provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the 10th day before the meeting date, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each such stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such


Exhibit 3.1
list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of ten days ending on the day before the meeting date: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the Corporation’s principal place of business. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation.
ARTICLE III - BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Section 1. General Powers.
The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of a Board of Directors, who may exercise all of the powers of the Corporation except as otherwise provided by law.
Section 2. Board Size.
Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the Whole Board shall be at least two (2) and shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board.
Section 3. Classified Board Structure.
The directors, other than any who may be elected by the holders of any series of Preferred Stock under specified circumstances, shall be divided into three (3) classes as nearly equal in size as is practicable, hereby designated Class I, Class II and Class III. At each annual meeting of stockholders, each of the successors elected to replace the directors of a Class whose term shall have expired at such annual meeting shall be elected to hold office until the third annual meeting next succeeding such director’s election and until such director’s respective successor shall have been duly elected and qualified. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article III, each director shall serve until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such director’s death, resignation, or removal. If the number of directors is hereafter changed, any newly created directorships or decrease in directorships shall be so apportioned among the classes as to make all classes as nearly equal in number as is practicable, provided that no decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.
Section 4. Resignation; Removal; Vacancies.
Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation. A resignation is effective when the resignation is delivered unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. A resignation which is conditioned upon the director failing to receive a specified vote for reelection as a director may provide that it is irrevocable. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, when one or more directors resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective. Any director may be removed from office by the stockholders of the Corporation only for cause. Vacancies occurring on the Board of Directors for any reason and newly created directorships resulting from an increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled only by vote of a majority of the remaining members of the Board of Directors, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, at any meeting of the Board of Directors and not by stockholders. A person elected to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until such director’s successor shall be duly elected and qualified.
Section 5. Regular Meetings.
Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.
Section 6. Special Meetings.


Exhibit 3.1
Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairperson of the Board, the President or by a majority of the Whole Board; provided that the person(s) authorized to call a special meeting of the Board of Directors may authorize another person or persons to send notice of such meeting. Such meeting shall be held at such place, on such date, and at such time as they or such person or persons shall fix. Notice of the place, date, and time of each such special meeting shall be given to each director by whom it is not waived by mailing written notice not less than five days before the meeting or by telephone, facsimile, electronic mail, or electronic transmission (as defined in Section 232 of the Delaware General Corporation Law) of the same not less than 24 hours before the meeting. Any oral notice of the place, date and time of the meeting may be communicated to the director in lieu of written notice if such notice is communicated at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. Notice of any meeting may be waived in writing at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice thereof, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.
Section 7. Quorum.
At any meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the total number of the Whole Board shall constitute a quorum for all purposes. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting to another place, date, or time, without further notice or waiver thereof.
Section 8. Participation in Meetings By Conference Telephone.
Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of such Board of Directors or committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other and such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
Section 9. Conduct of Business.
At any meeting of the Board of Directors, business shall be transacted in such order and manner as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, and all matters at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law.
Section 10. Board Action By Written Consent.
Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and a consent may be documented, signed and delivered in any manner permitted by Section 116 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Any person (whether or not then a director) may provide, whether through instruction to an agent or otherwise, that a consent to action will be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event), no later than 60 days after such instruction is given or such provision is made and such consent shall be deemed to have been given for purposes of this Section 10 at such effective time so long as such person is then a director and did not revoke the consent prior to such time. Any such consent shall be revocable prior to its becoming effective. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee, in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained.
Section 11. Compensation of Directors.
Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of the directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or paid a stated salary or paid other compensation as director, lead director, member of any committee, or chairperson of any committee. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any


Exhibit 3.1
other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed compensation and payment of expenses for attending committee meetings.
ARTICLE IV - COMMITTEES
Section 1. Committees of the Board of Directors.
The Board of Directors may from time to time designate committees of the Board of Directors, with such lawfully delegable powers and duties as it thereby confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and shall, for those committees and any others provided for herein, elect a director or directors to serve as the member or members, designating, if it desires, other directors as alternate members who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of any member of any committee and any alternate member in such member’s place, the member or members of the committee present at the meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may by unanimous vote appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of the absent or disqualified member.
Section 2. Conduct of Business.
Each committee may determine the procedural rules for meeting and conducting its business and shall act in accordance therewith, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law. Adequate provision shall be made for notice to members of all meetings; one-third of the members shall constitute a quorum unless the committee shall consist of one or two members, in which event one member shall constitute a quorum; and all matters shall be determined by a majority vote of the members present. Action may be taken by any committee without a meeting if all members thereof consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission as provided in Section 10 of Article III.
ARTICLE V - OFFICERS
Section 1. Generally.
The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chairperson of the Board, a President, one or more Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers as may from time to time be appointed by the Board of Directors. Officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors (including, for the avoidance of doubt, any duly authorized committee or subcommittee thereof) or by any officer who has been conferred the power of election. The Board of Directors shall consider that subject at its first meeting after every annual meeting of stockholders. Each officer shall hold office until such officer’s successor is elected and qualified or until such officer’s earlier resignation or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. The salaries of officers elected by the Board of Directors shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors or by such officers as may be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Chairperson of the Board.
The Chairperson of the Board shall be the chief executive officer of the Corporation. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, the Chairperson shall have the responsibility for the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the office of chief executive or which are delegated to such person by the Board of Directors. The Chairperson shall have power to sign all contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are authorized and shall have general supervision and direction of all of the other officers, employees and agents of the Corporation.
Section 3. President.
The President shall be the chief operating officer of the Corporation. The President shall have general responsibility for the management and control of the operations of the Corporation and shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the office of chief operating officer or which are delegated to the President by the Board of Directors. Subject to the direction of the Board of Directors and the Chairperson of the Board, the President shall have power to sign all contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are


