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EX-3.1 2 amendedandrestatedbylaws20.htm EX-3.1 BYLAWS Document
EXHIBIT 3.1
AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
OF
NN, INC.
(a Delaware corporation)
(effective as of January 18, 2023)
NN, Inc. (the “Corporation”), pursuant to the provisions of Section 109 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, hereby adopts these Amended and Restated Bylaws (as amended, these “Bylaws”), which restate, amend and supersede the restated bylaws of the Corporation, as previously amended and restated, in their entirety as described below:
ARTICLE I.

STOCKHOLDERS
Section 1.1 Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation may be held at such place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 1.2 Annual Meetings. If required by applicable law, an annual meeting of stockholders shall be held for the election of directors at such date and time, as the Board of Directors shall each year fix.
Section 1.3 Special Meetings. Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose or purposes described in the notice of the meeting, may be called by (i) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption), (ii) the Chairman of the Board or (iii) the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, and shall be held at such place, if any, on such date, and at such time as they shall fix. Stockholders shall not have the right to call a special meeting of the stockholders.
Section 1.4 Notice of Meetings. Notice of all meetings of stockholders shall be given that shall state the place, if any, date and time of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation as currently in effect (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), such notice shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting.
Section 1.5 Manner of Giving Notice; Affidavit of Notice.
(a) Notice of any meeting of stockholders, if mailed, is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his, her or its address as it appears on the records of the Corporation.
(b) Except as otherwise prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law and without limiting the foregoing, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to (and not properly revoked by written notice to the Corporation) by the stockholder to whom the notice is given, to the extent such consent is required by the Delaware General Corporation Law. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if (i) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two (2) consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent of the Corporation, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action. Any such notice shall be deemed given (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;



