Opendoor Technologies Inc.
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EX-3.1 2 d386352dex31.htm EX-3.1 EX-3.1

Exhibit 3.1

Amended and Restated Bylaws

of

Opendoor Technologies Inc.

(a Delaware corporation)


Table of Contents

 

         Page  

Article I - Corporate Offices

     1  

1.1

  Registered Office      1  

1.2

  Other Offices      1  

Article II - Meetings of Stockholders

     1  

2.1

  Place of Meetings      1  

2.2

  Annual Meeting      1  

2.3

  Special Meeting      1  

2.4

  Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting      2  

2.5

  Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors      5  

2.6

  Additional Requirements for Valid Nomination of Candidates to Serve as Director and, if Elected, to be Seated as Directors      8  

2.7

  Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings      9  

2.8

  Quorum      9  

2.9

  Adjourned Meeting; Notice      10  

2.10

  Conduct of Business      10  

2.11

  Voting      11  

2.12

  Record Date for Stockholder Meetings and Other Purposes      11  

2.13

  Proxies      11  

2.14

  List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote      12  

2.15

  Inspectors of Election      12  

2.16

  Delivery to the Corporation.      13  

Article III - Directors

     13  

3.1

  Powers      13  

3.2

  Number of Directors      13  

3.3

  Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors      13  

3.4

  Resignation and Vacancies      13  

3.5

  Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone      14  

3.6

  Regular Meetings      14  

3.7

  Special Meetings; Notice      14  

3.8

  Quorum      15  

3.9

  Board Action without a Meeting      15  

3.10

  Fees and Compensation of Directors      15  

Article IV - Committees

     15  

4.1

  Committees of Directors      15  

4.2

  Committee Minutes      16  

4.3

  Meetings and Actions of Committees      16  

4.4

  Subcommittees.      16  

Article V - Officers

     16  

5.1

  Officers      16  

5.2

  Appointment of Officers      17  

5.3

  Subordinate Officers      17  

 

i


TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

         Page  

5.4

  Removal and Resignation of Officers      17  

5.5

  Vacancies in Offices      17  

5.6

  Representation of Shares of Other Corporations      17  

5.7

  Authority and Duties of Officers      17  

5.8

  Compensation      18  

Article VI - Records

     18  

Article VII - General Matters

     18  

7.1

  Execution of Corporate Contracts and Instruments      18  

7.2

  Stock Certificates      18  

7.3

  Special Designation of Certificates      19  

7.4

  Lost Certificates      19  

7.5

  Shares Without Certificates      19  

7.6

  Construction; Definitions      19  

7.7

  Dividends      19  

7.8

  Fiscal Year      20  

7.9

  Seal      20  

7.10

  Transfer of Stock      20  

7.11

  Stock Transfer Agreements      20  

7.13

  Registered Stockholders      20  

7.14

  Waiver of Notice      21  

Article VIII - Notice

     21  

8.1

  Delivery of Notice; Notice by Electronic Transmission      21  

Article IX - Indemnification

     22  

9.1

  Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation      22  

9.2

  Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation      22  

9.3

  Authorization of Indemnification      23  

9.4

  Good Faith Defined      23  

9.5

  Indemnification by a Court      23  

9.6

  Expenses Payable in Advance      24  

9.7

  Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses      24  

9.8

  Insurance      24  

9.9

  Certain Definitions      24  

9.10

  Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses      25  

9.11

  Limitation on Indemnification      25  

9.12

  Indemnification of Employees and Agents      25  

9.13

  Primacy of Indemnification      25  

Article X - Amendments

     25  

Article XI - Definitions

     26  

 

ii


Amended and Restated Bylaws

of

Opendoor Technologies Inc.

 

 

 

Article I - Corporate Offices

1.1 Registered Office.

The address of the registered office of Opendoor Technologies Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware, and the name of its registered agent at such address, shall be as set forth in the Corporation’s certificate of incorporation, as the same may be amended and/or restated from time to time (the “Certificate of Incorporation”).

