Summit Materials, Inc.
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EX-3.1 2 summitmaterials-bylaws.htm EX-3.1 Document

THIRD AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS
OF
SUMMIT MATERIALS, INC.
ARTICLE I.
Offices
Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office and registered agent of Summit Materials, Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware shall be as set forth in the Corporation’s certificate of incorporation as then in effect (as the same may be amended and/or restated from time to time, the “Restated Certificate of Incorporation”). The Corporation may also have offices in such other places in the United States or elsewhere (and may change the Corporation’s registered agent) as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board”) may, from time to time, determine or as the business of the Corporation may require as determined by any officer of the Corporation.
ARTICLE II.
Meetings of Stockholders
Section 1. Annual Meetings. Annual meetings of stockholders may be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, and at such time and date as the Board shall determine and state in the notice of meeting. The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that meetings of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as described in Section 11 of this Article II in accordance with Section 211(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). The Board may postpone, reschedule or cancel any annual meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board.
Section 2. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the stockholders may only be called in the manner provided in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation and may be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, and at such time and date as the Board or the Chairperson of the Board shall determine and state in the notice of meeting. The Board or the Chairperson of the Board may postpone, reschedule or cancel any special meeting of stockholders previously scheduled by the Board or the Chairperson of the Board.

Section 3. Notice of Stockholder Business and Nominations.
(A) Annual Meetings of Stockholders. Nominations of persons for election to the Board and the proposal of business other than nominations to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only: (i) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) with respect to such annual meeting given by or at the direction of the Board (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (ii) as otherwise properly brought before such annual meeting by or at the direction of the Board (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who (a) is a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 3 through the date of such annual meeting, (b) is entitled to vote at such annual meeting and (c) complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 3. For the avoidance of doubt, compliance with the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations, or to propose any other business (other than a proposal included in the Corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (such act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, the “Exchange Act”)), at an annual meeting of stockholders.
(B) Timing of Notice for Annual Meetings. In addition to any other applicable requirements, for nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to Section 3(A)(iii) above, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary, and, in the case of business other than nominations, such business must be a proper matter for stockholder action. To be timely, such notice must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the Close of Business (as defined below) on the ninetieth (90th) day, or earlier than the one hundred twentieth



(120th) day, prior to the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting of stockholders is more than thirty (30) days prior to, or more than sixty (60) days after, the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting or if no annual meeting was held in the preceding year, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be so received not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the Close of Business on the later of (i) the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting and (ii) the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined below) of the date of the meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall the adjournment, recess, postponement, judicial stay or rescheduling of an annual meeting (or the public disclosure thereof) commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of notice as described above.
(C)     Form of Notice. To be in proper written form, the notice of any stockholder of record giving notice under this Section 3 (each, a “Noticing Party”) must set forth:
(i)    as to each person whom such Noticing Party proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director (each, a “Proposed Nominee”), if any:
(a) the name, age, business address and residential address of such Proposed Nominee;
(b) the principal occupation and employment of such Proposed Nominee;
(c) a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualifications of such Proposed Nominee, completed by such Proposed Nominee in the form required by the Corporation (which form such Noticing Party shall request in writing from the Secretary prior to submitting notice and which the Secretary shall provide to such Noticing Party within ten (10) days after receiving such request);
(d) a written representation and agreement completed by such Proposed Nominee in the form required by the Corporation (which form such Noticing Party shall request in writing from the Secretary prior to submitting notice and which the Secretary shall provide to such Noticing Party within ten (10) days after receiving such request) providing that such Proposed Nominee: (I) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such Proposed Nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such Proposed Nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such Proposed Nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law; (II) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director or nominee that has not been disclosed to the Corporation; (III) will, if elected as a director of the Corporation, comply with all applicable rules of any securities exchanges upon which the Corporation’s securities are listed, the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, all applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, ethics, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading policies and all other guidelines and policies of the Corporation generally applicable to directors (which other guidelines and policies will be provided to such Proposed Nominee within five (5) business days after the Secretary receives any written request therefor from such Proposed Nominee), and all applicable fiduciary duties under state law; (IV) consents to being named as a nominee in the Corporation’s proxy statement and form of proxy for the meeting; (V) intends to serve a full term as a director of the Corporation, if elected; (VI) will provide facts, statements and other information in all communications with the Corporation and its stockholders that are or will be true and correct and that do not and will not omit to state any fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading; and (VII) will tender his or her resignation as a director of the Corporation if the Board determines that such Proposed Nominee failed to comply with the provisions of this Section 3(C)(i)(d) in any material respect, provides such Proposed Nominee notice of any such determination and, if such non-compliance may be cured, such Proposed Nominee fails to cure such non-compliance within ten (10) business days after delivery of such notice to such Proposed Nominee;
(e) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements or understandings, written or oral, during the past three (3) years, and any other material relationships, between or among such Proposed Nominee or any of such Proposed Nominee’s affiliates or associates (each as defined below), on the one hand, and any Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), on the other hand, including all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 promulgated



under Regulation S-K as if such Noticing Party and any Stockholder Associated Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the Proposed Nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant;
(f) a description of any business or personal interests that could reasonably be expected to place such Proposed Nominee in a potential conflict of interest with the Corporation or any of its subsidiaries; and
(g) all other information relating to such Proposed Nominee or such Proposed Nominee’s associates that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the election of directors in a contested election or otherwise required pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Proxy Rules”);
(ii)     as to any other business that such Noticing Party proposes to bring before the meeting:
(a) a reasonably brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting;
(b) the text of the proposal or business (including the complete text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the text of the proposed amendment); and
(c) all other information relating to such business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person in connection with the solicitation of proxies in support of such proposed business by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person pursuant to the Proxy Rules; and
(iii)    as to such Noticing Party and each Stockholder Associated Person:
(a) the name and address of such Noticing Party and each Stockholder Associated Person (including, as applicable, as they appear on the Corporation’s books and records);
(b) the class, series and number of shares of each class or series of capital stock (if any) of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned beneficially or of record (specifying the type of ownership) by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person (including any right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future, whether such right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time or the fulfillment of a condition); the date or dates on which such shares were acquired; and the investment intent of such acquisition;
(c) the name of each nominee holder for, and number of, any securities of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person and any pledge by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any of such securities;
(d) a complete and accurate description of all agreements, arrangements or understandings, written or oral, (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, hedging transactions, forwards, futures, swaps, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, repurchase agreements or arrangements, borrowed or loaned shares and so-called “stock borrowing” agreements or arrangements) that have been entered into by, or on behalf of, such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit from changes in the price of any securities of the Corporation, or maintain, increase or decrease the voting power of such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to securities of the Corporation, whether or not such instrument or right shall be subject to settlement in underlying shares of capital stock of the Corporation and without regard to whether such agreement, arrangement or understanding is required to be reported on a Schedule 13D, 13F or 13G in accordance with the Exchange Act (any of the foregoing, a “Derivative Instrument”);
(e) any substantial interest, direct or indirect (including any existing or prospective commercial, business or contractual relationship with the Corporation), by security holdings or otherwise, of such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person in the Corporation or any affiliate thereof, other than an interest arising from the ownership of Corporation securities where