(iii) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.
(c) For the purposes of these Bylaws, an “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
(d) Except as otherwise prohibited under the Delaware General Corporation Law and without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws may be given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Such consent shall have been deemed to have been given if a stockholder fails to object in writing to the Corporation within sixty (60) days of having been given written notice by the Corporation of its intention to send the single notice in accordance with this Section 1.5(d). Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholders by written notice to the Corporation.
(e) An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
Section 1.6 Adjournments. Any meeting of stockholders may adjourn from time to time to reconvene at the same or another place, if any, or by means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the place, if any, time and date thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however , that if the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, then a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. At the adjourned meeting the Corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting.
Section 1.7 Quorum. At each meeting of stockholders the holders of a majority of the shares of stock entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, except if otherwise required by applicable law. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, a majority of the shares of such class or classes or series then outstanding and entitled to vote present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairman of the meeting or the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, at the meeting may adjourn the meeting. Shares of the Corporation’s stock belonging to the Corporation (or to another corporation, if a majority of the shares entitled to vote in the election of directors of such other corporation are held, directly or indirectly, by the Corporation), shall neither be entitled to vote nor be counted for quorum purposes; provided, however , that the foregoing shall not limit the right of the Corporation or any other corporation to vote any shares of the Corporation’s stock held by it in a fiduciary capacity. Even if a quorum shall be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the Chairman of the meeting or the stockholders entitled to vote thereat who are present in person or represented by proxy shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time for good cause to a date that is not more than thirty (30) days after the date of the original meeting.
Section 1.8 Conduct of Business. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by such person as the Board of Directors may designate as chairman of the meeting, or, in the absence of such a person, the Chairman of the Board, or, in the absence of such person, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, or, in the absence of such person, such person as may be chosen by the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, at the meeting. The Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. The Board of Directors shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, adjourning the meeting if the chairman determines in his or her sole discretion that an adjournment is advisable, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and
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constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting and matters which are to be voted on by ballot.
Section 1.9 Voting; Proxies. Unless otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder shall be entitled to one (1) vote for each share of stock held by such stockholder of record according to the records of the Corporation. The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 1.10 of these Bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy. Such a proxy may be prepared, transmitted and delivered in any manner permitted by applicable law. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or a Certificate of Designation relating to a series of Preferred Stock, directors shall be elected as provided in Section 2.2 of these Bylaws. Unless otherwise provided by applicable law, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, every matter other than the election of directors shall be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of stock entitled to vote thereon that are present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting. Any stockholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other stockholders must use a proxy card color other than white, which shall be reserved for the exclusive use by the Board of Directors.
Section 1.10 Fixing Date for Determination of Stockholders of Record. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which (i) in the case of determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders or adjournment thereof, shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, and (ii) in the case of any other action, shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to any such other action. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, then the record date shall be as provided by applicable law. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however , that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.
Section 1.11 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. A complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder, shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of ten (10) days ending on the day before the meeting date, (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to the stockholders of the Corporation. Except as otherwise provided by law, such list shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 1.11 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of the stockholders. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list.
Section 1.12 Inspectors of Elections.
(a) Applicability. Unless otherwise provided in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or required by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the following provisions of this Section 1.12 shall apply only if and when the Corporation has a class of voting stock that is:
(i) listed on a national securities exchange;
(ii) authorized for quotation on an interdealer quotation system of a registered national securities association; or
(iii) held of record by more than 2,000 stockholders;
in all other cases, observance of the provisions of this Section 1.12 shall be optional, and at the discretion of the Corporation.
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(b) Appointment. The Corporation shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting.
(c) Inspector’s Oath. Each inspector of election, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability.
(d) Duties of Inspectors. At a meeting of stockholders, the inspectors of election shall
(i) ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each share;
(ii) determine the shares represented at a meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots;
(iii) count all votes and ballots;
(iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period of time a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors; and
(v) certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting, and their count of all votes and ballots. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of the duties of the inspectors.
(e) Opening and Closing of Polls. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced by the inspectors at the meeting. No ballot, proxies or votes, nor any revocations thereof or changes thereto, shall be accepted by the inspectors after the closing of the polls unless the Court of Chancery upon application by a stockholder shall determine otherwise.
(f) Determinations. In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots, the inspectors shall be limited to an examination of the proxies, any envelopes submitted with those proxies, any information provided in connection with proxies in accordance with Section 211(e) or Section 212(c)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or any information provided pursuant to Section 211(a)(2)(B)(i) or (iii) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, ballots and the regular books and records of the Corporation, except that the inspectors may consider other reliable information for the limited purpose of reconciling proxies and ballots submitted by or on behalf of banks, brokers, their nominees or similar persons which represent more votes than the holder of a proxy is authorized by the record owner to cast or more votes than the stockholder holds of record. If the inspectors consider other reliable information for the limited purpose permitted herein, the inspectors at the time they make their certification of their determinations pursuant to this Section 1.12 shall specify the precise information considered by them, including the person or persons from whom they obtained the information, when the information was obtained, the means by which the information was obtained and the basis for the inspectors’ belief that such information is accurate and reliable.
Section 1.13 Notice of Stockholder Business to be Brought before an Annual or Special Meeting.