1.2 Other Offices.

The Corporation may have additional offices at any place or places, within or outside the State of Delaware, as the Corporation’s board of directors (the “Board”) may from time to time establish or as the business of the Corporation may require.

Article II - Meetings of Stockholders

2.1 Place of Meetings.

Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place within or outside the State of Delaware, designated by the Board. The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the Corporation’s principal executive office.

2.2 Annual Meeting.

The Board shall designate the date and time of the annual meeting. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected and other proper business properly brought before the meeting in accordance with Section 2.4 of these bylaws may be transacted. The Board may postpone, reschedule or cancel any previously scheduled annual meeting of stockholders.

2.3 Special Meeting.

Special meetings of the stockholders may be called, postponed, rescheduled or cancelled only by such persons and only in such manner as set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation.

No business may be transacted at any special meeting of stockholders other than the business specified in the notice of such meeting.


2.4 Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting.

(i) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) specified in a notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (ii) if not specified in a notice of meeting, otherwise brought before the meeting by the Board of Directors or the Chairperson of the Board or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder present in person who (A) (1) was a record owner of shares of the Corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.4 and at the time of the meeting, (2) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (3) has complied with this Section 2.4 in all applicable respects or (B) properly made such proposal in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”). The foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. For purposes of this Section 2.4, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder proposing that the business be brought before the annual meeting of the Corporation, or a qualified representative of such proposing stockholder, appear at such annual meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board of Directors must comply with Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 and this Section 2.4 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Section 2.5 and Section 2.6.

(ii) Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.4. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (which, in the case of the first annual meeting of stockholders following the Effective Time (as defined in the Certification of Incorporation), the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting shall be deemed to be May 13, 2020); provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than 30 days before or more than 60 days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not more than the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than (i) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or, (ii) if later, the 10th day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made by the Corporation (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.

(iii) To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 2.4, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:

(a) As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (1) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records); and (2) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (1) and (2) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);

 

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(b) As to each Proposing Person, (1) the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any “derivative security” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(c) under the Exchange Act) that constitutes a “call equivalent position” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(b) under the Exchange Act) (“Synthetic Equity Position”) and that is, directly or indirectly, held or maintained by such Proposing Person with respect to any shares of any class or series of shares of the Corporation; provided that, for the purposes of the definition of “Synthetic Equity Position,” the term “derivative security” shall also include any security or instrument that would not otherwise constitute a “derivative security” as a result of any feature that would make any conversion, exercise or similar right or privilege of such security or instrument becoming determinable only at some future date or upon the happening of a future occurrence, in which case the determination of the amount of securities into which such security or instrument would be convertible or exercisable shall be made assuming that such security or instrument is immediately convertible or exercisable at the time of such determination; and, provided, further, that any Proposing Person satisfying the requirements of Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act (other than a Proposing Person that so satisfies Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act solely by reason of Rule 13d-1(b)(1)(ii)(E)) shall not be deemed to hold or maintain the notional amount of any securities that underlie a Synthetic Equity Position held by such Proposing Person as a hedge with respect to a bona fide derivatives trade or position of such Proposing Person arising in the ordinary course of such Proposing Person’s business as a derivatives dealer, (2) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (3) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (4) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation, any affiliate of the Corporation, on the other hand, (5) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement of such Proposing Person with the Corporation or any affiliate of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (6) a representation that such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal and (7) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (1) through (7) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and

 

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(c) As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (1) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (2) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the bylaws of the Corporation, the language of the proposed amendment), (3) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder(s) or persons(s) who have a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation or any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder and (4) any other information relating to such item of business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that the disclosures required by this paragraph (iii) shall not include any disclosures with respect to any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.

For purposes of this Section 2.4, the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, and (iii) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation.

(iv) A Proposing Person shall update and supplement its notice to the Corporation of its intent to propose business at an annual meeting, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.4 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.

(v) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting that is not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 2.4. The presiding officer of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 2.4, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

 

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(vi) This Section 2.4 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and included in the Corporation’s proxy statement. In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.4 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 2.4 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.