such Noticing Party or such Stockholder Associated Person receives no extra or special benefit not shared on a pro rata basis by all other holders of the same class or series;
(f) a complete and accurate description of all agreements, arrangements or understandings, written or oral, (I) between or among such Noticing Party and any of the Stockholder Associated Persons or (II) between or among such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person and any other person or entity (naming each such person or entity), in each case, relating to the Corporation or it securities or the voting thereof, including (x) any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person, directly or indirectly, has a right to vote any security of the Corporation (other than any revocable proxy given in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A) and (y) any understanding, written or oral, that such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person may have reached with any stockholder of the Corporation (including the name of such stockholder) with respect to how such stockholder will vote such stockholder’s shares in the Corporation at any meeting of the Corporation’s stockholders or take other action in support of any Proposed Nominee or other business, or other action to be taken, by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person;
(g) any rights to dividends on the shares of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation;
(h) any proportionate interest in shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership, limited liability company or similar entity in which such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person (I) is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner of such general or limited partnership or (II) is the manager, managing member or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in the manager or managing member of such limited liability company or similar entity;
(i) any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments in any principal competitor of the Corporation held by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person;
(j) any direct or indirect interest of such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person in any contract or arrangement with the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation or any principal competitor of the Corporation (including any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement);
(k) a description of any material interest of such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person in the business proposed by such Noticing Party, if any, or the election of any Proposed Nominee;
(l) a representation that (I) neither such Noticing Party nor any Stockholder Associated Person has breached any contract or other agreement, arrangement or understanding with the Corporation except as disclosed to the Corporation pursuant hereto and (II) such Noticing Party and each Stockholder Associated Person has complied, and will comply, with all applicable requirements of state law and the Exchange Act with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 3;
(m) a complete and accurate description of any performance-related fees (other than asset-based fees) to which such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person may be entitled as a result of any increase or decrease in the value of the Corporation’s securities or any Derivative Instruments, including any such fees to which members of any Stockholder Associated Person’s immediate family sharing the same household may be entitled;
(n) (I) a description of the investment strategy or objective, if any, of such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person who is not an individual and (II) a copy of the prospectus, offering memorandum or similar document and any presentation, document or marketing material provided to third parties (including investors and potential investors) to solicit an investment in the Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person that contains or describes the Noticing Party’s or such Stockholder Associated Person’s performance, personnel or investment thesis or plans or proposals with respect to the Corporation;



(o) all information that would be required to be set forth in a Schedule 13D filed pursuant to Rule 13d-1(a) under the Exchange Act or an amendment pursuant to Rule 13d-2(a) under the Exchange Act if such a statement were required to be filed under the Exchange Act by such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person, or such Noticing Party’s or any Stockholder Associated Person’s associates, with respect to the Corporation (regardless of whether such person or entity is actually required to file a Schedule 13D), including a description of any agreement that would be required to be disclosed by such Noticing Party, any Stockholder Associated Person or any of their respective associates pursuant to Item 5 or Item 6 of Schedule 13D;
(p) a certification that such Noticing Party and each Stockholder Associated Person has complied with all applicable federal, state and other legal requirements in connection with such Noticing Party’s or Stockholder Associated Person’s acquisition of shares of capital stock or other securities of the Corporation and such Noticing Party’s or Stockholder Associated Person’s acts or omissions as a stockholder of the Corporation, if such Stockholder Associated Person is or has been a stockholder of the Corporation;
(q) (I) if the Noticing Party (or the beneficial owner(s) on whose behalf such Noticing Party is submitting a notice to the Corporation) is not a natural person, the identity of each natural person associated with such Noticing Party (or beneficial owner(s)) responsible for the formulation of and decision to propose the business or nomination to be brought before the meeting (such person or persons, the “Responsible Person”), the manner in which such Responsible Person was selected, any fiduciary duties owed by such Responsible Person to the equity holders or other beneficiaries of such Noticing Party (or beneficial owner(s)), the qualifications and background of such Responsible Person and any material interests or relationships of such Responsible Person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Noticing Party (or beneficial owner(s)) to propose such business or nomination to be brought before the meeting and (II) if the Noticing Party (or the beneficial owner(s) on whose behalf such Noticing Party is submitting a notice to the Corporation) is a natural person, the qualifications and background of such natural person and any material interests or relationships of such natural person that are not shared generally by any other record or beneficial holder of the shares of any class or series of the capital stock of the Corporation and that reasonably could have influenced the decision of such Noticing Party (or beneficial owner(s)) to propose such business or nomination to be brought before the meeting; and
(r) all other information relating to such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person, or such Noticing Party’s or any Stockholder Associated Person’s associates, that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies in support of the business proposed by such Noticing Party, if any, or for the election of any Proposed Nominee in a contested election or otherwise pursuant to the Proxy Rules;
provided, however, that the disclosures described in the foregoing subclauses (a) through (r) shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Noticing Party solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.
(iv)    a representation that such Noticing Party intends to appear in person or cause a Qualified Representative (as defined below) of such Noticing Party to appear in person at the meeting to bring such business before the meeting or nominate any Proposed Nominees, as applicable, and an acknowledgment that, if such Noticing Party (or a Qualified Representative of such Noticing Party) does not appear to present such business or Proposed Nominees, as applicable, at such meeting, the Corporation need not present such business or Proposed Nominees for a vote at such meeting, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation;
(v) a complete and accurate description of any pending or, to such Noticing Party’s knowledge, threatened legal proceeding in which such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person is a party or participant involving the Corporation or, to such Noticing Party’s knowledge, any current or former officer, director, affiliate or associate of the Corporation;
(vi) identification of the names and addresses of other stockholders (including beneficial owners) known by such Noticing Party to support the nomination(s) or other business proposal(s) submitted by such Noticing Party and, to the extent known, the class and number of all shares of the Corporation’s capital stock owned beneficially or of record by such other stockholder(s) or other beneficial owner(s); and