(a) Business Properly Brought Before an Annual or Special Meeting. At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) brought before the meeting by the Corporation and specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (ii) brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such business is proposed, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 1.13 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Section 1.13 as to such business and the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Except for proposals properly made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act, and included in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, the foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. Stockholders shall
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not be permitted to propose business to be brought before a special meeting of the stockholders, and the only matters that may be brought before a special meeting are the matters specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board must comply with Section 1.14 of these Bylaws and the requirements of the Exchange Act, and this Section 1.13 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Section 1.14 of these Bylaws.
(b) Requirement of Timely Notice of Stockholder Business. Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.13. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders must be delivered by overnight express courier or registered mail, return receipt requested, and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however , that if the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.
(c) Requirements for Proper Form of Stockholder Notice of Proposed Business. To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 1.13, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i) Stockholder Information. As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records), (B) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future and (C) a representation whether such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group that intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or (y) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal;
(ii) Information Regarding Disclosable Interests. As to each Proposing Person, (A) any derivative, swap or other transaction or series of transactions engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to give such Proposing Person economic risk similar to ownership of shares of any class or series of the Corporation, including due to the fact that the value of such derivative, swap or other transactions are determined by reference to the price, value or volatility of any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which derivative, swap or other transactions provide, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any increase in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Synthetic Equity Interest”), which such Synthetic Equity Interests shall be disclosed without regard to whether (x) such derivative, swap or other transactions convey any voting rights in such shares to such Proposing Person, (y) the derivative, swap or other transactions are required to be, or are capable of being, settled through delivery of such shares or (z) such Proposing Person may have entered into other transactions that hedge or mitigate the economic effect of such derivative, swap or other transactions, (B) any proxy (other than a revocable proxy or consent given in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A), agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such Proposing Person has or shares a right to vote any shares of any class or series of the Corporation, (C) any agreement, arrangement, understanding or relationship, including any repurchase or similar so-called “stock borrowing” agreement or arrangement, engaged in, directly or indirectly, by such Proposing Person, the purpose or effect of which is to mitigate loss to, reduce the economic risk (of ownership or otherwise) of shares of any class or series of the Corporation by, manage the risk of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proposing Person with respect to the shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or which provides, directly or indirectly, the opportunity to profit from any decrease in the price or value of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (“Short Interests”), (D) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (E) any performance related fees (other than an asset based fee) that such Proposing Person is entitled to base on any increase or decrease in the price or value of shares of any class or series of the Corporation, or any Synthetic Equity Interests or Short Interests, if any, and (F) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in
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support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (F) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however , that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner;
(iii) Description of Proposed Business. As to each item of business the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (A) a reasonably brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder; and
(iv) Definition of Proposing Person. For purposes of this Section 1.13, the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting pursuant to this Section 1.13, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is acting in concert.
(d) Update and Supplement of Stockholder Notice of Proposed Business. A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual or special meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 1.13 shall be true and correct as of (i) the record date for the meeting, (ii) the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting, and (iii) the date that is ten (10) business days prior to any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date of the meeting, or in the case of any adjournment or postponement thereof, eight (8) business days prior to the date of such adjournment or postponement. For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not be deemed to extend any applicable deadlines under these Bylaws, cure deficiencies in any notice of business previously delivered, permit a change in the proposal, business or resolution proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders, or limit the Corporation’s rights in connection therewith.
(e) Business Not Properly Brought Before a Meeting. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual or special meeting except in accordance with this Section 1.13. The presiding officer of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 1.13, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting, and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted. If the Board of Directors or any authorized committee thereof determines that (i) any information required to be provided by or on behalf any stockholder pursuant to these Bylaws in connection with any proposed business of such stockholder pursuant to this Section 1.13 is inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect, or (ii) any stockholder (including any Proposing Persons of such stockholder), in connection with any proposed business of such stockholder pursuant to the this Section 1.13 has not complied with all applicable requirements set forth in, and acted in accordance with all representations made pursuant to, these Bylaws, then the business proposed by any such stockholder shall be deemed not to have been proposed in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.13 and shall not be transacted.
(f) Exchange Act Compliance. This Section 1.13 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual or special meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act. In addition to the requirements of this Section 1.13 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual or special meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 1.13 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
(g) Definition of Public Disclosure. For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the
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Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
(h) Appearance at Annual Meeting. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.13, if the stockholder submitting such notice of proposed business (or a qualified representative of such shareholder) does not appear at the applicable meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present such proposal pursuant to this Section 1.13, such proposal shall not be considered, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. In order to be considered a qualified representative of a stockholder for purposes of these Bylaws, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such shareholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders, and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.
Section 1.14 Nominations.
(a) Who May Make Nominations. Nominations of any person for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, including by any committee or persons appointed by the Board of Directors, or (ii) by a stockholder who (A) was a stockholder of record (and, with respect to any beneficial owner, if different, on whose behalf such nomination is proposed to be made, only if such beneficial owner was the beneficial owner of shares of the Corporation) both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 1.14 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Section 1.14 as to such nomination. The foregoing clause (ii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.