(vii) For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service, in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or by such other means as is reasonably designed to inform the public or securityholders of the Corporation in general of such information including, without limitation, posting on the Corporation’s investor relations website.

2.5 Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors.

(i) Subject in all respects to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, nominations of any person for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (x) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, including by any committee or persons authorized to do so by the Board of Directors or these bylaws, or (y) by a stockholder present in person who (A) was a record owner of shares of the Corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 2.5 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting and (C) has complied with this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 as to such notice and nomination. For purposes of this Section 2.5, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder nominating any person for election to the Board of Directors at the meeting of the Corporation, or a qualified representative of such stockholder, appear at such meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. The foregoing clause (y) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.

(ii) Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (1) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Section 2.4) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation, (2) provide the information, agreements and questionnaires with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination as required to be set forth by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 and (3) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6.

 

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(a) Without qualification, if the election of directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling a special meeting in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, (ii) provide the information with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination as required by this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 and (iii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 2.5. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the 90th day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the 10th day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Section 2.4) of the date of such special meeting was first made.

(b) In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(c) In no event may a Nominating Person provide Timely Notice with respect to a greater number of director candidates than are subject to election by shareholders at the applicable meeting. If the Corporation shall, subsequent to such notice, increase the number of directors subject to election at the meeting, such notice as to any additional nominees shall be due on the later of (i) the conclusion of the time period for Timely Notice, (ii) the date set forth in Section 2.5(ii)(b), or (iii) the 10th day following the date of public disclosure (as defined in Section 2.4) of such increase.

(iii) To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 2.5, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:

(a) As to each Nominating Person (as defined below), the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 2.4(iii)(a), except that for purposes of this Section 2.5 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(iii)(a));

(b) As to each Nominating Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 2.4(iii)(b), except that for purposes of this Section 2.5 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 2.4(iii)(b) and the disclosure with respect to the business to be brought before the meeting in Section 2.4(iii)(b) shall be made with respect to the election of directors at the meeting); and provided that, in lieu of including the information set forth in Section 2.4(iii)(b), the Nominating Person’s notice for purposes of this Section 2.5 shall include a representation as to whether the Nominating Person intends or is part of a group which intends to (i) deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to elect any nominee and (ii) solicit the holders of shares representing at least 67% of the voting power of shares entitled to vote on the election of directors in support of director nominees other than the Corporation’s nominees in accordance with Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Exchange Act; and

 

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(c) As to each candidate whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a director, (A) all information with respect to such candidate for nomination that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 and Section 2.6 if such candidate for nomination were a Nominating Person, (B) all information relating to such candidate for nomination that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such candidate’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement and accompanying proxy card relating to the Corporation’s next meeting of shareholders at which directors are to be elected as a nominee and to serving as a director for a full term if elected), (C) a description of any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each candidate for nomination or his or her respective associates or any other participants in such solicitation, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the candidate for nomination were a director or executive officer of such registrant (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (C) are referred to as “Nominee Information”), and (D) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 2.6(i).

For purposes of this Section 2.5, the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, and (iii) any other participant in such solicitation.

(iv) A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 2.5 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any nomination or to submit any new nomination.

(v) In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.5 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Nominating Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2, unless otherwise required by law, (i) no Nominating Person shall solicit proxies in support of director nominees other than the Corporation’s nominees unless such Nominating Person has complied with Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Exchange Act in connection with the solicitation of such proxies, including the provision to the Corporation of notices required thereunder in a timely manner and (ii) if any Nominating Person (1) provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) promulgated under the Exchange Act and (2) subsequently fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(2) and Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act, including the provision to the Corporation of notices required

 

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thereunder in a timely manner, or fails to timely provide reasonable evidence sufficient to satisfy the Corporation that such Nominating Person has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act in accordance with the following sentence, then the Corporation shall disregard any proxies or votes solicited for the Nominating Person’s candidates. If any Nominating Person provides notice pursuant to Rule 14a-19(b) promulgated under the Exchange Act, such Nominating Person shall deliver to the Corporation, no later than seven business days prior to the applicable meeting, reasonable evidence that it has met the requirements of Rule 14a-19(a)(3) promulgated under the Exchange Act.