(vii) a representation from such Noticing Party as to whether such Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person intends or is part of a group that intends to (a) solicit proxies in support of the election of any Proposed Nominee in accordance with Rule 14a-19 under the Exchange Act or (b) engage in a solicitation (within the meaning of Exchange Act Rule 14a-1(l)) with respect to the nomination or other business, as applicable, and if so, the name of each participant (as defined in Item 4 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) in such solicitation.
(D) Additional Information.
(i) In addition to the information required pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this Section 3, the Corporation may require any Noticing Party to furnish such other information as the Corporation may reasonably require to determine the eligibility or suitability of a Proposed Nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such Proposed Nominee, under the listing standards of each securities exchange upon which the Corporation’s securities are listed, any applicable rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, any publicly disclosed standards used by the Board in selecting nominees for election as a director and for determining and disclosing the independence of the Corporation’s directors, including those applicable to a director’s service on any of the committees of the Board, or the requirements of any other laws or regulations applicable to the Corporation. If requested by the Corporation, any supplemental information required under this paragraph shall be provided by a Noticing Party within ten (10) days after it has been requested by the Corporation.
(ii) The Board may require any Proposed Nominee to submit to interviews with the Board or any committee thereof, and such Proposed Nominee shall make himself or herself available for any such interviews within ten (10) days following any reasonable request therefor from the Board or any committee thereof.
(E) Special Meetings of Stockholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto). Nominations of persons for election to the Board may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) (i) by or at the direction of the Board (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (ii) provided that one or more directors are to be elected at such meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who (a) is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 3(E) through the date of such special meeting, (b) is entitled to vote at such special meeting and upon such election and (c) complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 3(E). In addition to any other applicable requirements, for director nominations to be properly brought before a special meeting by a stockholder pursuant to the foregoing clause (ii), such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary. To be timely, such notice must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the Close of Business on the later of (x) the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting and (y) the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of the meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall an adjournment, recess, postponement, judicial stay or rescheduling of a special meeting (or the public disclosure thereof) commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. To be in proper written form, such notice shall include all information required pursuant to Section 3(C) above, and such stockholder and any Proposed Nominee shall comply with Section 3(D) above, as if such notice were being submitted in connection with an annual meeting of stockholders.
(F) General.
(i)    No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless the person is nominated by a stockholder in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 3 or the person is nominated by the Board, and no business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders of the Corporation except pursuant to Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act and business brought by a stockholder in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 3 or by the Board. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at a meeting may not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such meeting, and for the avoidance of doubt, no stockholder shall be entitled to make additional or substitute nominations following the expiration of the time periods set forth in Section 3(B) or Section 3(E), as applicable. Except as otherwise provided by law, the chairperson of a meeting shall have the power and the duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting has been made in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws, and, if the chairperson of the meeting determines that any proposed nomination or business was not properly brought before the meeting, the chairperson shall declare to the meeting that such nomination shall be disregarded or such business shall not be transacted, and no vote shall be taken with respect to such nomination or proposed business, in each case, notwithstanding that proxies with respect to such vote may have been received by



the Corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 3, unless otherwise required by law, if the Noticing Party (or a Qualified Representative of the Noticing Party) proposing a nominee for director or business to be conducted at a meeting does not appear at the meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present such nomination or propose such business, such proposed nomination shall be disregarded or such proposed business shall not be transacted, as applicable, and no vote shall be taken with respect to such nomination or proposed business, notwithstanding that proxies with respect to such vote may have been received by the Corporation.
(ii)    A Noticing Party shall update such Noticing Party’s notice provided under the foregoing provisions of this Section 3, if necessary, such that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice shall be true and correct as of (a) the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the meeting and (b) the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting (or any postponement, rescheduling or adjournment thereof), and such update shall (I) be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (x) not later than the Close of Business five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of such meeting (in the case of an update required to be made under clause (a)) and (y) not later than the Close of Business seven (7) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any postponement, rescheduling or adjournment thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been postponed, rescheduled or adjourned) (in the case of an update required to be made pursuant to clause (b)), (II) be made only to the extent that information has changed since such Noticing Party’s prior submission and (III) clearly identify the information that has changed since such Noticing Party’s prior submission. For the avoidance of doubt, any information provided pursuant to this Section 3(F)(ii) shall not be deemed to cure any deficiencies or inaccuracies in a notice previously delivered pursuant to this Section 3 and shall not extend the time period for the delivery of notice pursuant to this Section 3. If a Noticing Party fails to provide such written update within such period, the information as to which such written update relates may be deemed not to have been provided in accordance with this Section 3.
(iii)    If any information submitted pursuant to this Section 3 by any Noticing Party nominating individuals for election or reelection as a director or proposing business for consideration at a stockholder meeting shall be inaccurate in any material respect (as determined by the Board or a committee thereof), such information shall be deemed not to have been provided in accordance with this Section 3. Any such Noticing Party shall notify the Secretary in writing at the principal executive offices of the Corporation of any inaccuracy or change in any information submitted pursuant to this Section 3 (including if any Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person no longer intends to solicit proxies in accordance with the representation made pursuant to Section 3(C)(vii)(a)) within two (2) business days after becoming aware of such inaccuracy or change, and any such notification shall clearly identify the inaccuracy or change, it being understood that no such notification may cure any deficiencies or inaccuracies with respect to any prior submission by such Noticing Party. Upon written request of the Secretary on behalf of the Board (or a duly authorized committee thereof), any such Noticing Party shall provide, within seven (7) business days after delivery of such request (or such other period as may be specified in such request), (a) written verification, reasonably satisfactory to the Board, any committee thereof or any authorized officer of the Corporation, to demonstrate the accuracy of any information submitted by such Noticing Party pursuant to this Section 3 and (b) a written affirmation of any information submitted by such Noticing Party pursuant to this Section 3 as of an earlier date. If a Noticing Party fails to provide such written verification or affirmation within such period, the information as to which written verification or affirmation was requested may be deemed not to have been provided in accordance with this Section 3.
(iv)    If (a) any Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act with respect to any Proposed Nominee and (b) (1) such Noticing Party or Stockholder Associated Person subsequently either (x) notifies the Corporation that such Noticing Party or Stockholder Associated Person no longer intends to solicit proxies in support of the election or reelection of such Proposed Nominee in accordance with Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act or (y) fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(2) or Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the Exchange Act and (2) no other Noticing Party or Stockholder Associated Person that has provided notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act with respect to such Proposed Nominee (x) to the Corporation’s knowledge, still intends to solicit proxies in support of the election or reelection of such Proposed Nominee in accordance with Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act and (y) has complied with the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(2) and Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the Exchange Act, then the nomination of such Proposed Nominee shall be disregarded and no vote on the election of such Proposed Nominee shall occur (notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation). Upon request by the Corporation, if any Noticing Party or any Stockholder Associated Person provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act, such Noticing Party shall deliver to the Secretary, no later than five (5) business days prior to the applicable meeting date, reasonable evidence that the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the Exchange Act have been satisfied.