(b) Requirement of Timely Notice of Stockholder Nominations. Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Section 1.13 of these Bylaws) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.14. Without qualification, if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.14. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Section 1.13 of these Bylaws) of the date of such special meeting was first made. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. In addition, (x) the number of proposed nominees that a stockholder (including Nominating Persons (as defined below) of such stockholder) may nominate for election at any annual meeting, or a special meeting, at which directors are to be elected pursuant to this Section 1.14 shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such meeting, and (y) no stockholder (including any Nominating Persons with respect to such stockholder) nominating any proposed nominees pursuant to this Section 1.14 will be entitled to make any additional or substitute nominations of proposed nominees following the expiration of applicable time periods set forth in this Section 1.14.
(c) Requirements for Proper Form of Notice of Stockholder Nominations. To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 1.14, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i) Stockholder Information. As to each Nominating Person, (A) the name and address of such Nominating Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records), (B) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Nominating Person, except that such Nominating Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Nominating Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future and (C) a representation whether such Nominating Person intends or is part of a group that intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding stock reasonably believed by the Nominating Person to be sufficient to elect the nominee or nominees proposed to be nominated by the Nominating Person,(y) otherwise to solicit proxies in support of such
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nomination, or (z) to solicit proxies in support of any Proposed Nominee (as defined below) other than the Corporation’s director nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 under the Exchange Act (including Rule 14a-19(a)(2) and Rule 14a-19(a)(3);
(ii) Information Regarding Disclosable Interests. As to each Nominating Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 1.13(c)(ii), except that for purposes of this Section 1.14 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 1.13(c)(ii)), and the disclosure in clause (F) of Section 1.13(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting;
(iii) Information Regarding Proposed Nominees. As to each person whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, (A) all information with respect to such proposed nominee that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 1.14 if such proposed nominee were a Nominating Person (provided that the representations set forth in paragraph (c)(i)(C) of this Section 1.14 need not be provided with respect to the proposed nominee), (B) all information relating to such proposed nominee that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 under the Exchange Act (including such proposed nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement and accompanying proxy card as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected) and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (including pursuant to Rule 14a-19), and (C) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, his or her respective affiliates and associates, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant.
(iv) Other Information to be Furnished by Proposed Nominees. The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information (A) as may reasonably be required by the Corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the Corporation in accordance with the Corporation’s Governance Guidelines or (B) that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence or lack of independence of such proposed nominee. As a condition to being a proposed nominee, each proposed nominee shall submit to interviews with the Board of Directors or a committee thereof, if requested by the Board of Directors, and each proposed nominee shall make himself or herself available for any such interviews on or prior to the later of (x) ten (10) days following any reasonable request therefor from the Board of Directors (or any committee thereof) and (y) the 30th day prior to the meeting of stockholders at which such proposed nominee is nominated to be elected to the Board of Directors.
(v) Definition of Nominating Person. For purposes of this Section 1.14, the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, (iii) any affiliate or associate of such stockholder or beneficial owner and (iv) any other person with whom such stockholder or beneficial owner (or any of their respective affiliates or associates) is acting in concert.
(d) Update and Supplement of Stockholder Notice of Nominations. A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 1.14 shall be true and correct as of (i) the record date for the meeting, (ii) the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting, and (iii) the date that is ten (10) business days prior to any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of the record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date of the meeting, or in the case of any adjournment or postponement thereof, eight (8) business days prior to the date of such adjournment or postponement. For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not be deemed to extend any applicable deadlines under these Bylaws, cure deficiencies in any notice of nominations previously delivered, permit a change in the nominees or nominations proposed to be made at a meeting of the stockholders, or limit the Corporation’s rights in connection therewith.
(e) Defective Nominations. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with this Section 1.14. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly
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made in accordance with this Section 1.14, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded. If the Board of Directors or any authorized committee thereof determines that (i) any information required to be provided by or on behalf any stockholder pursuant to these Bylaws in connection with any nomination by or on behalf of such stockholder pursuant to this Section 1.14 is inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect, or (ii) any stockholder (including any Nominating Persons of such stockholder), in connection with any nomination of a proposed nominee of such stockholder pursuant to the this Section 1.14 has not complied with all applicable requirements set forth in, and acted in accordance with all representations made pursuant to, these Bylaws, then the nomination or nominations proposed by any such stockholder shall be deemed not to have been deemed made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.14.
(f) Compliance with Exchange Act. In addition to the requirements of this Section 1.14 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Nominating Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations. Notwithstanding anything contained herein to contrary in these Bylaws, if any stockholder making any director nomination pursuant to the terms of this Section 1.14 provides notice of any nomination pursuant to pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) under the Exchange Act (any such stockholder, a “Rule 14a-19 Stockholder”) and subsequently either (i) notifies the Corporation that such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder (including any Nominating Persons of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder) no longer intends to solicit proxies in support of the election of any proposed nominee in accordance with such rule, or (ii) such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder (including any Nominating Persons of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder) fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19 under the Exchange Act (including Rule 14a-19(a)(2) and/or Rule 14a-19(a)(3) thereunder), then the Corporation shall disregard any proxies or votes solicited for the proposed nominee(s) of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder, and no vote with respect to the election of such proposed nominee(s) shall occur (notwithstanding the fact that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation). Upon request by the Corporation, any Rule 14a-19 Stockholder shall deliver to the Corporation, not later than five (5) business days prior to the applicable meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, documentation reasonably satisfactory to the Corporation demonstrating that such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder (including any Nominating Persons of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder) has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) under the Exchange Act. Any Rule 14a-19 Stockholder shall notify the Corporation’s Secretary in writing within two (2) business days after becoming aware that such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder (including any Nominating Persons of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder) no longer intends to solicit proxies in support of the proposed nominee(s) of such Rule 14a-19 Stockholder in accordance with Rule 14a-19.