Exhibit 3.1
authorized and shall have general supervision of all of the other officers (other than the Chairperson of the Board or any Vice Chairperson), employees and agents of the Corporation.
Section 4. Vice President.
Each Vice President shall have such powers and duties as may be delegated to the Vice President by the Board of Directors. One Vice President shall be designated by the Board of Directors to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the President in the event of the President’s absence or disability.
Section 5. Treasurer.
The Treasurer shall have the responsibility for maintaining the financial records of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall make such disbursements of the funds of the Corporation as are authorized and shall render from time to time an account of all such transactions and of the financial condition of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall also perform such other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
Section 6. Secretary.
The Secretary shall issue all authorized notices for, and shall keep minutes of, all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall have charge of the corporate books and shall perform such other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
Section 7. Delegation of Authority.
The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
Section 8. Removal and Resignation; Vacancies.
Any officer of the Corporation may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors (including, for the avoidance of doubt, any duly authorized committee or subcommittee thereof) or by any officer who has been conferred such power of removal. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors.
Section 9. Action with Respect to Securities of Other Entities.
Unless otherwise directed by the Board of Directors, the Chairperson of the Board or the President or any officer of the Corporation authorized by the Chairperson of the Board or the President shall have power to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares or other securities of, or interests in, or issued by, any other entity or entities, and all rights incident to any management authority conferred on the Corporation in accordance with the governing documents of any entity or entities, standing in the name of this Corporation, including the right to act by written consent. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.
ARTICLE VI - STOCK
Section 1. Certificates of Stock.
The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such resolution or resolutions by the Board of Directors, each


Exhibit 3.1
holder of stock represented by certificates and upon request each holder of uncertificated shares shall be entitled to a certificate signed by any two officers of the Corporation, representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be by facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.
Section 2. Special Designation on Certificates of Stock.
If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the registered owner thereof shall be given a notice, in writing or by electronic transmission, containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this Section 2 of Article VI or Sections 151, 156, 202(a) or 218(a) of the Delaware General Corporation Law or with respect to this Section 2 of Article VI a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.
Section 3. Transfers of Stock.
Transfers of stock shall be made only upon the transfer books of the Corporation kept at an office of the Corporation or by transfer agents designated to transfer shares of the stock of the Corporation. Except where a certificate is issued in accordance with Section 5 of Article VI of these Bylaws, an outstanding certificate for the number of shares involved, if one has been issued, shall be surrendered for cancellation before a new certificate, if any, is issued therefor.
Section 4. Record Date.
In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may, except as otherwise required by law, fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this Section 4 at the adjourned meeting.


Exhibit 3.1
In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
Section 5. Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates.
In the event of the loss, theft or destruction of any certificate of stock, another certificate of stock or uncertificated shares may be issued in its place pursuant to such regulations as the Board of Directors may establish concerning proof of such loss, theft or destruction and concerning the giving of a satisfactory bond or bonds of indemnity.
Section 6. Regulations.
The issue, transfer, conversion and registration of certificates of stock or uncertificated shares shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board of Directors may establish.
ARTICLE VII - NOTICES
Section 1. Notices.
Notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given in the manner set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 2. Waivers.
A written waiver of any notice, signed by a stockholder or director, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person, whether given before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to the notice required to be given to such person. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in such a waiver. Attendance at any meeting shall constitute waiver of notice except attendance for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
ARTICLE VIII - MISCELLANEOUS
Section 1. Facsimile Signatures.
In addition to the provisions for use of facsimile signatures elsewhere specifically authorized in these Bylaws, facsimile signatures of any officer or officers of the Corporation may be used whenever and as authorized by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof.
Section 2. Corporate Seal.
The Board of Directors may provide a suitable seal, containing the name of the Corporation, which seal shall be in the charge of the Secretary. If and when so directed by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof, duplicates of the seal may be kept and used by the Treasurer or by an Assistant Secretary or Assistant Treasurer.
Section 3. Reliance upon Books, Reports and Records.
Each director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, and each officer of the Corporation shall, in the performance of such officer’s duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors so designated, or by any other person as to matters which such director or committee member reasonably believes are