(v)     In addition to complying with the foregoing provisions of this Section 3, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and the Exchange Act with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 3. Nothing in this Section 3 shall be deemed to affect any rights of (a) stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act, (b) stockholders to request inclusion of nominees in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to the Proxy Rules or (c) the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
(vi)     Any written notice, supplement, update or other information required to be delivered by a stockholder to the Corporation pursuant to this Section 3 must be given by personal delivery, by overnight courier or by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid, to the Secretary at the Corporation’s principal executive offices.
(vi)     For purposes of these Bylaws, (A) “affiliate” and “associate” each shall have the respective meanings set forth in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act; (B) “beneficial owner” or “beneficially owned” shall have the meaning set forth for such terms in Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act; (C) “Close of Business” shall mean 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on any calendar day, whether or not the day is a business day; (D) “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; (E) a “Qualified Representative” of a Noticing Party means (I) a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such Noticing Party or (II) a person authorized by a writing executed by such Noticing Party (or a reliable reproduction or electronic transmission of the writing) delivered by such Noticing Party to the Corporation prior to the making of any nomination or proposal at a stockholder meeting stating that such person is authorized to act for such Noticing Party as proxy at the meeting of stockholders, which writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, must be produced at the meeting of stockholders; and (F) “Stockholder Associated Person” shall mean, with respect to a Noticing Party and if different from such Noticing Party, any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation on whose behalf such Noticing Party is providing notice of any nomination or other business proposed, (I) any person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by or under common control with such Noticing Party or beneficial owner(s), (II) any member of the immediate family of such Noticing Party or beneficial owner(s) sharing the same household, (III) any person or entity who is a member of a “group” (as such term is used in Rule 13d-5 under the Exchange Act (or any successor provision at law)) with, or is otherwise known by such Noticing Party or other Stockholder Associated Person to be acting in concert with, such Noticing Party, such beneficial owner(s) or any other Stockholder Associated Person with respect to the stock of the Corporation, (IV)  any affiliate or associate of such Noticing Party, such beneficial owner(s) or any other Stockholder Associated Person, [(V) if such Noticing Party or any such beneficial owner is not a natural person, any Responsible Person,] (VI) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such Noticing Party, such beneficial owner(s) or any other Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any proposed business or nominations, as applicable, (VII) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record by such Noticing Party or any other Stockholder Associated Person (other than a stockholder that is a depositary) and (VIII) any Proposed Nominee.

Section 4. Notice of Meetings. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a timely notice by mail or by electronic transmission, in the manner provided in Section 232 of the DGCL, of the meeting, which shall state the place, if any, date and time of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be mailed to or transmitted electronically by the Secretary of the Corporation to each stockholder of record entitled to vote thereat as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail with postage thereon prepaid, addressed to the stockholder at the stockholder’s address as it appears on the stock transfer books of the Corporation. If notice is given by means of electronic transmission, such notice shall be deemed to be given at the times provided in the DGCL. Any stockholder may waive notice of any meeting before or after the meeting. The attendance of a stockholder at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice at such meeting, except where the stockholder attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, and does so object, at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.



Section 5. Quorum. Unless otherwise required by law, the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the rules of any stock exchange upon which the Corporation’s securities are listed, the holders of record of a majority of the voting power of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of stockholders. Notwithstanding the foregoing, where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, a majority in voting power of the outstanding shares of such class or series or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to the vote on that matter. Once a quorum is present to organize a meeting, it shall not be broken by the subsequent withdrawal of any stockholders.
Section 6. Voting. Except as otherwise provided by or pursuant to the provisions of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by such stockholder that has voting power upon the matter in question. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy in any manner provided by applicable law, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after one (1) year from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A stockholder may revoke any proxy that is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by delivering to the Secretary of the Corporation a revocation of the proxy or a new proxy bearing a later date. Any stockholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other stockholders may use any proxy card color other than white, which shall be reserved for exclusive use by the Board. Unless required by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or applicable law, or determined by the chairperson of the meeting to be advisable, the vote on any question need not be by ballot. On a vote by ballot, each ballot shall be signed by the stockholder voting, or by such stockholder’s proxy, if there be such proxy. When a quorum is present or represented at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the shares of stock present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which, by express provision of applicable law, of the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, of any regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or of these Bylaws, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence and subject to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, all elections of directors shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast in respect of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors.
Section 7. Chairperson of Meetings. The Chairperson of the Board or, in his or her absence or disability, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, or in the absence of the Chairperson of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer, a person designated by the Board shall be the chairperson of the meeting and, as such, preside at all meetings of the stockholders.
Section 8. Secretary of Meetings. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary at all meetings of the stockholders. In the absence or disability of the Secretary, the Chairperson of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer shall appoint a person to act as Secretary at such meetings.
Section 9. Conduct of Meetings. The Board may adopt by resolution such rules, regulations and procedures for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules, regulations and procedures as adopted by the Board, the chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairperson, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the chairperson of the meeting, may include the following: (a) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (b) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (c) rules, regulations and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (d) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized proxies or such other persons as the chairperson of the meeting shall determine; (e) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement of the meeting; (f) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants; (g) removal of any stockholder or any other individual who refuses to comply with meeting rules, regulations or procedures; (h) the conclusion, recess or adjournment of the meeting, regardless of whether a quorum is present, to a later date and time and at a place, if any, announced at the meeting; (i) restrictions on the use of audio and video recording devices, cell phones and other electronic devices; (j) rules, regulations or procedures for compliance with any state or local laws or regulations including those concerning safety, health and security; (k) procedures (if any) requiring attendees to provide the Corporation advance notice of their intent to attend the meeting and (l) any rules, regulations or procedures as the chairperson may deem appropriate regarding the participation by means of remote communication of stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting, whether such meeting is to be