2.6 Additional Requirements for Valid Nomination of Candidates to Serve as Director and, if Elected, to be Seated as Directors.

(i) To be eligible to be a candidate for election as a director of the Corporation at an annual or special meeting, a candidate must be nominated in the manner prescribed in Section 2.5 and the candidate for nomination, whether nominated by the Board of Directors or by a stockholder of record, must have previously delivered (in accordance with the time period prescribed for delivery in a notice to such candidate given by or on behalf of the Board of Directors), to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, (i) a completed written questionnaire (in a form provided by the Corporation upon written request of any stockholder of record therefor) with respect to the background, qualifications, stock ownership and independence of such proposed nominee, and such additional information with respect to such proposed nominee as would be required to be provided by the Corporation pursuant to Schedule 14A if such proposed nominee were a participant in the solicitation of proxies by the Corporation in connection with such annual or special meeting and (ii) a written representation and agreement (in a form provided by the Corporation upon written request of any stockholder of record therefor) that such candidate for nomination (A) is not and, if elected as a director during his or her term of office, will not become a party to (1) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given and will not give any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) or (2) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation or reimbursement for service as a director that has not been disclosed therein or to the Corporation, (C) if elected as a director of the Corporation, will comply with all applicable corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading and other policies and guidelines of the Corporation applicable to directors and in effect during such person’s term in office as a director (and, if requested by any candidate for nomination, the Secretary of the Corporation shall provide to such candidate for nomination all such policies and guidelines then in effect), and (D) if elected as director of the Corporation, intends to serve the full term until the next meeting at which such candidate would face re-election.

(ii) The Board of Directors may also require any proposed candidate for nomination as a Director to furnish such other information as may reasonably be requested by the Board of Directors in writing prior to the meeting of stockholders at which such candidate’s nomination is to be acted upon. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Board of Directors may request such other information in order for the Board of Directors to determine the eligibility of such candidate for nomination to be an independent director of the Corporation or to comply with the director qualification standards and additional selection criteria in accordance with the Corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines. Such other information shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (or any other office specified by the Corporation in any public announcement) not later than five business days after the request by the Board of Directors has been delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Nominating Person.

 

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(iii) A candidate for nomination as a director shall further update and supplement the materials delivered pursuant to this Section 2.6, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided pursuant to this Section 2.6 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (or any other office specified by the Corporation in any public announcement) not later than five business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding nominees, matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.

(iv) No candidate shall be eligible for nomination as a director of the Corporation unless such candidate for nomination and the Nominating Person seeking to place such candidate’s name in nomination has complied with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6, as applicable. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting, the defective nomination shall be disregarded and any ballots cast for the candidate in question (but in the case of any form of ballot listing other qualified nominees, only the ballots cast for the nominee in question) shall be void and of no force or effect.

(v) Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no candidate for nomination shall be eligible to be seated as a director of the Corporation unless nominated and elected in accordance with Section 2.5 and this Section 2.6.

2.7 Notice of Stockholders Meetings.

Unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, the notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with Section 8.1 of these bylaws not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notice shall specify the place, if any, date and time of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.

2.8 Quorum.

Unless otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, the holders of a majority in voting power of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person, or by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders. A quorum, once established at a meeting, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum. If, however, a quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the person presiding over the meeting or

 

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(ii) a majority in voting power of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person, or by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall have power to recess the meeting or adjourn the meeting from time to time in the manner provided in Section 2.9 of these bylaws until a quorum is present or represented. At any recessed or adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.

2.9 Adjourned Meeting; Notice.

When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken or are provided in any other manner permitted by the DGCL. At any adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board shall fix as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date so fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.

2.10 Conduct of Business.

The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting by the person presiding over the meeting. The Board may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures (which need not be in writing) and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the person presiding over the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present (including, without limitation, rules and procedures for removal of disruptive persons from the meeting); (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the person presiding over the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting (including, without limitation, determinations with respect to the administration and/or interpretation of any of the rules, regulations or procedures of the meeting, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the person presiding over the meeting), shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter of business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

 

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2.11 Voting.