ARTICLE II.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Section 2.1    Number; Qualifications. The Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members, the number of which shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors. At each annual meeting of stockholders, all directors shall be elected for a one-year term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders, with each director to hold office until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified. No decrease in the authorized number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

Section 2.2    Election.
(a) Each director to be elected by the stockholders of the Corporation shall be elected by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes cast with respect to such director by the shares represented and entitled to vote therefor at a meeting of the stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present. For purposes of these Bylaws, a “majority of votes” cast shall mean that the number of shares voted “for” a director’s election must exceed the number of votes cast “against” the election of that director. Votes cast shall include direction to withhold authority in each case and exclude abstentions with respect to that director’s election. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event of a “contested election” of directors, directors shall be elected by the vote of a plurality of the votes cast at any meeting for the election of directors at which a quorum is present. For purposes of these Bylaws, a “contested election” shall mean any election of directors where, as of the tenth (10th) day preceding the date on which the Corporation first mails its notice of meeting, for the meeting at which directors are being elected, the number of nominees for director exceeds the number of directors to be elected. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the
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affirmative vote of a majority of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the matter shall be the act of the stockholders.
(b) If a nominee for director who is an incumbent director is not elected and no successor has been elected at such meeting, the director shall promptly tender his or her resignation to the Board of Directors. The Governance Committee shall make a recommendation to the Board of Directors as to whether to accept or reject the tendered resignation, or whether other action should be taken. The Board of Directors shall act on the tendered resignation, taking into account the Governance Committee’s recommendation, and publicly disclose (by a press release, a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission or other broadly disseminated means of communication) its decision regarding the tendered resignation and the rationale behind the decision within 90 days from the date of the certification of the election results. The Governance Committee in making its recommendation, and the Board of Directors in making its decision, may each consider any factors or other information that it considers appropriate and relevant. The director who tenders his or her resignation shall not participate in the recommendation of the Governance Committee or the decision of the Board of Directors with respect to his or her resignation. If such incumbent director’s resignation is not accepted by the Board of Directors, such director shall continue to serve until his or her successor is duly elected, or his or her earlier resignation or removal. If a director’s resignation is accepted by the Board of Directors pursuant to these Bylaws, or if a nominee for director is not elected and the nominee is not an incumbent director, then the Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, may fill any resulting vacancy or may decrease the size of the Board of Directors pursuant to the provisions of these Bylaws.
Section 2.3    Resignation; Removal; Vacancies. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, each director shall serve until his or her successor is duly elected and qualified, or until his or her earlier death, resignation, retirement or removal from service as a director. Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation, pursuant to the Corporation’s resignation policy then in effect. Subject to the rights of any holders of Preferred Stock then outstanding and the Certificate of Incorporation any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors for any reason, and any newly created directorship resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors to be elected by all stockholders having the right to vote as a single class, shall be filled only by (a) a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, or (b) by a plurality of the votes cast at a meeting of the stockholders. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock with respect to such series of Preferred Stock, any director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed from office at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of voting stock, voting together as a single class.
Section 2.4    Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at such places, within or without the State of Delaware, and at such times as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. Notice of regular meetings need not be given if the date, times and places thereof are fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Section 2.5    Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the members of the Board of Directors then in office and may be held at any time, date or place, within or without the State of Delaware, as the person or persons calling the meeting shall fix. Notice of the time, date and place of such meeting shall be given, orally or in writing, by the person or persons calling the meeting to all directors at least four (4) days before the meeting if the notice is mailed, or at least twelve (12) hours before the meeting if such notice is given by telephone, hand delivery, overnight express courier, facsimile, electronic mail or other electronic transmission. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting. The notice shall be deemed given:
(a) in the case of hand delivery or notice by telephone, when received by the director to whom notice is to be given or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such director,
(b) in the case of delivery by mail, upon deposit in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the director to whom notice is being given at such director’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation,
(c) in the case of delivery by overnight express courier, on the first business day after such notice is dispatched, and
(d) in the case of delivery via facsimile, electronic mail or other electronic transmission, when sent to the director to whom notice is to be given or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such director at such director’s facsimile number or electronic mail address, as the case may be, as it appears on the Corporation’s records.
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Section 2.6    Telephonic Meetings Permitted. Members of the Board of Directors, or any committee of the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to conference telephone or similar communications equipment shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
Section 2.7    Quorum; Vote Required for Action. At all meetings of the Board of Directors a majority of the total number of authorized directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Except as otherwise provided herein or in the Certificate of Incorporation, or required by law, the vote of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.
Section 2.8    Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors shall have the power to elect the Chairman of the Board from among the members of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board shall have the power to preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and shall have such other powers and duties as provided in these Bylaws and as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
Section 2.9    Organization. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, or in his or her absence by the Chief Executive Officer, or in his or her absence by a chairman chosen at the meeting. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in his or her absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.
Section 2.10    Written Action by Directors. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee, respectively. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
Section 2.11    Powers. The Board of Directors may, except as otherwise required by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation.
Section 2.12    Compensation of Directors. Directors, as such, may receive, pursuant to a resolution of the Board of Directors, fees and other compensation for their services as directors, including without limitation their services as members of committees of the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE III.