held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication. The chairperson of a stockholder meeting, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate regarding the conduct of the meeting, shall determine and declare to the meeting that a matter of business was not properly brought before the meeting, and, if the chairperson should so determine, the chairperson shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter of business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Except to the extent determined by the Board or the person presiding at the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
Section 10. Adjournment. At any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, if less than a quorum be present, the chairperson of the meeting or stockholders holding a majority in voting power of the shares of stock of the Corporation, present in person or by proxy and entitled to vote thereat, shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting (including an adjournment taken to address a technical failure to convene or continue a meeting using remote communication) if the time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person or represented by proxy and vote at such adjourned meeting, are (a) announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken, (b) displayed during the time scheduled for the meeting, on the same electronic network used to enable stockholders and proxy holders to participate in the meeting by means of remote communication or (c) set forth in the notice of meeting given in accordance with these Bylaws. Any business may be transacted at the adjourned meeting that might have been transacted at the meeting originally noticed. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
Section 11. Remote Communication. If authorized by the Board in its sole discretion, and subject to such guidelines and procedures as the Board may adopt, stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting of stockholders may, by means of remote communication:
(A) participate in a meeting of stockholders; and
(B) be deemed present in person and vote at a meeting of stockholders whether such meeting is to be held at a designated place or solely by means of remote communication; provided that:
(1) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to verify that each person deemed present and permitted to vote at the meeting by means of remote communication is a stockholder or proxyholder;
(2) the Corporation shall implement reasonable measures to provide such stockholders and proxyholders a reasonable opportunity to participate in the meeting and to vote on matters submitted to the stockholders, including an opportunity to read or hear the proceedings of the meeting substantially concurrently with such proceedings; and
(3) if any stockholder or proxyholder votes or takes other action at the meeting by means of remote communication, a record of such vote or other action shall be maintained by the Corporation.
Section 12. Inspectors of Election. The Corporation may, and shall if required by law, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election, who may be employees of the Corporation, to act at the meeting or any adjournment thereof and to make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. In the event that no inspector so appointed or designated is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairperson of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath to execute faithfully the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspector or inspectors so appointed or designated shall (i) ascertain the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation outstanding and the voting power of each such share, (ii) determine the shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (iii) count all votes and ballots, (iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors and (v) certify their determination of the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and such inspectors’ count of all votes and ballots. Such certification and report shall specify such other information as may be required by law. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, the inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law. No person who is nominated as a director candidate at a stockholder meeting may serve as an inspector at such meeting.



ARTICLE III.
Board of Directors
Section 1. Powers. Except as otherwise provided by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board. The Board may exercise all such authority and powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by the DGCL or the Restated Certificate of Incorporation directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.
Section 2. Number and Term; Chairperson. The number of directors shall be determined as set forth in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Directors shall be elected by the stockholders at their annual meeting, and the term of each director shall be as set forth in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders. The Board shall elect from its ranks a Chairperson of the Board, who shall have the powers and perform such duties as provided in these Bylaws and as the Board may from time to time prescribe. The Chairperson of the Board shall preside at all meetings of the Board at which he or she is present. If the Chairperson of the Board is not present at a meeting of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer (if the Chief Executive Officer is a director and is not also the Chairperson of the Board) shall preside at such meeting, and, if the Chief Executive Officer is not present at such meeting or is not a director, a majority of the directors present at such meeting shall elect one (1) of their members to preside over such meeting.
Section 3. Resignations. Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board, the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary of the Corporation. The resignation shall take effect at the time or upon the happening of any event specified therein, and if no specification is so made, at the time of its receipt. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective unless otherwise expressly provided in the resignation.

Section 4. Removal. Directors of the Corporation may be removed in the manner provided in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.
Section 5. Vacancies and Newly Created Directorships. Except as otherwise provided by law, vacancies occurring in any directorship (whether by death, resignation, retirement, disqualification, removal or other cause) and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall be filled in accordance with the Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Any director elected to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship shall hold office as set forth in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 6. Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board may be held at such places and times as shall be determined from time to time by the Board. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Chief Executive Officer or the Chairperson of the Board, and shall be called by the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary of the Corporation if directed by the Board and shall be at such places and times as they or he or she shall fix. Notice need not be given of regular meetings of the Board. At least twenty-four (24) hours before each special meeting of the Board (or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances), notice by electronic transmission or oral notice (either in person or by telephone) of the time, date and place of the meeting shall be given to each director; provided, however, that if written notice is given by United States mail, such notice be deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid at least five (5) days before such special meeting of the Board. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice thereof, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.
Section 7. Quorum, Voting and Adjournment. Unless otherwise provided by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, a majority of the total number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Restated Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the act of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board. In the absence of a quorum, a majority of the directors present thereat may adjourn such meeting to another time and place. Notice of such adjourned meeting need not be given if the time and place of such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting so adjourned.
Section 8. Committees; Committee Rules. The Board may designate one or more committees, including but not limited to an Audit Committee, a Compensation Committee and a Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee, each such committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee to replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be



affixed to all papers that may require it; provided that no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (a) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (b) adopting, amending or repealing these Bylaws. Each committee of the Board may fix its own rules of procedure and shall hold its meetings as provided by such rules, except as may otherwise be provided by a resolution of the Board designating such committee. Unless otherwise provided in such a resolution, the presence of at least a majority of the members of the committee shall be necessary to constitute a quorum unless the committee shall consist of one or two members, in which event one member shall constitute a quorum; and all matters shall be determined by a majority vote of the members present at a meeting of the committee at which a quorum is present. Unless otherwise provided in such a resolution, in the event that a member and that member’s alternate, if alternates are designated by the Board, of such committee is or are absent or disqualified, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member.
Section 9. Action Without a Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or any committee thereof, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed in the minutes of proceedings of the Board. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form or shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
Section 10. Remote Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, members of the Board, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment in which all persons participating in the meeting can hear and speak with each other. Participation in a meeting by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
Section 11. Compensation. The Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation, including fees and reimbursement of expenses, of directors for their services to the Corporation. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.
Section 12. Reliance on Books and Records. A member of the Board, or a member of any committee designated by the Board shall, in the performance of such person’s duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of the Corporation’s officers or employees, or committees of the Board, or by any other person as to matters the member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.