Except as may be otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these bylaws or the DGCL, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.

Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, at all duly called or convened meetings of stockholders at which a quorum is present, for the election of directors, a plurality of the votes cast shall be sufficient to elect a director. Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, these bylaws, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, or applicable law or pursuant to any regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, each other matter presented to the stockholders at a duly called or convened meeting at which a quorum is present shall be decided by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the votes cast (excluding abstentions and broker non-votes) on such matter.

2.12 Record Date for Stockholder Meetings and Other Purposes.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than 60 days nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the Board so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be the close of business on the next day preceding the day on which notice is first given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting; and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment or any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of capital stock, or for the purposes of any other lawful action, the Board may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.

2.13 Proxies.

Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law, including Rule 14a-19 promulgated under the Exchange Act, filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL. A proxy may be in the form of an electronic transmission that sets forth or is submitted with information from which it can be determined that the transmission was authorized by the stockholder.

 

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Any stockholder directly or indirectly soliciting proxies from other stockholders must use a proxy card color other than white, which shall be reserved for the exclusive use by the Board.

2.14 List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote.

The Corporation shall prepare, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, that if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the 10th day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the Corporation’s principal executive office. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. Such list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 2.14 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

2.15 Inspectors of Election.

Before any meeting of stockholders, the Corporation shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If any person appointed as inspector or any alternate fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the person presiding over the meeting shall appoint a person to fill that vacancy.

Such inspectors shall:

(i) determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting and the validity of any proxies and ballots;

(ii) count all votes or ballots;

(iii) count and tabulate all votes;

(iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspector(s); and

(v) certify its or their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting and its or their count of all votes and ballots.

 

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Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of the duties of inspector, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspection with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability. Any report or certificate made by the inspectors of election is prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. The inspectors of election may appoint such persons to assist them in performing their duties as they determine.

2.16 Delivery to the Corporation.

Whenever this Article II requires one or more persons (including a record or beneficial owner of stock) to deliver a document or information to the Corporation or any officer, employee or agent thereof (including any notice, request, questionnaire, revocation, representation or other document or agreement), such document or information shall be in writing exclusively (and not in an electronic transmission) and shall be delivered exclusively by hand (including, without limitation, overnight courier service) or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, and the Corporation shall not be required to accept delivery of any document not in such written form or so delivered. For the avoidance of doubt, the Corporation expressly opts out of Section 116 of the DGCL with respect to the delivery of information and documents to the Corporation required by this Article II.

Article III - Directors

3.1 Powers.

Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or the DGCL, the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board.

3.2 Number of Directors.

Subject to the Certificate of Incorporation, the total number of directors constituting the Board shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.

3.3 Election, Qualification and Term of Office of Directors.

Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, and subject to the Certificate of Incorporation, each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship, shall hold office until the expiration of the term of the class, if any, for which elected and until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders. The Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws may prescribe qualifications for directors.

3.4 Resignation and Vacancies.

Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation. The resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein or upon the happening of an event specified therein, and if no time or event is specified, at the time of its receipt. When one or more directors so resigns and the resignation is effective at a future date or upon the happening of an event to occur on a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each director so chosen shall hold office as provided in Section 3.3.

 

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Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, vacancies resulting from the death, resignation, disqualification or removal of any director, and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors shall be filled only by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director.

3.5 Place of Meetings; Meetings by Telephone.

The Board may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.

Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, members of the Board, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting pursuant to this bylaw shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

3.6 Regular Meetings.

Regular meetings of the Board may be held within or outside the State of Delaware and at such time and at such place as which has been designated by the Board and publicized among all directors, either orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice-messaging system or other system designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other means of electronic transmission. No further notice shall be required for regular meetings of the Board.

3.7 Special Meetings; Notice.

Special meetings of the Board for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Secretary or a majority of the total number of directors constituting the Board.

Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:

(i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;

(ii) sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;

(iii) sent by facsimile or electronic mail; or

(iv) sent by other means of electronic transmission,

directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number or electronic mail address, or other address for electronic transmission, as the case may be, as shown on the Corporation’s records.

 

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If the notice is (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (ii) sent by facsimile or electronic mail, or (iii) sent by other means of electronic transmission, it shall be delivered or sent at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by U.S. mail, it shall be deposited in the U.S. mail at least four days before the time of the holding of the meeting. The notice need not specify the place of the meeting (if the meeting is to be held at the Corporation’s principal executive office) nor the purpose of the meeting.

3.8 Quorum.

At all meetings of the Board, unless otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation, a majority of the total number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.

3.9 Board Action without a Meeting.

Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board, or the committee thereof, in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained. Such action by written consent or consent by electronic transmission shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote of the Board.

3.10 Fees and Compensation of Directors.

Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, the Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation, including fees and reimbursement of expenses, of directors for services to the Corporation in any capacity.

Article IV - Committees

4.1 Committees of Directors.

The Board may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist, of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board or in these bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority to (i) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopt, amend or repeal any bylaw of the Corporation.

 

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4.2 Committee Minutes.

Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board when required.

4.3 Meetings and Actions of Committees.

Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:

(i) Section 3.5 (place of meetings; meetings by telephone);

(ii) Section 3.6 (regular meetings);

(iii) Section 3.7 (special meetings; notice);

(iv) Section 3.9 (board action without a meeting); and

(v) Section 7.14 (waiver of notice),

with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board and its members. However:

(i) the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board or by resolution of the committee;

(ii) special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board or the chairperson of the applicable committee; and

(iii) the Board may adopt rules for the governance of any committee to override the provisions that would otherwise apply to the committee pursuant to this Section 4.3, provided that such rules do not violate the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation or applicable law.

4.4 Subcommittees.

Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these bylaws, the resolutions of the Board designating the committee or the charter of such committee adopted by the Board, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

Article V - Officers

5.1 Officers.

The officers of the Corporation shall include a Chief Executive Officer, a President and a Secretary. The Corporation may also have, at the discretion of the Board, a Chairperson of the Board, a Vice Chairperson of the Board, a Chief Financial Officer, a Treasurer, one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Treasurers, one or more Assistant Secretaries, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. No officer need be a stockholder or director of the Corporation.

 

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5.2 Appointment of Officers.

The Board shall appoint the officers of the Corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws.

5.3 Subordinate Officers.

The Board may appoint, or empower the Chief Executive Officer or, in the absence of a Chief Executive Officer, the President, to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the Corporation may require. Each of such officers and agents shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the Board may from time to time determine.

5.4 Removal and Resignation of Officers.

Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the Board, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the Board.

Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party.

5.5 Vacancies in Offices.

Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled as provided in Section 5.2 or Section 5.3, as applicable.

5.6 Representation of Shares of Other Corporations.

The Chairperson of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President of this Corporation, or any other person authorized by the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President, is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares or voting securities of any other corporation or other person standing in the name of this Corporation. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.

5.7 Authority and Duties of Officers.

All officers of the Corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the Corporation as may be provided herein or designated from time to time by the Board and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board.

 

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5.8 Compensation.

The compensation of the officers of the Corporation for their services as such shall be fixed from time to time by or at the direction of the Board. An officer of the Corporation shall not be prevented from receiving compensation by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director of the Corporation.

Article VI - Records

A stock ledger consisting of one or more records in which the names of all of the Corporation’s stockholders of record, the address and number of shares registered in the name of each such stockholder, and all issuances and transfers of stock of the corporation are recorded in accordance with Section 224 of the DGCL shall be administered by or on behalf of the Corporation. Any records administered by or on behalf of the Corporation in the regular course of its business, including its stock ledger, books of account, and minute books, may be kept on, or by means of, or be in the form of, any information storage device, or method, or one or more electronic networks or databases (including one or more distributed electronic networks or databases), provided that the records so kept can be converted into clearly legible paper form within a reasonable time and, with respect to the stock ledger, that the records so kept (i) can be used to prepare the list of stockholders specified in Sections 219 and 220 of the DGCL, (ii) record the information specified in Sections 156, 159, 217(a) and 218 of the DGCL, and (iii) record transfers of stock as governed by Article 8 of the Uniform Commercial Code as adopted in the State of Delaware.