Exhibit 3.1
within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.
Section 4. Fiscal Year.
The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be as fixed by the Board of Directors.
Section 5. Time Periods.
In applying any provision of these Bylaws which requires that an act be done or not be done a specified number of days prior to an event or that an act be done during a period of a specified number of days prior to an event, calendar days shall be used, the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded, and the day of the event shall be included.
Section 6. Definitions and Construction.
Terms capitalized but not defined in these Bylaws shall have the meanings given in the Certificate of Incorporation. Any reference in these Bylaws to a provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law shall refer to any successor provision thereto or to such provision as it may be amended from time to time.
ARTICLE IX - INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS
Section 1. Right to Indemnification.
Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or an officer of the Corporation or is or was a director or an officer of the Corporation and was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer or trustee of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (hereinafter an “indemnitee”), whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer or trustee or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer or trustee, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware General Corporation Law, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such indemnitee in connection therewith; provided, however, that, except as provided in Section 3 of this Article IX with respect to proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification, the Corporation shall indemnify any such indemnitee in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such indemnitee only if such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.
Section 2. Right to Advancement of Expenses.
In addition to the right to indemnification conferred in Section 1 of this Article IX, an indemnitee shall also have the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses (including attorney’s fees) incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition (hereinafter an “advancement of expenses”); provided, however, that, if the Delaware General Corporation Law requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by an indemnitee in such person’s capacity as a director or officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Section 2 or otherwise.


Exhibit 3.1
Section 3. Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit.
If a claim under Section 1 or 2 of this Article IX is not paid in full by the Corporation within 60 days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, except in the case of a claim for an advancement of expenses, in which case the applicable period shall be 20 days, the indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim. To the fullest extent permitted by law, if successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit. In (i) any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that, and (ii) in any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that, the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the indemnitee, be a defense to such suit. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article IX or otherwise shall be on the Corporation.
Section 4. Non-Exclusivity of Rights.
The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Article IX shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or directors or otherwise. The Corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advancement of expenses, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or other applicable law.
Section 5. Insurance.
The Corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 6. Indemnification of Employees and Agents of the Corporation.
The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, grant rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to any employee, agent or any other persons of the Corporation to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article IX with respect to the indemnification and advancement of expenses of directors and officers of the Corporation.
Section 7. Nature of Rights.
The rights conferred upon indemnitees in this Article IX shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an indemnitee who has ceased to be a director, officer or trustee and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, alteration, elimination or repeal of this Article IX that adversely affects any right of an indemnitee or its successors shall be prospective only and shall not limit,


Exhibit 3.1
eliminate, or impair any such right with respect to any proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment, alteration, elimination or repeal.
ARTICLE X - AMENDMENTS
Section 1. By the Board of Directors.
In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by law, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to adopt, amend and repeal these Bylaws subject to the power of the holders of capital stock of the Corporation to adopt, amend or repeal these Bylaws.
Section 2. By the Stockholders.
These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed or new Bylaws may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the capital stock of the Corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereon at any regular meeting of stockholders, or at any special meeting of stockholders, provided notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new bylaws shall have been stated in the notice of such special meeting; provided, however, that, notwithstanding any other provision of these Bylaws or any provision of law that might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in additional to any vote of the holders of any class or series of the stock of this Corporation required by law or by these Bylaws, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66-⅔%) of the voting power of the outstanding shares of stock of the this Corporation entitled to vote thereon at any regular meeting of stockholders, or at any special meeting of stockholders, shall be required to amend or repeal or adopt any provision of these Bylaws inconsistent with Article II, Section 2, Section 3, Section 4 or Section 6 of Article III, Article IX, or Article X.
ARTICLE XI - FORUM SELECTION
Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another State court in Delaware or the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, stockholder, officer or other employee of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (c) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time) or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, except for, as to each of (a) through (d) above, any claim as to which such court determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of such court (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of such court within 10 days following such determination), which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than such court or for which such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction.
Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, against any person in connection with any offering of the Corporation’s securities, including, without limitation and for the avoidance of doubt, any auditor, underwriter, expert, control person or other defendant.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any security of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article XI. This provision shall be enforceable by any party to a complaint covered by the provisions of this Article XI. For the avoidance of doubt, nothing contained in this Article XI shall apply to any action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any successor thereto.