ARTICLE IV.
Officers
Section 1. Number. The officers of the Corporation shall include a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Treasurer and a Secretary, each of whom shall be elected by the Board and who shall hold office for such terms as shall be determined by the Board and until their successors are elected and qualify or until their earlier resignation or removal. In addition, the Board may elect, or may delegate to the Chief Executive Officer the authority to appoint, one or more Vice Presidents, including one or more Executive Vice Presidents, Senior Vice Presidents, and one or more Assistant Treasurers, one or more Assistant Secretaries, and such other officers as the Board from time to time may deem appropriate. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, but no officer may act in more than one capacity where action of two or more officers is required. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation.
Section 2. Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall, subject to the control of the Board, have general supervision over the business of the Corporation and shall direct the affairs and policies of the Corporation. The Chief Executive Officer may also serve as the Chairperson of the Board or as President, if so elected by the Board. The Chief Executive Officer shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by these Bylaws or by the Board.
Section 3. President. The President shall act in a general executive capacity and shall assist the Chief Executive Officer in the administration and operation of the Corporation’s business and general supervision of its



policies and affairs. The President shall, in the absence of or because of the inability to act of the Chief Executive Officer, perform all duties of the Chief Executive Officer. The President shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by these Bylaws, the Board or the Chief Executive Officer.
Section 4. Vice Presidents. Each Vice President, if any are elected, of whom one or more may be designated an Executive Vice President or Senior Vice President, shall have such powers and shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to him or her by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board.
Section 5. Treasurer. (A) The Treasurer shall have custody of the corporate funds, securities, evidences of indebtedness and other valuables of the Corporation and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation. The Treasurer shall deposit all moneys and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board or its designees selected for such purposes. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation, taking proper vouchers therefor. The Treasurer shall render to the Chief Executive Officer and the Board, upon their request, a report of the financial condition of the Corporation. If required by the Board, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond for the faithful discharge of his or her duties in such amount and with such surety as the Board shall prescribe.

(B) In addition, the Treasurer shall have such further powers and perform such other duties incident to the office of Treasurer as from time to time are assigned to him or her by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board.
Section 6. Secretary. The Secretary shall: (A) cause minutes of all meetings of the stockholders and directors to be recorded and kept properly; (B) cause all notices required by these Bylaws or otherwise to be given properly; (C) see that the minute books, stock books, and other nonfinancial books, records and papers of the Corporation are kept properly; and (D) cause all reports, statements, returns, certificates and other documents to be prepared and filed when and as required. The Secretary shall have such further powers and perform such other duties as prescribed from time to time by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board.
Section 7. Assistant Treasurers and Assistant Secretaries. Each Assistant Treasurer and each Assistant Secretary, if any are elected, shall be vested with all the powers and shall perform all the duties of the Treasurer and Secretary, respectively, in the absence or disability of such officer, unless or until the Chief Executive Officer or the Board shall otherwise determine. In addition, Assistant Treasurers and Assistant Secretaries shall have such powers and shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to them by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board.
Section 8. Corporate Funds and Checks. The funds of the Corporation shall be kept in such depositories as shall from time to time be prescribed by the Board or its designees selected for such purposes. All checks or other orders for the payment of money shall be signed by the Chief Executive Officer, a Vice President, the Treasurer or the Secretary or such other person or agent as may from time to time be authorized and with such countersignature, if any, as may be required by the Board.
Section 9. Contracts and Other Documents. The Chief Executive Officer and the Secretary, or such other officer or officers as may from time to time be authorized by the Board or any other committee given specific authority in the premises by the Board during the intervals between the meetings of the Board, shall have power to sign and execute on behalf of the Corporation deeds, conveyances and contracts, and any and all other documents requiring execution by the Corporation.
Section 10. Ownership of Equity Interests or other Securities of Another Entity. Unless otherwise directed by the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, a Vice President, the Treasurer or the Secretary, or such other officer or agent as shall be authorized by the Board, shall have the power and authority, on behalf of the Corporation, to attend and to vote at any meeting of securityholders of any entity in which the Corporation holds securities or equity interests and may exercise, on behalf of the Corporation, any and all of the rights and powers incident to the ownership of such securities or equity interests at any such meeting, including the authority to execute and deliver proxies and consents on behalf of the Corporation.
Section 11. Delegation of Duties. In the absence, disability or refusal of any officer to exercise and perform his or her duties, the Board may delegate to another officer such powers or duties.

Section 12. Resignation and Removal. Any officer of the Corporation may be removed from office for or without cause at any time by the Board, and any officer appointed by the Chief Executive Officer may be removed at any time by the Chief Executive Officer. Any officer may resign at any time in the same manner prescribed under Section 3 of Article III of these Bylaws.