Article VII - General Matters

7.1 Execution of Corporate Contracts and Instruments.

The Board, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

7.2 Stock Certificates.

The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board by resolution may provide that some or all of the shares of any class or series of stock of the Corporation shall be uncertificated. Certificates for the shares of stock, if any, shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock represented by a certificate shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, any two officers authorized to sign stock certificates representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. The Chairperson or Vice Chairperson of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Corporation shall be specifically authorized to sign stock certificates. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

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The Corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, or upon the books and records of the Corporation in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the Corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

7.3 Special Designation of Certificates.

If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or on the back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock (or, in the case of uncertificated shares, set forth in a notice provided pursuant to Section 151 of the DGCL); provided, however, that except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face of back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock (or, in the case of any uncertificated shares, included in the aforementioned notice) a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

7.4 Lost Certificates.

Except as provided in this Section 7.4, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the Corporation and cancelled at the same time. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

7.5 Shares Without Certificates

The Corporation may adopt a system of issuance, recordation and transfer of its shares of stock by electronic or other means not involving the issuance of certificates, provided the use of such system by the Corporation is permitted in accordance with applicable law.

7.6 Construction; Definitions.

Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural and the plural number includes the singular.

7.7 Dividends.

The Board, subject to any restrictions contained in either (i) the DGCL or (ii) the Certificate of Incorporation, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of its capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock.

 

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The Board may set apart out of any of the funds of the Corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, and meeting contingencies.

7.8 Fiscal Year.

The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board and may be changed by the Board.

7.9 Seal.

The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be adopted and which may be altered by the Board. The Corporation may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.

7.10 Transfer of Stock.

Shares of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these bylaws. Shares of stock of the Corporation shall be transferred on the books of the Corporation only by the holder of record thereof or by such holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing, upon surrender to the Corporation of the certificate or certificates representing such shares endorsed by the appropriate person or persons (or by delivery of duly executed instructions with respect to uncertificated shares), with such evidence of the authenticity of such endorsement or execution, transfer, authorization and other matters as the Corporation may reasonably require, and accompanied by all necessary stock transfer stamps. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing the names of the persons from and to whom it was transferred.

7.11 Stock Transfer Agreements.

The Corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes or series of stock of the Corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL or other applicable law.

7.12 Registered Stockholders.

The Corporation:

(i) shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner; and

(ii) shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

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7.13 Waiver of Notice.

Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws.

Article VIII - Notice

8.1 Delivery of Notice; Notice by Electronic Transmission.

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these bylaws may be given in writing directed to the stockholder’s mailing address (or by electronic transmission directed to the stockholder’s electronic mail address, as applicable) as it appears on the records of the Corporation and shall be given (1) if mailed, when the notice is deposited in the U.S. mail, postage prepaid, (2) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at such stockholder’s address or (3) if given by electronic mail, when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address unless the stockholder has notified the Corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail. A notice by electronic mail must include a prominent legend that the communication is an important notice regarding the Corporation.

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice or electronic transmission to the Corporation. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, the Corporation may give a notice by electronic mail in accordance with the first paragraph of this section without obtaining the consent required by this paragraph.

Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:

 

  (i)

if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

  (ii)

if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and

 

  (iii)

if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

 

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Notwithstanding the foregoing, a notice may not be given by an electronic transmission from and after the time that (1) the Corporation is unable to deliver by such electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation and (2) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice, provided, however, the inadvertent failure to discover such inability shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

An affidavit of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

Article IX - Indemnification

9.1 Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation.

Subject to Section 9.3, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation), by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.

9.2 Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation.

Subject to Section 9.3, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

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9.3 Authorization of Indemnification.