COMMITTEES
Section 3.1    Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the authorized number of directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of the committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting of such committee who are not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in a resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it.
Section 3.2    Committee Rules. Unless the Board of Directors otherwise provides, each committee designated by the Board of Directors may make, alter and repeal rules for the conduct of its business. In the absence of such rules each committee shall conduct its business in the same manner as the Board of Directors conducts its business pursuant to Article II of these Bylaws.
ARTICLE IV.

OFFICERS
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Section 4.1    Generally. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer and/or a President, one or more Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers, including a Chief Financial Officer, as may from time to time be appointed by the Board of Directors. All officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors; provided, however , that the Board of Directors may empower the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation to appoint officers other than the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. Any officer may resign at any time upon written notice to the Corporation. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation by death, resignation, removal or otherwise may be filled by the Board of Directors.
Section 4.2    Chief Executive Officer. Subject to the control of the Board of Directors and such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board of Directors, the powers and duties of the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation are:
(a) To act as the general manager and, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, to have general supervision, direction and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation;
(b) In the absence of the Chairman of the Board, to preside at all meetings of the stockholders;
(c) To call meetings of the stockholders to be held at such times and, subject to the limitations prescribed by law or by these Bylaws, at such places as he or she shall deem proper; and
(d) To affix the signature of the Corporation to all deeds, conveyances, mortgages, guarantees, leases, obligations, bonds, certificates and other papers and instruments in writing which have been authorized by the Board of Directors or which, in the judgment of the Chief Executive Officer, should be executed on behalf of the Corporation; to sign certificates for shares of stock of the Corporation; and, subject to the direction of the Board of Directors, to have general charge of the property of the Corporation and to supervise and control all officers, agents and employees of the Corporation.
Section 4.3    President. The President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation unless the Board of Directors shall have designated another officer as the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, and subject to the supervisory powers of the Chief Executive Officer (if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President), and subject to such supervisory powers and authority as may be given by the Board of Directors to the Chairman of the Board, and/or to any other officer, the President shall have the responsibility for the general management and the control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and the general supervision and direction of all of the officers, employees and agents of the Corporation (other than the Chief Executive Officer, if the Chief Executive Officer is an officer other than the President) and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of President or that are delegated to the President by the Board of Directors.
Section 4.4    Vice President. Each Vice President shall have all such powers and duties as are commonly incident to the office of Vice President, or that are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer. A Vice President may be designated by the Board to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Chief Executive Officer in the event of the Chief Executive Officer’s absence or disability.
Section 4.5    Chief Financial Officer. Subject to the direction of the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Financial Officer shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of chief financial officer.
Section 4.6    Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have custody of all monies and securities of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall make such disbursements of the funds of the Corporation as are authorized and shall render from time to time an account of all such transactions. The Treasurer shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Treasurer, or as the Board of Directors or the President may from time to time prescribe.
Section 4.7    Assistant Treasurer. The Assistant Treasurer, if any, or if there be more than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence of the Treasurer for any reason, including the failure of the Board of Directors to elect a Treasurer or in the event of the Treasurer’s inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer and perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe.
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Section 4.8    Secretary. The Secretary shall issue or cause to be issued all authorized notices for, and shall keep, or cause to be kept, minutes of all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall have charge of the corporate minute books and similar records and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as are commonly incident to the office of Secretary, or as the Board of Directors or the President may from time to time prescribe.
Section 4.9    Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary, if any, or if there be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence of the Secretary for any reason, including the failure of the Board of Directors to elect a Secretary or in the event of the Secretary’s inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary and perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe. Any Assistant Secretary shall have authority to affix the corporate seal and attest the same by his signature to the same extent as the Secretary.
Section 4.10    Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
Section 4.11    Removal. Any officer of the Corporation shall serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors. Such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer, if any, with the Corporation.