Section 13. Vacancies. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled in the manner prescribed in this Article IV for the regular election to such office.
ARTICLE V.
Stock
Section 1. Certificated Shares. The shares of stock of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates; provided that the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of the Corporation’s stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock in the Corporation represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a Vice President, and by the Treasurer, Assistant Treasurer, Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number and class of shares of stock of the Corporation owned by such holder. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were still such officer at the date of issue. The Board shall have the power to appoint one or more transfer agents and/or registrars for the transfer or registration of certificates of stock of any class, and may require stock certificates to be countersigned or registered by one or more of such transfer agents and/or registrars.
Section 2. Uncertificated Shares. If the Board chooses to issue uncertificated shares, the Corporation, if required by the DGCL, shall, within a reasonable time after the issue or transfer of uncertificated shares, send the stockholder a written statement of the information required by the DGCL. The Corporation may adopt a system of issuance, recordation and transfer of its shares of stock by electronic or other means not involving the issuance of certificates; provided that the use of such system by the Corporation is permitted by applicable law.
Section 3. Transfer of Shares. Shares of stock of the Corporation represented by certificates shall be transferable upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by their duly authorized attorneys or legal representatives, upon surrender to the Corporation by delivery thereof to the person in charge of the stock and transfer books and ledgers. Certificates representing such shares, if any, shall be cancelled and new certificates, if the shares are to be certificated, shall thereupon be issued. Shares of capital stock of the Corporation that are not represented by a certificate shall be transferred in accordance with any procedures adopted by the Corporation or its agents and applicable law. A record shall be made of each transfer. Whenever any transfer of shares shall be made for collateral security, and not absolutely, it shall be so expressed in the entry of the transfer if, when the certificates are presented to the Corporation for transfer or uncertificated shares requested to be transferred, both the transferor and transferee request the Corporation do so. The Corporation shall have power and authority to make such rules and regulations as it may deem necessary or proper concerning the issue, transfer and registration of certificates representing shares of stock of the Corporation and uncertificated shares.

Section 4. Lost, Stolen, Destroyed or Mutilated Certificates. A new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares may be issued in the place of any certificate previously issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may, in its discretion, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or his or her legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond, in such sum as the Corporation may direct, in order to indemnify the Corporation against any claims that may be made against it in connection therewith. A new certificate or uncertificated shares of stock may be issued in the place of any certificate previously issued by the Corporation that has become mutilated upon the surrender by such owner of such mutilated certificate and, if required by the Corporation, the posting of a bond by such owner in an amount sufficient to indemnify the Corporation against any claim that may be made against it in connection therewith.
Section 5. List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The officer of the Corporation who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make or have prepared and made, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, that if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth (10th) day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Nothing in this Section 5 shall require the Corporation to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten (10) days ending on the day before the meeting date: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list



available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation.
Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 5 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
Section 6. Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record. (A) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.
(B) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no such record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.
Section 7. Registered Stockholders. Prior to the surrender to the Corporation of the certificate or certificates for a share or shares of stock or notification to the Corporation of the transfer of uncertificated shares with a request to record the transfer of such share or shares, the Corporation may treat the registered owner of such share or shares as the person entitled to receive dividends, to vote, to receive notifications and otherwise to exercise all the rights and powers of an owner of such share or shares. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the Corporation shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof.

ARTICLE VI.
Notice and Waiver of Notice
Section 1. Notice. If mailed, notice to stockholders shall be deemed given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders may be given by electronic transmission in the manner provided in Section 232 of the DGCL.
Section 2. Waiver of Notice. A written waiver of any notice, signed by a stockholder or director, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person, whether given before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to the notice required to be given to such person. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in such a waiver. Attendance at any meeting (in person or by remote communication) shall constitute waiver of notice except attendance for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.







ARTICLE VII.
Indemnification
Section 1. Right to Indemnification. Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or an officer of the Corporation or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (hereinafter an “indemnitee”), whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such indemnitee in connection therewith; provided, however, that, except as provided in Section 3 of this Article VII with respect to proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification or advancement of expenses or with respect to any compulsory counterclaim brought by such indemnitee, the Corporation shall indemnify any such indemnitee in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such indemnitee only if such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board.

Section 2. Right to Advancement of Expenses. In addition to the right to indemnification conferred in Section 1 of this Article VII, an indemnitee shall also have the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses (including attorney’s fees) incurred in appearing at, participating in or defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition or in connection with a proceeding brought to establish or enforce a right to indemnification or advancement of expenses under this Article VII (which shall be governed by Section 3 of this Article VII (hereinafter an “advancement of expenses”); provided, however, that, if the DGCL requires or in the case of an advance made in a proceeding brought to establish or enforce a right to indemnification or advancement, an advancement of expenses incurred by an indemnitee in his or her capacity as a director or officer of the Corporation (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made solely upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking (hereinafter an “undertaking”), by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal (hereinafter a “final adjudication”) that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified or entitled to advancement of expenses under Section 1 and Section 2 of this Article VII or otherwise.
Section 3. Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. If a claim under Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VII is not paid in full by the Corporation within (i) sixty (60) days after a written claim for indemnification has been received by the Corporation or (ii) twenty (20) days after a claim for an advancement of expenses has been received by the Corporation, the indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim or to obtain advancement of expenses, as applicable. To the fullest extent permitted by law, if the indemnitee is successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit. In (i) any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) it shall be a defense that, and (ii) any suit brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the Corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that, the indemnitee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including by its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the DGCL, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including by its directors who are not parties to such action, a committee of such directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the indemnitee, be a defense to such suit. In any suit brought by the indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an advancement of expenses hereunder, or brought by the Corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the burden of proving that the indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article VII or otherwise shall be on the Corporation.