Any indemnification under this Article IX (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 9.1 or Section 9.2, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion or (iv) by the stockholders. Such determination shall be made, with respect to former directors and officers, by any person or persons having the authority to act on the matter on behalf of the Corporation. To the extent, however, that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.

9.4 Good Faith Defined.

For purposes of any determination under Section 9.3, a person shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful, if such person’s action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The provisions of this Section 9.4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 9.1 or 9.2, as the case may be.

9.5 Indemnification by a Court.

Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 9.3, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or officer may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Section 9.1 or 9.2. The basis of such indemnification by a court shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 9.1 or Section 9.2, as the case may be. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 9.3 nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of conduct. Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Article IX shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such application. If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such application.

 

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9.6 Expenses Payable in Advance.

Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director or officer in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article IX. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Corporation deems appropriate.

9.7 Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses.

The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article IX shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 9.1 or 9.2 shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article IX shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 9.1 or Section 9.2 but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the DGCL, or otherwise.

9.8 Insurance.

The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article IX.

9.9 Certain Definitions.

For purposes of this Article IX, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors or officers, so that any person who is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation, or is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article IX with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. The term “another enterprise” as used in this Article IX shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. For purposes of this Article IX, references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director or officer with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article IX.

 

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9.10 Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses.

The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article IX shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer of the Corporation and shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, executors, administrators, legatees and distributees of such a person.

9.11 Limitation on Indemnification.

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article IX to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 9.5), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) or advance expenses in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

9.12 Indemnification of Employees and Agents.

The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article IX to directors and officers of the Corporation.

9.13 Primacy of Indemnification.

Notwithstanding that a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation (collectively, the “Covered Persons”) may have certain rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses and/or insurance provided by other persons (collectively, the “Other Indemnitors”), with respect to the rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses and/or insurance set forth herein, the Corporation: (i) shall be the indemnitor of first resort (i.e., its obligations to Covered Persons are primary and any obligation of the Other Indemnitors to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the same expenses or liabilities incurred by Covered Persons are secondary); and (ii) shall be required to advance the full amount of expenses incurred by Covered Persons and shall be liable for the full amount of all liabilities, without regard to any rights Covered Persons may have against any of the Other Indemnitors. No advancement or payment by the Other Indemnitors on behalf of Covered Persons with respect to any claim for which Covered Persons have sought indemnification from the Corporation shall affect the immediately preceding sentence, and the Other Indemnitors shall have a right of contribution and/or be subrogated to the extent of such advancement or payment to all of the rights of recovery of Covered Persons against the Corporation. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein, the obligations of the Corporation under this Section 9.13 shall only apply to Covered Persons in their capacity as Covered Persons.

Article X - Amendments

The Board is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal the bylaws of the Corporation. The stockholders also shall have power to adopt, amend or repeal the bylaws of the Corporation; provided, however, that such action by stockholders shall require, in addition to any other vote required by the Certificate of Incorporation or applicable law, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of voting stock of the Corporation with the power to vote generally in an election of directors, voting together as a single class.

 

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Article XI - Definitions

As used in these bylaws, unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, including the use of, or participation in, one or more electronic networks or databases (including one or more distributed electronic networks or databases), that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

An “electronic mail” means an electronic transmission directed to a unique electronic mail address (which electronic mail shall be deemed to include any files attached thereto and any information hyperlinked to a website if such electronic mail includes the contact information of an officer or agent of the Corporation who is available to assist with accessing such files and information).

An “electronic mail address” means a destination, commonly expressed as a string of characters, consisting of a unique user name or mailbox (commonly referred to as the “local part” of the address) and a reference to an internet domain (commonly referred to as the “domain part” of the address), whether or not displayed, to which electronic mail can be sent or delivered.

The term “person” means any individual, general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, trust, business trust, joint stock company, joint venture, unincorporated association, cooperative or association or any other legal entity or organization of whatever nature, and shall include any successor (by merger or otherwise) of such entity.

[Remainder of page intentionally left blank.]

 

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