ARTICLE V.

STOCK
Section 5.1    Certificates. The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of the Corporation’s stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the Corporation by the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the President or a Vice President, and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Corporation, representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.
Section 5.2    Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Stock Certificates; Issuance of New Certificates or Uncertificated Shares. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate previously issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the Corporation and/or to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it, against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.
Section 5.3    Other Regulations. The issue, transfer, conversion and registration of stock certificates or uncertificated shares shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board of Directors may establish.
ARTICLE VI.

INDEMNIFICATION
Section 6.1    Indemnification. Indemnification rights shall be as set forth in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, as such shall be amended from time to time, and shall extend to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law from time to time in effect.
ARTICLE VII.

NOTICES
Section 7.1    Notice. Except as otherwise specifically provided herein or required by law, all notices required to be given pursuant to these Bylaws shall be in writing and may in every instance be effectively given by hand delivery (including use of a delivery service), by depositing such notice in the mail, postage prepaid, or by sending such notice by prepaid overnight express courier or facsimile. Any such notice shall be addressed to the
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person to whom notice is to be given at such person’s address or facsimile number, as the case may be, as it appears on the records of the Corporation. The notice shall be deemed given:
(a) in the case of hand delivery, when received by the person to whom notice is to be given or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such person;
(b) in the case of delivery by mail, upon deposit in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the person to whom notice is being given at such person’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation;
(c) in the case of delivery by overnight express courier, on the first business day after such notice is dispatched; and
(d) in the case of delivery via facsimile, when directed to the person to whom notice is to be given or by any person accepting such notice on behalf of such person.
Section 7.2    Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of these Bylaws, a written waiver of notice, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission.
ARTICLE VIII.

INTERESTED DIRECTORS
Section 8.1    Interested Directors; Quorum. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof that authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because his, her or their votes are counted for such purpose, if:
(a) the material facts as to his, her or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum;
(b) the material facts as to his, her or their relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or
(c) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof, or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.
ARTICLE IX.

MISCELLANEOUS
Section 9.1    Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall begin on the first day of January and end on the last day of December.
Section 9.2    Seal. The Board of Directors may provide for a corporate seal, which shall have the name of the Corporation inscribed thereon and shall otherwise be in such form as may be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors.
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Section 9.3    Form of Records. Any records maintained by the Corporation in the regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account and minute books, may be kept on, or by means of, or be in the form of, any information storage device or method provided that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible paper form within a reasonable time. The Corporation shall so convert any records so kept upon the request of any person entitled to inspect such records pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 9.4    Reliance Upon Books and Records. A member of the Board of Directors, or a member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of the Corporation’s officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors, or by any other person as to matters the member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.
Section 9.5    Certificate of Incorporation Governs. In the event of any conflict between the provisions of the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation shall govern.
Section 9.6    Severability. If any provision of these Bylaws shall be held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the provisions of the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, then such provision shall nonetheless be enforced to the maximum extent possible consistent with such holding and the remaining provisions of these Bylaws (including without limitation, all portions of any section of these Bylaws containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation, that are not themselves invalid, illegal, unenforceable or in conflict with the Certificate of Incorporation) shall remain in full force and effect.
ARTICLE X.

AMENDMENT
Section 10.1    Amendments. Stockholders of the Corporation holding at least two-thirds of the Corporation’s outstanding voting stock shall have the power to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws. The Board of Directors of the Corporation shall also have the power to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws of the Corporation.
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