Section 4. Indemnification Not Exclusive. (A) The provision of indemnification to or the advancement of expenses and costs to any indemnitee under this Article VII, or the entitlement of any indemnitee to indemnification or advancement of expenses and costs under this Article VII, shall not limit or restrict in any way the power of the Corporation to indemnify or advance expenses and costs to such indemnitee in any other way permitted by law or be deemed exclusive of, or invalidate, any right to which any indemnitee seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses and costs may be entitled under any law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such indemnitee’s capacity as an officer, director, employee or agent of the Corporation and as to action in any other capacity.
(B)(1) Given that certain jointly indemnifiable claims (as defined below) may arise due to the service of the indemnitee as a director and/or officer of the Corporation at the request of the indemnitee-related entities (as defined below), the Corporation shall be fully and primarily responsible for the payment to the indemnitee in respect of indemnification or advancement of expenses in connection with any such jointly indemnifiable claims, pursuant to and in accordance with the terms of this Article VII, irrespective of any right of recovery the indemnitee may have from the indemnitee-related entities. Under no circumstance shall the Corporation be entitled to any right of subrogation or contribution by the indemnitee-related entities and no right of advancement or recovery the indemnitee may have from the indemnitee-related entities shall reduce or otherwise alter the rights of the indemnitee or the obligations of the Corporation hereunder. In the event that any of the indemnitee-related entities shall make any payment to the indemnitee in respect of indemnification or advancement of expenses with respect to any jointly indemnifiable claim, the indemnitee-related entity making such payment shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the rights of recovery of the indemnitee against the Corporation, and the indemnitee shall execute all papers reasonably required and shall do all things that may be reasonably necessary to secure such rights, including the execution of such documents as may be necessary to enable the indemnitee-related entities effectively to bring suit to enforce such rights. Each of the indemnitee-related entities shall be third-party beneficiaries with respect to this Section 4(B), entitled to enforce this Section 4(B).
(2) For purposes of this Section 4(B), the following terms shall have the following meanings:
(a) The term “indemnitee-related entities” means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise (other than the Corporation or any other corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise for which the indemnitee has agreed, on behalf of the Corporation or at the Corporation’s request, to serve as a director, officer, employee or agent and which service is covered by the indemnity described herein) from whom an indemnitee may be entitled to indemnification or advancement of expenses with respect to which, in whole or in part, the Corporation may also have an indemnification or advancement obligation.
(b) The term “jointly indemnifiable claims” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, any action, suit or proceeding for which the indemnitee shall be entitled to indemnification or advancement of expenses from both the indemnitee-related entities and the Corporation pursuant to applicable law, any agreement, certificate of incorporation, bylaws, partnership agreement, operating agreement, certificate of formation, certificate of limited partnership or comparable organizational documents of the Corporation or the indemnitee-related entities, as applicable.
Section 5. Nature of Rights. The rights conferred upon indemnitees in this Article VII shall be contract rights and such rights shall continue as to an indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the indemnitee’s heirs, executors and administrators. Any amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article VII that adversely affects any right of an indemnitee or its successors shall be prospective only and shall not limit, eliminate, or impair any such right with respect to any proceeding involving any occurrence or alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that took place prior to such amendment or repeal.
Section 6. Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the DGCL.
Section 7. Indemnification of Employees and Agents of the Corporation. The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board, grant rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to any employee or agent of the Corporation to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article VII with respect to the indemnification and advancement of expenses of directors and officers of the Corporation.




ARTICLE VIII.
Miscellaneous
Section 1. Electronic Transmission. For purposes of these Bylaws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
Section 2. Corporate Seal. The Board may provide a suitable seal, containing the name of the Corporation, which seal shall be in the charge of the Secretary. If and when so directed by the Board or a committee thereof, duplicates of the seal may be kept and used by the Treasurer or by an Assistant Secretary or Assistant Treasurer.
Section 3. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be the fifty-two (52) to fifty-three (53) week period, as applicable, commencing on the first day following the end of the prior fiscal year and ending on the Saturday that is closest to December 31, or such other period as the Board may designate.

Section 4. Section Headings. Section headings in these Bylaws are for convenience of reference only and shall not be given any substantive effect in limiting or otherwise construing any provision herein.
Section 5. Inconsistent Provisions. In the event that any provision of these Bylaws is or becomes inconsistent with any provision of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the DGCL or any other applicable law, such provision of these Bylaws shall not be given any effect to the extent of such inconsistency but shall otherwise be given full force and effect.
ARTICLE IX.
Amendments
Section 1. Amendments. The Board is authorized to make, repeal, alter, amend and rescind, in whole or in part, these Bylaws without the assent or vote of the stockholders in any manner not inconsistent with the laws of the State of Delaware or the Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Except as otherwise expressly provided by the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereon, voting together as a single class, shall be required in order for the stockholders of the Corporation to alter, amend, repeal or rescind, in whole or in part, any provision of these Bylaws or to adopt any provision inconsistent therewith.
ARTICLE X.
Emergency Bylaws

Section 1. Emergency Bylaws. This Article X shall be operative during any emergency, disaster or catastrophe, as referred to in Section 110 of the DGCL or other similar emergency condition (including a pandemic), as a result of which a quorum of the Board or a committee thereof cannot readily be convened for action (each, an “Emergency”), notwithstanding any different or conflicting provision in the preceding Sections of these Bylaws or in the Restated Certificate of Incorporation. To the extent not inconsistent with the provisions of this Article X, the preceding Sections of these Bylaws and the provisions of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation shall remain in effect during such Emergency, and upon termination of such Emergency, the provisions of this Article X shall cease to be operative unless and until another Emergency shall occur.
Section 2. Meetings; Notice. During any Emergency, a meeting of the Board or any committee thereof may be called by any member of the Board or such committee or the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Secretary of the Corporation. Notice of the place, date and time of the meeting shall be given by any available means of communication by the person calling the meeting to such of the directors or committee members and Designated Officers (as defined below) as, in the judgment of the person calling the meeting, it may be feasible to reach. Such notice shall be given at such time in advance of the meeting as, in the judgment of the person calling the meeting, circumstances permit.



Section 3. Quorum. At any meeting of the Board called in accordance with Section 2 above, the presence or participation of three (3) directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and at any meeting of any committee of the Board called in accordance with Section 2 above, the presence or participation of one (1) committee member shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the event that the requisite number of directors is not able to attend a meeting of the Board or any committee thereof, then the Designated Officers in attendance shall serve as directors, or committee members, as the case may be, for the meeting, without any additional quorum requirement and will have full powers to act as directors, or committee members, as the case may be, of the Corporation.
Section 4. Liability. No officer, director or employee of the Corporation acting in accordance with the provisions of this Article X shall be liable except for willful misconduct.
Section 5. Amendments. At any meeting called in accordance with Section 2 above, the Board, or any committee thereof, as the case may be, may modify, amend or add to the provisions of this Article X as it deems it to be in the best interests of the Corporation and as is practical or necessary for the circumstances of the Emergency.
Section 6. Repeal or Change. The provisions of this Article X shall be subject to repeal or change by further action of the Board or by action of the stockholders pursuant to Article IX of these Bylaws, but no such repeal or change shall modify the provisions of Section 4 above with regard to action taken prior to the time of such repeal or change.
Section 7. Definitions. For purposes of this Article X, the term “Designated Officer” means an officer identified on a numbered list of officers of the Corporation who shall be deemed to be, in the order in which they appear on the list up until a quorum is obtained, directors of the Corporation, or members of a committee of the Board, as the case may be, for purposes of obtaining a quorum during an Emergency, if a quorum of directors or committee members, as the case may be, cannot otherwise be obtained during such Emergency, which officers have been designated by the Board from time to time but in any event prior to such time or times as an Emergency may have occurred.